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Project Planning and
Approval Process
By Atif Nauman (University of Gujrat)
Contents
• Conceptual Phase
• Project Justification Phase
• Preapproval Phase
• Approval Phase
• Appropriation Phase
• Construction and Startup Phase
• Post-Completion Phase
Conceptual Phase
Conceptual planning is the phase of the project which includes
• Mission and Vision
• Functional objectives and Goals
• Operational concepts
• Master planning
• Scheduling
• Financial goals
Conceptual Phase
S.M.A.R.T. Goals: This method helps ensure that the goals have
been thoroughly evaluated. It also provides a way to clearly
understand of the goals.
Conceptual Phase
Specific : To set specific goals, answer the following questions: who,
what, where, when, which, and why.
Measurable: Create criteria that you can use to measure the success of a
goal.
Attainable: Identify the most important goals and what it will take to
achieve them.
Realistic: You should be willing and able to work toward a particular
goal.
Timely :Create a timeframe to achieve the goal.
Project Justification Phase
• Project Justification is an attempt to explain.
• Why an organization needs to implement a particular solution to
a problem?
• The solution which can be implemented.
• Process that starts at the Project Initiation phase to confirm the
need for launching a project.
• Providing the stakeholders with a comprehensive analysis of the
Environment to be changed by the project.
Steps To Justifying A Project
• Environmental Analysis
• Solution Proposal
• Alternatives Analysis
• Impact Analysis
• Cost-Benefit Analysis
• Risk Analysis
• Reporting
• Validation
Environmental Analysis
• When a project initiator plans for project justification, he/she
needs to perform an Environmental analysis.
• Analysis determines relevant Environmental factors that have the
greatest impact to the project.
• Reviews those factors can be used to create an Environmental
profile.
• Such a profile describes the current situation and makes forecasts.
Solution Proposal
• Uses the results of the Environmental analysis to determine areas
requiring improvement.
• Means generating a solution that can resolve the current issues
and address future possible difficulties.
• Solution proposal is an attempt to propose a change to the current
Environment.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
• To determine what benefits can be produced by implementing the
proposed solution.
• What costs the project will require?
• The project initiator should perform the analysis to provide the
stakeholders (the sponsor) with cost-benefit justification.
• A ratio between cost and benefits is to be made and reviewed.
Financial Analysis
• Aims to develop financial and non-financial projections.
• Determine what money and effort will be required to perform the
project and implement the solution.
• Cash flow model based on financial criteria.
Risk Analysis
• It is an assessment of threats and uncertainties that have a
negative impact to the Project.
• The risk analysis aims to identify, evaluate and measure possible
risks.
• It determines which factors influence the project results.
Reporting
• Project initiator creates a management summary report of all the
analyses to interpret the project as a successful.
• The report is then submitted to the project sponsor.
• Review and approval.
Validation
• Final Step in Project Justification.
• To approve the project and the propose solution.
• When the validation step is passed, the project initiator needs to
perform a feasibility study.
• Feasibility will be the next process to be carried out within the
Initiation phase after the project justification process.
Preapproval Audit Phase
• We have to assume things on our projects.
• The reality of project work.
• Assumptions presume that what you're planning or relying on is true,
real.
• For example, your project might require someone with special
programming skills from the IT department.
• Document the assumption that this person will be available when
needed.
Preapproval Audit Phase
Assumptions might include any of the following:
• Key project member's availability
• Key project member's performance
• Key project member's skills
• Vendor delivery times
• Vendor performance issues
• Accuracy of the project schedule dates
Preapproval Audit Phase
• Documented your assumptions.
• Next step is to validate and verify them.
• If you're assuming that a key resource is going to be available to
work on the project.
• Must verify with that person's functional manager that they'll be
available at that time.
• Assumptions should be documented in your project notebook or
shared project folder.
Approval Phase
• First step in this phase is to assess the risk and determine whether
the project will be under oversight or not.
• Next is the concept review, a briefing with the project's
leadership and project team.
• Investment plan must be approved by the investors before a
project may move into implementation.
• The approved investment plan serves as the foundation for future
oversight.
Approval Phase
The primary focus of this phase is on the investment plan
including:
• Purpose of the planned investment.
• Justification of project including market analysis.
• Funding from investors.
• Project schedule and management.
• Evaluation of project risk and mitigation strategies.
Appropriation Phase
• Top Management is responsible to shareholders to ensure that the
capital invested.
• To ensure that money will only be spent on projects that promise
to be profitable.
• Essential in the interests of the organization and its stakeholders.
• Expected to maximize the return on investment for that capital.
Appropriation Phase
• To control the use of capital expenditure in the best interests of
shareholders and other stakeholders.
• To announce key objectives (including project milestones and
cost budgets).
• To announce the name of the project manager and confirm his/her
authority to manage the project.
• To define any restrictions or limits on expenditure (particularly
for provisional authorizations).
Construction and Startup Phase
• The construction phase is the period during which the contractor
takes control of the construction site to carry out the project.
• Construction phase does not tend to involve the client as much on
a day to day basis.
• The majority of actions and responsibilities, lie with other people
you have appointed.
• The project manager, designer appointed.
Construction and Startup Phase
• Team members are assigned specific tasks that they are expected to
complete.
• Resources are allocated accordingly.
Some of the specific tasks during this phase include:
• Assigning work to teams.
• Executing project management plans.
• Conducting status meetings.
• Updating project schedule.
• Modifying project plans.
Post-Completion Review Phase
• Making sure that what you delivered actually works.
• Completing a project" is not the same thing as ending the project
management process.
• Simply finishing doesn't ensure that the organization benefits
from the project's outcome.
• Make sure that what you set out to do was actually achieved.
• You also need to ensure that the lessons learned during the
project are not forgotten.
Post-Completion Review Phase
This Phase may include:
• Internal Review
• External Review
Internal Review
• An internal review is generally away of something or someone
being assessed.
• Where employees in an organization play a role in collecting
evidence.
• The employees provide critical information to the decision
makers of the organization.
• Precise procedures will vary by organization.
External Review
• Review by third Party Organization
• Check your project goals and what you achieved
• Audit your Financial Statements
• Check your Project Value
• Project Performance
• Operational Affairs
Project Planning and Approval Process

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Project Planning and Approval Process

  • 1. Project Planning and Approval Process By Atif Nauman (University of Gujrat)
  • 2. Contents • Conceptual Phase • Project Justification Phase • Preapproval Phase • Approval Phase • Appropriation Phase • Construction and Startup Phase • Post-Completion Phase
  • 3. Conceptual Phase Conceptual planning is the phase of the project which includes • Mission and Vision • Functional objectives and Goals • Operational concepts • Master planning • Scheduling • Financial goals
  • 4. Conceptual Phase S.M.A.R.T. Goals: This method helps ensure that the goals have been thoroughly evaluated. It also provides a way to clearly understand of the goals.
  • 5. Conceptual Phase Specific : To set specific goals, answer the following questions: who, what, where, when, which, and why. Measurable: Create criteria that you can use to measure the success of a goal. Attainable: Identify the most important goals and what it will take to achieve them. Realistic: You should be willing and able to work toward a particular goal. Timely :Create a timeframe to achieve the goal.
  • 6. Project Justification Phase • Project Justification is an attempt to explain. • Why an organization needs to implement a particular solution to a problem? • The solution which can be implemented. • Process that starts at the Project Initiation phase to confirm the need for launching a project. • Providing the stakeholders with a comprehensive analysis of the Environment to be changed by the project.
  • 7. Steps To Justifying A Project • Environmental Analysis • Solution Proposal • Alternatives Analysis • Impact Analysis • Cost-Benefit Analysis • Risk Analysis • Reporting • Validation
  • 8. Environmental Analysis • When a project initiator plans for project justification, he/she needs to perform an Environmental analysis. • Analysis determines relevant Environmental factors that have the greatest impact to the project. • Reviews those factors can be used to create an Environmental profile. • Such a profile describes the current situation and makes forecasts.
  • 9. Solution Proposal • Uses the results of the Environmental analysis to determine areas requiring improvement. • Means generating a solution that can resolve the current issues and address future possible difficulties. • Solution proposal is an attempt to propose a change to the current Environment.
  • 10. Cost-Benefit Analysis • To determine what benefits can be produced by implementing the proposed solution. • What costs the project will require? • The project initiator should perform the analysis to provide the stakeholders (the sponsor) with cost-benefit justification. • A ratio between cost and benefits is to be made and reviewed.
  • 11. Financial Analysis • Aims to develop financial and non-financial projections. • Determine what money and effort will be required to perform the project and implement the solution. • Cash flow model based on financial criteria.
  • 12. Risk Analysis • It is an assessment of threats and uncertainties that have a negative impact to the Project. • The risk analysis aims to identify, evaluate and measure possible risks. • It determines which factors influence the project results.
  • 13. Reporting • Project initiator creates a management summary report of all the analyses to interpret the project as a successful. • The report is then submitted to the project sponsor. • Review and approval.
  • 14. Validation • Final Step in Project Justification. • To approve the project and the propose solution. • When the validation step is passed, the project initiator needs to perform a feasibility study. • Feasibility will be the next process to be carried out within the Initiation phase after the project justification process.
  • 15. Preapproval Audit Phase • We have to assume things on our projects. • The reality of project work. • Assumptions presume that what you're planning or relying on is true, real. • For example, your project might require someone with special programming skills from the IT department. • Document the assumption that this person will be available when needed.
  • 16. Preapproval Audit Phase Assumptions might include any of the following: • Key project member's availability • Key project member's performance • Key project member's skills • Vendor delivery times • Vendor performance issues • Accuracy of the project schedule dates
  • 17. Preapproval Audit Phase • Documented your assumptions. • Next step is to validate and verify them. • If you're assuming that a key resource is going to be available to work on the project. • Must verify with that person's functional manager that they'll be available at that time. • Assumptions should be documented in your project notebook or shared project folder.
  • 18. Approval Phase • First step in this phase is to assess the risk and determine whether the project will be under oversight or not. • Next is the concept review, a briefing with the project's leadership and project team. • Investment plan must be approved by the investors before a project may move into implementation. • The approved investment plan serves as the foundation for future oversight.
  • 19. Approval Phase The primary focus of this phase is on the investment plan including: • Purpose of the planned investment. • Justification of project including market analysis. • Funding from investors. • Project schedule and management. • Evaluation of project risk and mitigation strategies.
  • 20. Appropriation Phase • Top Management is responsible to shareholders to ensure that the capital invested. • To ensure that money will only be spent on projects that promise to be profitable. • Essential in the interests of the organization and its stakeholders. • Expected to maximize the return on investment for that capital.
  • 21. Appropriation Phase • To control the use of capital expenditure in the best interests of shareholders and other stakeholders. • To announce key objectives (including project milestones and cost budgets). • To announce the name of the project manager and confirm his/her authority to manage the project. • To define any restrictions or limits on expenditure (particularly for provisional authorizations).
  • 22. Construction and Startup Phase • The construction phase is the period during which the contractor takes control of the construction site to carry out the project. • Construction phase does not tend to involve the client as much on a day to day basis. • The majority of actions and responsibilities, lie with other people you have appointed. • The project manager, designer appointed.
  • 23. Construction and Startup Phase • Team members are assigned specific tasks that they are expected to complete. • Resources are allocated accordingly. Some of the specific tasks during this phase include: • Assigning work to teams. • Executing project management plans. • Conducting status meetings. • Updating project schedule. • Modifying project plans.
  • 24. Post-Completion Review Phase • Making sure that what you delivered actually works. • Completing a project" is not the same thing as ending the project management process. • Simply finishing doesn't ensure that the organization benefits from the project's outcome. • Make sure that what you set out to do was actually achieved. • You also need to ensure that the lessons learned during the project are not forgotten.
  • 25. Post-Completion Review Phase This Phase may include: • Internal Review • External Review
  • 26. Internal Review • An internal review is generally away of something or someone being assessed. • Where employees in an organization play a role in collecting evidence. • The employees provide critical information to the decision makers of the organization. • Precise procedures will vary by organization.
  • 27. External Review • Review by third Party Organization • Check your project goals and what you achieved • Audit your Financial Statements • Check your Project Value • Project Performance • Operational Affairs