6. Development Project Types Agriculture & Rural Development Fisheries Forestry Irrigation Environmental Protection Housing & Urban Development Health & Family Planning Roads/Bridges/Ports Marketing Public Administration Banking & Capital Market Development Education & Training Power Generation
13. Project ….explanations - Performed by people. - Constrained by limited resources. - Planned, executed, and controlled. example: . Developing a new or service. . Effecting a change in structure, staffing, or style of an organization. . Designing a new transportation route. . Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system. . Constructing a building or facility. . Building a water system for a community. . Running a campaign for political office. . Implementing a new service procedure or process.
21. Characteristics of a project: 1 . Each and every project should have a package of interrelated activities. Eg. IRDP a. Identification of the poor b. Knowing their choice c. Arranging bank assets D. Follow up / advisory activities Evaluation 2 . Each activity is time found 3. Each and every project should have a set of objectives to be achieved. E.g. IRDP-Eradication poverty by distributing income-generating assets. E.I.P-Improving the environment in slums through providing basic amenities like drinking water, drainage, street lights, toilets and community centers etc. 4. Each and every project should be operated with constraints. E.g. Eradication of poverty within a democratic framework, within a time frame, within a limited resource within the present bureaucratic setup. 5 . Each and every project should specify the (clientele) target group. E.g. IRDP – Rural poor, SEPUP – Urban poor. 6. Each and every project should have well defined time sequence of investments. 7. Each and every project should have an in built arrangement to evaluate the program. Categories of projects Based on levels Based on time Based on the purpose Centralized Normal Experimental Decentralized Crash Pilot Partially decentralized Disaster Production / Service.
24. Project Plan components Project Formulation: Project formulation means developing our ideas in a good shape so as to present it to decision-makers to take correct investment decisions. Thus, project formulation refers to a series of steps to be taken to convert an idea or aspiration into a feasible plan of action . A Project Plan contains information that will help complete the project successfully. Success factors can be quickly summarized by answering the following questions: What and Why? - A project plan will contain a description of the project, what is the Vision and why the project is being executed. Who? - Who will be involved and what will be their responsibilities within the project When? - When will the project happen and also major milestones How? - How the project will be executed, meaning how it will be executed and controlled. Normally this information refers mostly to the controlling of the project as the detailed project actions will be detailed in other documents such as the IT plan, the Procurement plan, the Construction plan, etc.
36. The Development Project Life Cycle PP DD I Preliminary Planning Detailed Design Implementation Implementation TO & CO Turnover & Closeout Completed Project clean up phase Duration 5-7 years Duration 20 - 30 years Duration 5-7 years “ A Sustainable PROGRAM” Conception phase Definition phase Planning and organizing The Project is only an Intermediate Means to a Higher Level objective
40. The Project Cycle Implementation Identification Programming Evaluation Financing Appraisal Political acceptability Financial feasibility Economic viability Technical feasibility
43. Spatial Data Temporal Data Social/Institutional Information Discrete data Indigenous or local data Stakeholders Analysis, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis Problem-Alternative-Objective tree Micro-Finance, Co-operative and Group Formation, Indigenous Forest Management Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Participatory Impact Monitoring Monitoring Exercise The Logical Framework The Work Breakdown structure The Gantt chart The Critical Path Method (CPM) Exit strategies for project ending
44. Strategy or Methodology Needs Analysis includes Social Analysis Situation of the target group Political Analysis Problem Analysis Economic Analysis Project Planning Steps – Needs Analysis Need Analysis Why? Aims & Objectives What for ? How ? Plan of Activities Where ? Implementation With What ? Follow up With What ?
45. Problem Tree Objective Tree Overall objectives Project Purpose Results Problem Tree Effects Focal problem Causes
46. High infant & Maternal mortality rates High rates of infection among babies & infants High incidence of acute birth complications High rates of post- partum & neo- natal infection Poor nutritional status of babies & infants Birth complications diagnosed late or not at all Few babies & Infants vaccinated Low standards of hygiene & patient care by staff Effects Problem Tree Commercial pressure to use milk supplements Poor seasonal availability of high protein foods Mothers unwilling to attend clinics Infrequent & inadequate coverage of clinics Shortage of drugs Low staff skills Low attendance at rural clinics Causes
47. Means Problem tree Objective tree Problem & Objective Analysis Problems Identified Soil erosion on hill slopes Rice production in low lands decreasing Irrigation water does not reach field in desired quantity High incidence of malnutrition Food shortages Food production in hills decreasing High immigration rates Irregular supply of inputs for rice cultivation Soil fertility on hill slopes is decreasing Ethnic clashes in neighboring districts Canals are blocked Dikes are degraded Poor maintenance system for irrigation facilities Cause Effect Soil erosion on hill slopes reduced Rice production in low lands improved Sufficient Irrigation water reaches the field Incidence of Malnutrition reduced Improved food situation Food production in hills increased Lower immigration rates Regular supply of inputs for rice cultivation Soil fertility on hill slopes is increased Less Ethnic clashes in neighboring districts Canals cleared Dikes are upgraded Maintenance system for irrigation facilities improved Ends
48. Drivers are courteous Regular Workday Fair Salaries Financial situation of the company improved Increased use of the CBS by the public Service offered by the CBS is reliable Number of wounded passengers decreased Fewer delays Scheduling & utilization of buses is improved Drivers Drive well Safety precautions & inspection system implemented Incentive system implemented Bus drivers trained Schedule for replacement of buses established Roads are in good condition Good road maintenance Redesign & recondition of roads Bus fleet in good condition Fewer bus accidents Good bus maintenance City Bus Service –Objective Tree City Bus Service –Problem Tree Drivers drive poorly Bus fleet in poor condition Frequent delays Bus fleet in old Poor bus maintenance Poor topography Roads are poor Long workday Low salaries Use of CBS by the population decreases Service offered by the CBS unreliable Many passengers wounded Frequent bus accidents Drivers are rude
49. Objectives Infant & maternal mortality rates reduced Reduced incidence of acute birth complications Increased / earlier diagnosis of birth complications Transforming problems into objectives High infant & maternal mortality rates High incidence of acute birth complications Birth complications diagnosed late or not at all Problems
50. Lack of income No money to buy new seeds Crop yields decreases No money to pay school fees Children miss schools Few Jobs Poor yields Local factory closed Immigration But why But why But why But why So what But why So what So what So what Nothing to sell
51. Strategies Incidence of malnutrition reduced Improved food situation Rice production in low lands increased Food Production on hills increased Lower Immigration rates Sufficient irrigation water reaches field Regular supply of inputs for rice production Soil fertility on hill slopes increased Less ethinic clashes on hill slopes Soil erosion of hill slopes reduced Canals cleared Dikes are upgraded Maintenance of irrigation facilities improved Agricultural inputs Soil fertility Immigration Irrigation system
53. Project Evaluation Review Technique CRITICAL PATH Network diagram for the recruitment of a new person to fill a vacant post. PERT Chart
54. GANTT Chart for the recruitment of a new person to fill a vacant post GANTT charts are a user-friendly visual version of ‘network diagrams’, designed to be easily understood and applied by non - ‘chart-ographers’ !
56. • Administrator • Closure • Transfer of product and information Finishing • Decision maker • Balances work and fun • Trustworthiness • Team and synergy • Re-alignment Execution • Team builder • Power and influence • Integrator • Participative/Acceptance and commitment • Cooperative Development • Analytical • Listener • Change master • Convergence • Listening • Analysis • Alignment Conceptual (Formulation) • Visionary • Creates future • Empowerment • Expansive • Sense of vision • "Big Picture" (conceptual) • Analysis Feasibility Study (Pre-formulation) Leadership Style/Blend Major Attributes/Emphasis Phase
58. Success of a Project Good / Careful Planning Parties involved stick to their commitments Fair allocation of costs & benefits between men & women Fair representation of different interests through participation Success of a Project Efficient project management Competent & Motivated project team Project addresses the real problems of the target groups Beneficiaries are clearly identified by gender & socio economic group Organizational capacity