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CITOOLKIT
Process Yield Measures
Measuring True Process Yield Using Robust Yield Metrics
citoolkit.com
Introduction
An ideal process must produce without
defects or rework.
Process Yield Measures 2
A defect is a failure to
conform requirements
(include scrap & rework).
A rework is an additional
work required to conform
requirements.
citoolkit.com
Introduction
Process yield refers to the percentage of usable output obtained from a
production process relative to the input.
Process Yield Measures 3
citoolkit.com
Process Mapping
A good practice is to use a process map as a guide in the process yield
evaluation.
Process Yield Measures 4
citoolkit.com
Process Yield Measures
One should have the appropriate metrics capable of revealing even the
smallest inefficiencies in a process to measure process yield.
Process Yield Measures 5
These metrics should enable operations to understand their true process yield in
order to set realistic improvement targets.
citoolkit.com
Process Yield Measures
Many companies use two measures for process yield.
Process Yield Measures 6
They represent the classical approach for calculating process yield.
First time yield (FTY)
Final yield
citoolkit.com
First Time Yield (FTY)
Obtained by dividing the good product units by the number of total units
that entered the process at a given process step.
Process Yield Measures 7
Process
Step (X)
Inspect for
Defects
End
Start
Note that the reworked units are included in the calculation of FTY.
citoolkit.com
First Time Yield (FTY)
Question:
Find the FTY for a process knowing that the second process steps has
produced 90 good units from 100 processed units.
Process Yield Measures 8
Answer: 90%
citoolkit.com
First Time Yield (FTY)
Not sensitive to product complexity and only looks at the volume of the
produced units.
Process Yield Measures 9
Corrective actions are often taken on
spot when mistakes are discovered,
and rework are not recorded in quality
logs making the process yield rate
looks better than what it really is.
citoolkit.com
Final Yield (FY)
The probability that a unit will successfully pass all steps inspected at the
end of the process.
Process Yield Measures 10
Another widely used yield metric that is easy to calculate.
citoolkit.com
Final Yield (FY)
Obtained by counting the good units that made it through until the last
process step divided by the total number of units that entered the process.
Process Yield Measures 11
Last Process
Step
Inspect for
Defects
End
Start
citoolkit.com
Final Yield (FY)
Question:
Find the final yield in the following 3-step process . . .
Process Yield Measures 12
C
B
A 90
Outputs
100
Inputs
Answer: 90%
citoolkit.com
First Time Yield and Final Yield
Process Yield Measures 13
Only look at the volume of the produced units
Not sensitive to product complexity
Corrective actions are often taken on spot when mistakes are discovered
Process yield rates often look better than what they really are
Don’t reflect the actual defect rates and ignore the hidden factory
A P/F
100
Inputs
100
Outputs
FTY = 100%
B P/F
FTY = 100%
• FY = 100%
• No scrapped units are produced
citoolkit.com
More Process Yield Measures
Process Yield Measures 14
First Time Yield Final Yield
Throughput Yield Rolled Throughput Yield
-
Accuracy
+
- Cumulative +
citoolkit.com
Throughput Yield (TPY)
The probability that a product or service unit will pass through a given
process step defect-free.
Process Yield Measures 15
Sometimes rereferred to as First Pass Yield
citoolkit.com
Throughput Yield (TPY)
The number of units coming out a given process step divided by the
number of units going into that process step over a specified period.
Process Yield Measures 16
Only good units with no rework or scrap are counted
citoolkit.com
Throughput Yield vs. First Time Yield
The difference between the two metrics is due to the inclusion of reworked
units.
Process Yield Measures 17
A reworked unit that passed the
process step will not be considered in
the calculation of throughput yield
A reworked unit is considered
in the calculation of the FTY
citoolkit.com
Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)
The probability of passing all performance standards through the entire
process defect-free.
Process Yield Measures 18
Inspection at the
end of the
process
RTY is a true reflection of the process performance
citoolkit.com
Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)
It is calculated by multiplying the individual throughput yield values of each
process step.
Process Yield Measures 19
RTY = Throughput Yield of process step 1 *
Throughput Yield of process step 2 * … *
Throughput Yield of process N.
citoolkit.com
Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)
Process Yield Measures 20
Calculations are done at each
process step
Quantifies the cumulative effects
of inefficiencies found throughout
the process
Allows companies to be much more accurate when assessing the
performance of their industrial or commercial processes
Substantially less than final yield
Provides a better insight of the
rates of defect and rework
citoolkit.com
Example
Process Yield Measures 21
RTY = TPY(A) * TPY(B) * TPY(C) = 94% * 91% * 92% = 78.7%
FY = 89%
Not
equal!
C
TPY= 92%
B
TPY= 91%
A
TPY= 94%
89
Outputs
100
Inputs
6 4 9 4 8 4
Defects (Rework & Scrap)
2 5 4
Scrap
This means that even if the 3 process steps are performing well, one out of every 5 units
will not make it through the process without being reworked or scrapped.
citoolkit.com
Example – Can Making Process
Process Yield Measures 22
Printed can count
98.18%
Cupper count
99.54%
Formed can count
99.11%
Trimmed can
count
99.77%
Washed can
count
98.34%
Palletized can
count
98.89%
Light inspected
can count
97.88%
Internally
sprayed can
count 98.88%
Coated can count
99.26%
The probability of manufacturing a can that meets all specifications is 90.28%.
citoolkit.com
Example - High Volume and Low Complexity
What is the RTY of a process that involve 5 steps and produces 30,000 units
per hour, knowing that the throughput yield for each process step is 95%?
Process Yield Measures 23
RTY = (0.95)5 = 77.4%
Throughput Yield / hour = 0.7738 * 30,000 = 23,213 TPY / hour
i.e., 6787 non-conforming units / hour (22.6%)
citoolkit.com
Example - Low Volume and High Complexity
What is the RTY of a process that involves 30 steps and produces 10 units
per hour, knowing that the throughput yield for each process step is 95%?
Process Yield Measures 24
RTY = (0.95)30 = 22.5%
Throughput Yield / hour = 0.2146 * 10 = 2.15 TPY / hour
i.e., 8 non-conforming units / hour (77.5%)
citoolkit.com
Further Information
Process Yield Measures 25
Simplification of the process needs to be considered to improve the process yield
rates.
TPY is sensitive to
the number of
critical-to-quality
characteristics
(CTQs) in a product
(product
complexity)
TPY is sensitive to
the number of
critical-to-quality
characteristics
(CTQs) in a product
(product
complexity)
citoolkit.com
Further Information
Some process yield measures can be averaged together to measure the
entire production flow.
Process Yield Measures 26
This provides a sense of the overall flow performance
citoolkit.com
Further Information – Other Yield Measures
Process Yield Measures 27
Average completion rate is the output of a process over a defined period
Rolled throughput yield loss is the inverse of RTY
Normalized yield is the average throughput yield result at any given step
© Copyright Citoolkit.com. All Rights Reserved.
CITOOLKIT
Made with by
The Continuous Improvement Toolkit
www.citoolkit.com

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Measuring True Process Yield using Robust Yield Metrics

  • 1. CITOOLKIT Process Yield Measures Measuring True Process Yield Using Robust Yield Metrics
  • 2. citoolkit.com Introduction An ideal process must produce without defects or rework. Process Yield Measures 2 A defect is a failure to conform requirements (include scrap & rework). A rework is an additional work required to conform requirements.
  • 3. citoolkit.com Introduction Process yield refers to the percentage of usable output obtained from a production process relative to the input. Process Yield Measures 3
  • 4. citoolkit.com Process Mapping A good practice is to use a process map as a guide in the process yield evaluation. Process Yield Measures 4
  • 5. citoolkit.com Process Yield Measures One should have the appropriate metrics capable of revealing even the smallest inefficiencies in a process to measure process yield. Process Yield Measures 5 These metrics should enable operations to understand their true process yield in order to set realistic improvement targets.
  • 6. citoolkit.com Process Yield Measures Many companies use two measures for process yield. Process Yield Measures 6 They represent the classical approach for calculating process yield. First time yield (FTY) Final yield
  • 7. citoolkit.com First Time Yield (FTY) Obtained by dividing the good product units by the number of total units that entered the process at a given process step. Process Yield Measures 7 Process Step (X) Inspect for Defects End Start Note that the reworked units are included in the calculation of FTY.
  • 8. citoolkit.com First Time Yield (FTY) Question: Find the FTY for a process knowing that the second process steps has produced 90 good units from 100 processed units. Process Yield Measures 8 Answer: 90%
  • 9. citoolkit.com First Time Yield (FTY) Not sensitive to product complexity and only looks at the volume of the produced units. Process Yield Measures 9 Corrective actions are often taken on spot when mistakes are discovered, and rework are not recorded in quality logs making the process yield rate looks better than what it really is.
  • 10. citoolkit.com Final Yield (FY) The probability that a unit will successfully pass all steps inspected at the end of the process. Process Yield Measures 10 Another widely used yield metric that is easy to calculate.
  • 11. citoolkit.com Final Yield (FY) Obtained by counting the good units that made it through until the last process step divided by the total number of units that entered the process. Process Yield Measures 11 Last Process Step Inspect for Defects End Start
  • 12. citoolkit.com Final Yield (FY) Question: Find the final yield in the following 3-step process . . . Process Yield Measures 12 C B A 90 Outputs 100 Inputs Answer: 90%
  • 13. citoolkit.com First Time Yield and Final Yield Process Yield Measures 13 Only look at the volume of the produced units Not sensitive to product complexity Corrective actions are often taken on spot when mistakes are discovered Process yield rates often look better than what they really are Don’t reflect the actual defect rates and ignore the hidden factory A P/F 100 Inputs 100 Outputs FTY = 100% B P/F FTY = 100% • FY = 100% • No scrapped units are produced
  • 14. citoolkit.com More Process Yield Measures Process Yield Measures 14 First Time Yield Final Yield Throughput Yield Rolled Throughput Yield - Accuracy + - Cumulative +
  • 15. citoolkit.com Throughput Yield (TPY) The probability that a product or service unit will pass through a given process step defect-free. Process Yield Measures 15 Sometimes rereferred to as First Pass Yield
  • 16. citoolkit.com Throughput Yield (TPY) The number of units coming out a given process step divided by the number of units going into that process step over a specified period. Process Yield Measures 16 Only good units with no rework or scrap are counted
  • 17. citoolkit.com Throughput Yield vs. First Time Yield The difference between the two metrics is due to the inclusion of reworked units. Process Yield Measures 17 A reworked unit that passed the process step will not be considered in the calculation of throughput yield A reworked unit is considered in the calculation of the FTY
  • 18. citoolkit.com Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) The probability of passing all performance standards through the entire process defect-free. Process Yield Measures 18 Inspection at the end of the process RTY is a true reflection of the process performance
  • 19. citoolkit.com Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) It is calculated by multiplying the individual throughput yield values of each process step. Process Yield Measures 19 RTY = Throughput Yield of process step 1 * Throughput Yield of process step 2 * … * Throughput Yield of process N.
  • 20. citoolkit.com Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) Process Yield Measures 20 Calculations are done at each process step Quantifies the cumulative effects of inefficiencies found throughout the process Allows companies to be much more accurate when assessing the performance of their industrial or commercial processes Substantially less than final yield Provides a better insight of the rates of defect and rework
  • 21. citoolkit.com Example Process Yield Measures 21 RTY = TPY(A) * TPY(B) * TPY(C) = 94% * 91% * 92% = 78.7% FY = 89% Not equal! C TPY= 92% B TPY= 91% A TPY= 94% 89 Outputs 100 Inputs 6 4 9 4 8 4 Defects (Rework & Scrap) 2 5 4 Scrap This means that even if the 3 process steps are performing well, one out of every 5 units will not make it through the process without being reworked or scrapped.
  • 22. citoolkit.com Example – Can Making Process Process Yield Measures 22 Printed can count 98.18% Cupper count 99.54% Formed can count 99.11% Trimmed can count 99.77% Washed can count 98.34% Palletized can count 98.89% Light inspected can count 97.88% Internally sprayed can count 98.88% Coated can count 99.26% The probability of manufacturing a can that meets all specifications is 90.28%.
  • 23. citoolkit.com Example - High Volume and Low Complexity What is the RTY of a process that involve 5 steps and produces 30,000 units per hour, knowing that the throughput yield for each process step is 95%? Process Yield Measures 23 RTY = (0.95)5 = 77.4% Throughput Yield / hour = 0.7738 * 30,000 = 23,213 TPY / hour i.e., 6787 non-conforming units / hour (22.6%)
  • 24. citoolkit.com Example - Low Volume and High Complexity What is the RTY of a process that involves 30 steps and produces 10 units per hour, knowing that the throughput yield for each process step is 95%? Process Yield Measures 24 RTY = (0.95)30 = 22.5% Throughput Yield / hour = 0.2146 * 10 = 2.15 TPY / hour i.e., 8 non-conforming units / hour (77.5%)
  • 25. citoolkit.com Further Information Process Yield Measures 25 Simplification of the process needs to be considered to improve the process yield rates. TPY is sensitive to the number of critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) in a product (product complexity) TPY is sensitive to the number of critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) in a product (product complexity)
  • 26. citoolkit.com Further Information Some process yield measures can be averaged together to measure the entire production flow. Process Yield Measures 26 This provides a sense of the overall flow performance
  • 27. citoolkit.com Further Information – Other Yield Measures Process Yield Measures 27 Average completion rate is the output of a process over a defined period Rolled throughput yield loss is the inverse of RTY Normalized yield is the average throughput yield result at any given step
  • 28. © Copyright Citoolkit.com. All Rights Reserved. CITOOLKIT Made with by The Continuous Improvement Toolkit www.citoolkit.com