1. SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT
MCA I SEM II
Project Management Framework
Prof. Sapna Chavan
Dr. D. Y. Patil School of MCA
Charholi (Bk), Lohegaon, Pune - 412105
A project is a series of tasks that need to be completed in order to reach a specific outcome. A
project can also be defined as a set of inputs and outputs required to achieve a particular goal.
Projects can range from simple to complex and can be managed by one person or a hundred.
A Software Project is the complete procedure of software development from requirement
gathering to testing and maintenance, carried out according to the execution methodologies, in a
specified period of time to achieve intended software product.
Software Project Management(SPM)
Software Project Management (SPM) is a proper way of planning and leading
software projects. It is a part of project management in which software projects are
planned, implemented, monitored and controlled.
3. Advantages of Software Project Management
• It helps in planning of software development.
• Implementation of software development is made easy.
• Monitoring and controlling are aspects of software project management.
• It overall manages to save time and cost for software development.
4. NEED OF SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT
The image above shows triple constraints for software projects.
It is an essential part of software organization to deliver quality product, keeping the cost within client’s
budget constrain and deliver the project as per scheduled.
There are several factors, both internal and external, which may impact this triple constrain triangle.
Any of three factor can severely impact the other two.
Therefore, software project management is essential to incorporate user requirements along with budget
and time constraints.
5. Project Characteristics
When considering whether or not you have a project on your hands, there are some things
to keep in mind. First, is it a project or an ongoing operation? Second, if it is a project,
who are the stakeholders? And third, what characteristics distinguish this endeavor as a
Projects have several characteristics:
• Projects are unique.
• Projects are temporary in nature and have a definite beginning and ending date.
• Projects are completed when the project goals are achieved or it’s determined the
project is no longer viable.
7. The 4 Phases of the Project Management Life Cycle
9. 1. Initiation
First, you need to identify a business need, problem, or opportunity and brainstorm ways
that your team can meet this need, solve this problem, or seize this opportunity.
During this step, you figure out an objective for your project, determine whether the project
is feasible, and identify the major deliverables for the project.
Steps for the project initiation phase may include the following:
• Undertaking a feasibility study: Identify the primary problem your project will solve
and whether your project will deliver a solution to that problem
• Identifying scope: Define the depth and breadth of the project
• Identifying deliverables: Define the product or service to provide
• Identifying project stakeholders: Figure out whom the project affects and what their
needs may be
10. • Developing a business case: Use the above criteria to compare the potential costs and
benefits for the project to determine if it moves forward
• Developing a statement of work: Document the project’s objectives, scope, and
deliverables that you have identified previously as a working agreement between the
project owner and those working on the project
11. 2. Planning:
Once the project is approved to move forward based on your business case, statement of
work, or project initiation document, you move into the planning phase.
During this phase of the project management life cycle, you break down the larger
project into smaller tasks, build your team, and prepare a schedule for the completion of
Create smaller goals within the larger project, making sure each is achievable within the
time frame. Smaller goals should have a high potential for success.
12. Steps for the project planning phase may include the following:
• Creating a project plan: Identify the project timeline, including the phases of the project, the
tasks to be performed, and possible constraints
• Creating workflow diagrams: Visualize your processes using swimlanes to make sure team
members clearly understand their role in a project
• Estimating budget and creating a financial plan: Use cost estimates to determine how much to
spend on the project to get the maximum return on investment
• Gathering resources: Build your functional team from internal and external talent pools while
making sure everyone has the necessary tools (software, hardware, etc.) to complete their tasks
• Anticipating risks and potential quality roadblocks: Identify issues that may cause your
project to stall while planning to mitigate those risks and maintain the project’s quality and
• Holding a project kickoff meeting: Bring your team on board and outline the project so they
can quickly get to work
14. 3. Execution:
You’ve received business approval, developed a plan, and built your team. Now it’s time to get
The execution phase turns your plan into action.
The project manager’s job in this phase of the project management life cycle is to keep work on
track, organize team members, manage timelines, and make sure the work is done according to
the original plan.
15. Steps for the project execution phase may include the following:
• Creating tasks and organizing workflows: Assign granular aspects of the projects to the
appropriate team members, making sure team members are not overworked
• Briefing team members on tasks: Explain tasks to team members, providing necessary
guidance on how they should be completed, and organizing process-related training if necessary
• Communicating with team members, clients, and upper management: Provide updates to
project stakeholders at all levels
• Monitoring quality of work: Ensure that team members are meeting their time and quality
goals for tasks
• Managing budget: Monitor spending and keeping the project on track in terms of assets and
17. 4. Closure:
Once your team has completed work on a project, you enter the closure phase. In the closure phase,
you provide final deliverables, release project resources, and determine the success of the project.
Steps for the project closure phase may include the following:
• Analyzing project performance: Determine whether the project's goals were met (tasks
completed, on time and on budget) and the initial problem solved using a prepared checklist.
• Analyzing team performance: Evaluate how team members performed, including whether they
met their goals along with timeliness and quality of work
• Documenting project closure: Make sure that all aspects of the project are completed with no
loose ends remaining and providing reports to key stakeholders
• Conducting post-implementation reviews: Conduct a final analysis of the project, taking into
account lessons learned for similar projects in the future
• Accounting for used and unused budget: Allocate remaining resources for future projects
19. THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER
Planning the activities.
a project team to
Delegating the teams.
Managing deliverables. Monitor progress.
Communicate a vision
with the team
20. 1. Planning the activities
• A project manager needs to set an impact strategy that includes a full list of activities that are
important for the project.
• The project manager needs to define the scope of the project and develop a project schedule
• The procedures should be efficient enough to deliver the projects within specified time and
2. Organizing a project team to perform work
• They need to develop a plan that will support the team to reach their goal easily without
hindering the performance.
• A project manager will have have to sometimes put on the duties of human resources like
negotiating current employees’ job responsibilities, managing their times and achieving their
commitment to the project and keeping everyone in check to make sure that the team’s moves
along in accordance with the plan.
21. 3. Delegating the teams
• In many situations like a big project, or various tasks involved in a project, it becomes critical
to delegate responsibilities to teams wisely.
• The tasks need to prioritize the tasks so prioritized to the team members so that they become
more effective in their abilities.
• The managers should also understand the strength and weakness of their teams and accordingly
delegate the tasks to them.
4. Controlling time management
• To make a good impression on stakeholders and clients, the project managers need to look for
whether the project has succeeded or failed.
• A project manager needs to be able to negotiate achievable deadlines and discuss the same with
22. 5. Managing deliverables
The Project Manager is also responsible for ensuring that the deliverables are delivered on
time and within budget as per the business requirements. Their job is concerned with asking
• What are the changes being made in the organization?
• What is the team doing?
• Why are we doing it?
• Is there a business opportunity or risk?
• How are we going to do it?
• What are the popular project management techniques?
• Who is doing what?
• Where are the records and project documents?
• What are the specifications, schedule, meetings etc?
• When are the things being done?
23. 6. Monitor progress
• After the project has been started, a project manager has to see how much is done and if it is
being done as expected.
• The progress of the project is made during the middle stages of the project through multiple
systems like status reports, meetings and informal updates.
• This responsibility will become easier if a proper management system is selected by the project
7. Establish Regular Meetings
• Scheduling regular meetings are difficult for all project managers and it doesn’t work well for
• But a good for successful projects you probably need one team meeting per week. Or some
project managers prefer to have daily standup meetings for a unique project methodology.
• The objective of the meeting should be met by communicating the rules of the project clearly to
the entire team
24. 8. Communicate a vision with the team:
• A project manager should have a vision of where to go and the skills to understand the big
picture related to any project.
• The vision should be conveyed to the entire team so that they understand the importance of
their role to achieve the end results.
• The team should understand the load of work and do the possible efforts to convert goal into a
9. Managing reports and necessary documentation
• Finally, when the project is completed on time and on a budget, the project manager has to
then provide an appropriate documentation to present the final reports to clients and identify
the areas where there is a need for future development.
26. 1.Identification of risk:
Identification of risks include identifying project, product and business risk.
Technology • Database used in the system may be poor which cannot process as many
transaction per second as expected.
• Reusable software may contain defects.
Staff • Its difficult to recruit skilled staff.
• Key staff are unavailable at critical times because they are ill or out of station.
• Required training is not given to the staff.
Organizational • One project is handled by number of managerial groups of organization.
Tools • Code generated by CASE( Computer-Aided Software Engineering) tools is
• Not able to integrate the design in CASE Tools.
Requirement • Changes in requirement lead to major changes in designs that lead to rework.
Estimation • Time required to develop the project is underestimated
• Size and scope to develop the project is underestimated
• Defect repair rate is underestimated
27. 2. Risk Analysis:-
• Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks.
• Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.
• Probability may be very low, low , moderate, high or very high.
• It is a technique to find and assess factors that creates doubt about the success of a project to
achieve its goal.
• Once the risk have been identified, they must the be assessed about the severity of loss.
28. 3. Risk Planning:-
• A project manager prepares a risk management plan to estimate risk and effectiveness of
it and to create response plans to avoid them.
• A risk management plan contains an analysis of risk with both high and low impact
with mitigation strategies to help to solve common problems.
• It includes drawing plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk.
• He consider each risk and develops a strategy to manage risk.
The 4 potential strategies, which included in the Risk Management Plan are:
i. Accept Risk:- Simply take the chance that the negative impact occur.
ii. Avoid Risk:- Change plans in order to prevent the problem from arising.
iii. Transfer Risk:- Outsource risk to a capable third party that can manage the outcome.
29. 4. Risk monitoring and control:-
• It includes monitoring and controlling the risk throughout the project development.
• Assess each and every identified risk regularly so as to check whether or not it is
becoming less or higher.
• Assess whether or not the effects of the risk have reduced.
• Discuss each key risk in the management progress meetings.
The inputs to risk monitoring and control are:-
a. Risk Management Plan
b. Risk Register
c. Work performance information
d. Performance report
30. Risk Mitigation
Risk mitigation simply means to reduce adverse effects and impact of risks that are harmful to project and
It includes introducing measures and step taken into a project plan to mitigate, reduce, eliminate, or control
risk. Risk mitigation means preventing risk to occur (risk avoidance)
31. Measures and steps to be taken for mitigating risks:
• Communicate with concerned staff to find probable risks.
• Identify and eliminate all those causes and issues that can create risk before the beginning of project work.
• Develop policy in an organization that will help to continue the project even though some staff leaves the
• Everybody in the project team should be acquainted i.e. should be aware of and familiar with current
• Maintain corresponding documents in a timely manner. This documentation should be strictly followed as
per standards set by the organization.
• Conduct timely reviews in order to speed up work.
• For conducting every critical activity during software development, provide additional staff is required.
A risk management technique is usually seen in the software Project plan.
This can be divided into Risk Mitigation, Monitoring, and Management Plan (RMMM). In this
plan, all works are done as part of risk analysis.
As part of the overall project plan project manager generally uses this RMMM plan.
Risk Mitigation :
It is an activity used to avoid problems (Risk Avoidance).
Steps for mitigating the risks as follows.
• Finding out the risk.
• Removing causes that are the reason for risk creation.
• Controlling the corresponding documents from time to time.
• Conducting timely reviews to speed up the work.
33. Risk Monitoring :
It is an activity used for project tracking.
It has the following primary objectives as follows.
1.To check if predicted risks occur or not.
2.To collect data for future risk analysis.
3.To allocate what problems are caused by which risks throughout the project.
Risk Management :
• It assumes that the mitigation activity failed and the risk is a reality.
• This task is done by Project manager when risk becomes reality and causes severe problems. If the
project manager effectively uses project mitigation to remove risks successfully then it is easier to
manage the risks.
• This shows that the response that will be taken for each risk by a manager.
• The main objective of the risk management plan is the risk register.
• This risk register describes and focuses on the predicted threats to a software project.
Let us understand RMMM with the help of an example of high staff turnover.
• To mitigate this risk, project management must develop a strategy for reducing turnover. The
possible steps to be taken are:
• Meet the current staff to determine causes for turnover (e.g., poor working conditions, low pay,
competitive job market).
• Mitigate those causes that are under our control before the project starts.
• Once the project commences, assume turnover will occur and develop techniques to ensure
continuity when people leave.
• Define documentation standards and establish mechanisms to ensure that documents are
developed in a timely manner.
• Assign a backup staff member for every critical technologist.
35. Risk Monitoring:
As the project proceeds, risk monitoring activities commence.
The project manager monitors factors that may provide an indication of whether the risk is
becoming more or less likely.
In the case of high staff turnover, the following factors can be monitored:
• General attitude of team members based on project pressures.
• Interpersonal relationships among team members.
• The availability of jobs within the company and outside it.
36. Risk Management:
• Risk management and contingency planning assumes that mitigation efforts have failed and that
the risk has become a reality.
• Continuing the example, the project is well underway, and a number of people announce that
they will be leaving.
• If the mitigation strategy has been followed, backup is available, information is documented.
• In addition, the project manager may temporarily refocus resources (and readjust the project
schedule) to those functions that are fully staffed, enabling newcomers who must be added to the
team to “get up to the speed“.
37. Quali ty Metrics
Software quality metrics are a subset of software metrics that focus on the quality aspects of the product,
process, and project.
Software metrics can be classified into three categories −
Product metrics − Describes the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features,
performance, and quality level.
Process metrics − These characteristics can be used to improve the development and maintenance
activities of the software.
Project metrics − This metrics describe the project characteristics and execution. Examples include the
number of software developers, the staffing pattern over the life cycle of the software, cost, schedule, and
38. Quality Metrics in Project Management
1. PLANNED VALUE
It is the estimated amount of money that’s needed to finish all the planned activities and tasks on time. You
can try and compare it to other metrics to have a better view of the progress of the project. You will notice if
some tasks are doing better than others, and you will be able to react if some tasks will be consuming too
big part of the company’s budget.
There are two simple formulas that you can use to calculate PV:
Planned value = (the hours scheduled on the project) X (hourly rate of an employee who works on the
Planned Value = (Planned % of tasks left to complete) X (project budget)
39. 2. ACTUAL COST
Actual Cost KPI(Key Performance Indicators) tells you how much money your team has actually
spent on the project. As it includes factors that may appear randomly, there is no formula to
calculate it. You count it by adding up all the expenses that project required.
If you have all the hours tracked, it is easy to calculate the Actual Cost spent on salaries, resources,
and other factors that were needed to complete the project.
3. EARNED VALUE
Probably the one, that you will be most interested in Earned Value KPI(Key
Performance Indicators), which is also called the Budgeted Cost of Work Performed, is
responsible for displaying the results of the planned work and the budget received for completing
40. What Is Resource Allocation?
Resource allocation is another way to speak of resource management or resource scheduling,
which is the scheduling of tasks and the associated resources that those tasks require to be
Part of resource allocation is knowing the availability of your resources and scheduling them to
coincide with your project timeline.
When allocating resources, it can be for the project or non-project activities, such as
administration, support, operations, etc.
When the project scope changes or project requirements change, resource allocation must also
pivot to accommodate these changes.
41. Project Scheduling
Scheduling in project management is the listing of activities, deliverables and milestones within
A schedule also usually includes a planned staff and finish date, duration and resources assigned
to each activity.
When people discuss the processes for building a schedule, they are usually referring to the six
processes of time management.
1. Plan schedule management
2. Define project activities
3. Sequence activities
4. Estimate resources
5. Estimate duration
6. Develop the project schedule
42. Gantt chart
Gantt chart is a type of a bar chart that is used for illustrating project schedules. Gantt charts can be
used in any projects that involve effort, resources, milestones and deliveries.
Gantt charts allow project managers to track the progress of the entire project.
Through Gantt charts, the project manager can keep a track of the individual tasks as well as of the
overall project progression.
43. Link for downloading and activating MS Project
MS Project Professional 2019 download:
MS Project Professional 2019 activator: