Project Planning


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This presentation explains the basic concepts of project planning useful to MSW students and development workers

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  • Project Planning

    1. 2. <ul><li>Why Project Planning ? </li></ul><ul><li>History of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of a Project </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of a Project </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of project based approach </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if the project consciousness is not there? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & Project Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a project </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a Project </li></ul><ul><li>Project Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan components </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between projects and operations (regular administration) ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Project Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Tools .. activities </li></ul><ul><li>What is a successful project? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem & Objective Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Project Life Cycle Phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conception Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming / organizing Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Sustainability </li></ul>
    2. 3. Why Project Planning ? <ul><li>One Of the most important administrative developments in the developed as well as in developing countries has been the initiation and growth of a large number of new programs/projects in every field like agriculture, irrigation, industry, community development, health & social welfare etc.. The principle aims and objectives of all these programs have been to bring about overall changes in the existing socio-economic structure in the country providing thereby dignified way of life to a citizen as a unit and socio-economic upliftment of the society. </li></ul><ul><li>So most of the administrators are directly concerned with the program / project administration than other activities. The capability of administrative system to formulate and implement, relevant and in viable programs effectively constitutes a crucial element in the process of development. Development requires planning and planning includes a lot of programs / projects. </li></ul>
    3. 4. History of Project Management <ul><li>As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense. In the United States, the forefather of project management is Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famously known for his use of the &quot;Gantt&quot; chart as a project management tool. He was associated with Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management and for his study of the work and management of Navy ship building. His work is the forerunner to many modern project management tools including the work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed: (1) the &quot;Program Evaluation and Review Technique&quot; or PERT, developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program; and (2) the &quot;Critical Path Method&quot; (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Meaning of a Project <ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, &quot;to throw something forwards&quot; which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in time (paralleling the Greek πρό) and jacere, &quot;to throw&quot;. The word &quot;project&quot; thus originally meant &quot;something that comes before anything else is done&quot;. When the word was initially adopted, it referred to a plan of something, not to the act of actually carrying this plan out. Something performed in accordance with a project was called an object. This use of &quot;project&quot; changed in the 1950s when several techniques for project management were introduced. With this advent the word slightly changed meaning to cover both projects and objects. However in certain projects there may still exist so called objects and object leaders. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Development Project Types Agriculture & Rural Development Fisheries Forestry Irrigation Environmental Protection Housing & Urban Development Health & Family Planning Roads/Bridges/Ports Marketing Public Administration Banking & Capital Market Development Education & Training Power Generation
    6. 7. Types of Projects
    7. 8. Example of AGRICULTURAL Projects <ul><li>PROJECT : Immediate Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation Systems Built </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation Service Associations Formed </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Extension Services Provided </li></ul><ul><li> Farmers Trained </li></ul><ul><li>Seed, Fertilizer, Credit Provided </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM : Sustainable Results Intended </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Productivity & Production </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Farm Family Incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Food Availability </li></ul>
    8. 9. Example of HEALTH Projects <ul><li>PROJECT : Immediate Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Health Clinics/Facilities Built </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors & Nurses Trained & Deployed </li></ul><ul><li>Village-Level Health Workers Trained </li></ul><ul><li>Information/Education Campaigns Conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs/Medical Supplies/Transportation Provided </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM : Sustainable Results Intended </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Usage of Health Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Community Health Status </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Capacity for Productive Work </li></ul>
    9. 10. Definition of a Project <ul><li>To talk about project management, we first need to be sure we know what we mean by a </li></ul><ul><li>project. Although the term is widely used, and we all think we know what it means, producing </li></ul><ul><li>an adequate short definition is very difficult. This is because the border line between something </li></ul><ul><li>which is a project and something which is not is rather poorly defined. </li></ul><ul><li>We can therefore use a very general definition such as the Oxford English Dictionary which </li></ul><ul><li>defines a project as:   Plan, scheme   This is so vague as to be unhelpful in trying to look at </li></ul><ul><li>project management.     Alternatively we can try to make things as specific as possible. Some </li></ul><ul><li>examples of definitions from literature on project management are: </li></ul><ul><li>An activity (or, usually, a number of related activities) carried out according to a plan in </li></ul><ul><li>order to achieve a definite objective within a certain time and which will cease when the </li></ul><ul><li>objective is achieved.  </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of linked activities, carried out in an organized manner, with a clearly </li></ul><ul><li>defined start point and end point to achieve some specific results desired to satisfy </li></ul><ul><li>some clearly defined objectives.     </li></ul><ul><li>A group of activities that have to be performed in a logical sequence to meet pre-set </li></ul><ul><li>objectives outlined by the client.   </li></ul><ul><li>It may make it easier to define if we instead list the characteristics of a project, which would </li></ul><ul><li>include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a start and a finish date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activities which are essentially unique and not repetitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>roles and relationships which are subject to change and need to be developed, defined and established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a life cycle (which we will examine later) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Definition of a Project… 2 <ul><li>Programs / Projects are tools to achieve the plan goals . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Plan goal – Removal of poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan tool – IRDP, JRY, TRYSEM etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A project is an investment of resources in a package of interrelated time found activities. Thus a project becomes a time found task. A Project should have definite beginning and an end. </li></ul><ul><li>A project can be defined as a scientifically evolved work plan devised to achieve specific objectives within a specific period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Something with a beginning, middle and end. Something that has a clear objective and somebody responsible for it. </li></ul><ul><li>Something that can be measured and achieved. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Definition of a Project… 3 <ul><li>Work undertaken to achieve an objective </li></ul><ul><li>“ A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.” </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Every project has a definite beginning and a definite end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Projects produce things that have not been produced before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Work involving a certain degree of uncertainty (i.e. risk) </li></ul><ul><li>Work that must be progressively elaborated </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of projects are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a new product or service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A planned action of social intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development and execution of an advocacy campaign </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Project ….explanations - Performed by people. - Constrained by limited resources. - Planned, executed, and controlled. example: . Developing a new or service. . Effecting a change in structure, staffing, or style of an organization. . Designing a new transportation route. . Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system. . Constructing a building or facility. . Building a water system for a community. . Running a campaign for political office. . Implementing a new service procedure or process.
    13. 14. What is a Project? Output (Objective & Scope) Time (Duration) Resource (Man power, Facilities, Money…) <ul><li>What are the requirements? </li></ul><ul><li>How much the cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit Basis </li></ul>Three Elements of Project <ul><li>Start Date </li></ul><ul><li>End Date ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Output ? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose & Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Service Performance specification </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Advantages of project based approach </li></ul><ul><li>Project based approach is particularly liked by Western business, which are characterized by a modern matrix organization and a cooperative culture. In case of authoritarian, bureaucratic organizations with rigid, hierarchical structure project based work is less popular, or does not work as expected due to the conflict between different cultures. </li></ul>
    15. 16. What happens if the project consciousness is not there?
    16. 17. What happens if the project consciousness is not there?
    17. 18. Planning & Project Planning <ul><li>What is a plan? What is planning? Why should we plan at all? What benefits does it provide? How much planning we need or don’t need? How does one plan? What are some useful planning models? What are some basic obstacles to planning? How do we confront them? </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and Planning: </li></ul><ul><li>A plan is a set of decisions made on actions to be taken to reach a goal. It is the product of the process of planning. Planning is an active process and it is opposite of simply allowing events to unfold. A plan can be said to exist when a point in the planning process has been reached. Plan (appoint in the planning process) is coherent set of operations designed to meet a given goal. It is determined with sufficient clarity that may be acted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>A plan can be a very formal document, or it can simply be the clear understanding of the actions you are going to undertake. </li></ul><ul><li>Both plan and planning is a never-ending activity. Your plan will be shaped and reshaped by new forces and new information you discover as you proceed with your action. Planning involves vision, discovery, decision-making and action. It is a purposeful way of looking at the future with the intent to shape it. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Project Plan <ul><li>A project plan is &quot;A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among stakeholders, and document approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan may be summary or detailed.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;a statement of how and when a project's objectives are to be achieved, by showing the major products, milestones, activities and resources required on the project”. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Project Plan. What it is and is not ? Initiate Plan Execute Control Close Project Plan means devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business/ service/ development need that the project was undertaken to address. <ul><li>Project Plan is the work plan, not the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan is a definition of needed work and resources </li></ul>
    20. 21. Characteristics of a project: 1 . Each and every project should have a package of interrelated activities. Eg. IRDP a. Identification of the poor b. Knowing their choice c. Arranging bank assets D. Follow up / advisory activities Evaluation 2 . Each activity is time found 3. Each and every project should have a set of objectives to be achieved. E.g. IRDP-Eradication poverty by distributing income-generating assets. E.I.P-Improving the environment in slums through providing basic amenities like drinking water, drainage, street lights, toilets and community centers etc. 4. Each and every project should be operated with constraints. E.g. Eradication of poverty within a democratic framework, within a time frame, within a limited resource within the present bureaucratic setup. 5 . Each and every project should specify the (clientele) target group. E.g. IRDP – Rural poor, SEPUP – Urban poor. 6. Each and every project should have well defined time sequence of investments. 7. Each and every project should have an in built arrangement to evaluate the program. Categories of projects Based on levels Based on time Based on the purpose Centralized Normal Experimental Decentralized Crash Pilot Partially decentralized Disaster Production / Service.
    21. 22. <ul><li>Elements of Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Complex , one-time processes </li></ul><ul><li>Limited by budget, schedule, and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Customer / Client -focused </li></ul><ul><li>General Project Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc endeavors with a clear life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Building blocks in the design and execution of organizational strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the newest and most improved products , services, and organizational processes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a philosophy and strategy for the management of change </li></ul><ul><li>Entail crossing functional and organization boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional management functions of planning, organizing, motivating, directing, and controlling apply </li></ul><ul><li>Principal outcomes are the satisfaction of customer requirements within technical , cost , and schedule constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Terminated upon successful completion </li></ul>
    22. 23. Project Objectives <ul><li>Project objectives define target status at the end of the project, reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits. They can be formulated as S.M.A.R.T. </li></ul><ul><li>S pecific, </li></ul><ul><li>M easurable (or at least evaluable) achievement, </li></ul><ul><li>A chievable (recently Acceptable is used regularly as well), </li></ul><ul><li>R ealistic and </li></ul><ul><li>T ime terminated (bounded). </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation (measurement) occurs at the project closure. However a continuous guard on the project progress should be kept by monitoring and evaluating. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Project Plan components Project Formulation: Project formulation means developing our ideas in a good shape so as to present it to decision-makers to take correct investment decisions. Thus, project formulation refers to a series of steps to be taken to convert an idea or aspiration into a feasible plan of action . A Project Plan contains information that will help complete the project successfully. Success factors can be quickly summarized by answering the following questions: What and Why? - A project plan will contain a description of the project, what is the Vision and why the project is being executed. Who? - Who will be involved and what will be their responsibilities within the project When? - When will the project happen and also major milestones How? - How the project will be executed, meaning how it will be executed and controlled. Normally this information refers mostly to the controlling of the project as the detailed project actions will be detailed in other documents such as the IT plan, the Procurement plan, the Construction plan, etc.
    24. 25. <ul><li>What are the differences between projects and operations (regular administration) ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing – Continuous cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive – Expected inputs and outputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary – Definitive beginning and end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique – New undertaking, unfamiliar ground </li></ul></ul></ul>Project Take place outside the process world Unique and separate from normal organization work Operations Ongoing, day-to-day activities Use existing systems, properties, and capabilities A project is a unique venture with a beginning and an end, conducted by people to meet established goals within parameters of cost, schedule and quality. <ul><li>Repeat process or product </li></ul><ul><li>Several objectives </li></ul><ul><li>On-going </li></ul><ul><li>People are homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>Systems in place </li></ul><ul><li>Performance, cost, & time known </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the line organization </li></ul><ul><li>Bastions of established practice </li></ul><ul><li>Supports status quo </li></ul><ul><li>New process or product </li></ul><ul><li>One objective </li></ul><ul><li>One shot – limited life </li></ul><ul><li>More heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>Systems must be created </li></ul><ul><li>Performance, cost & time less certain </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of line organization </li></ul><ul><li>Violates established practice </li></ul><ul><li>Upsets status quo </li></ul>
    25. 26. The difference between Project and Organizational Management <ul><li>    Of course there are many similarities between project and organizational management, but the nature of projects means that there are some differences of approach as well. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the lack of permanence of staff: people might be employed on a temporary basis or as consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the lack of permanence of roles of staff: people involved in the project may play very different roles at different times; the hierarchy is not so clearly set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>    These two points mean that management of people and personal skills are very important. Too often project management is seen as a purely technical subject connected with planning techniques: to be effective skills in dealing with people are just as important. </li></ul>
    26. 27. What is Project Management? <ul><li>Project Management is the application of skills, knowledge, tools and techniques to meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders for a project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of project management is prediction and prevention, NOT recognition and reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Management of the Triple Constraints (Time, Cost, Goals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements – Needs Identified or Unidentified Expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/Resources – People, Money, Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule/Time </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Definition of Project Management <ul><li>One definition of project management could be: </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management is a dynamic process, conducted within a defined set of constraints, that organises and utilises appropriate resources in a controlled and structured manner in order to achieve some clearly defined objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Making the project happen.     As with projects, it may be clearer to define some of the characteristics of project management, rather than trying to make a single definition. Project management should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>objectives-orientated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change-orientated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-disciplined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovative (seeking new ideas and solving new problems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control-orientated (to ensure it actually finishes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance-orientated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flexible (quickly adapted to changes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This requires a wide variety of management and personal skills, </li></ul>Key areas to consider when looking at project management are management of time, people, and other resources. In general terms, these activities can be described as follows: Management of Other Resources Ensuring that appropriate resources are allocated Ensuring that the appropriate resources are available at the right time Reallocating resources in the light of experience Tailoring activities to limited resources Making maximum impact with available resources Management of People Ensuring that people are available at the right time Ensuring that personnel know their roles and can perform their functions properly Managing people’s expectations Resolving conflicts between people Changing people’s roles in the light of experience Management of Time Ensuring that the Project completes its work on time Scheduling use of resources Rescheduling the project in the light of experience Predicting problems Before they arise
    28. 29. Project Planning & Management <ul><li>Project Management in the context of projects involves: </li></ul><ul><li>organizing the work, </li></ul><ul><li>deciding who does what, when, how and for whom, </li></ul><ul><li>determining the resources required, </li></ul><ul><li>allocating responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>communicating among all those involved in a project, </li></ul><ul><li>coordinating activities and people involved, </li></ul><ul><li>controlling progress, </li></ul><ul><li>estimating term of completion and handling unexpected events and changes. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Project Management Tools <ul><li>Financial Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect Charts </li></ul><ul><li>PRA - Participatory Rural Appraisal - Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis (An approach for developing common understanding and consensus amongst project participants and stakeholders as to how the project will achieve its goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Logical framework Analysis (LFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Event Chain Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Force Field Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Group Technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Project management software </li></ul>
    30. 31. Project Management activities <ul><li>Project Management is composed of several different types of activities such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning the work or objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis & design of objectives and events </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing and controlling risk (or Risk Management) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating resources </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing the work </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring human and material resources </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Directing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling project execution </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking and reporting progress </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting future trends in the project </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Issues management </li></ul><ul><li>Issue solving </li></ul><ul><li>Defect prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying, managing & controlling changes </li></ul><ul><li>Project closure </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating to stakeholders </li></ul>
    31. 32. What is the project management process? <ul><li>A set of five process groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performed to authorize and define the scope of a new phase or project or that can result in the continuation of halted project work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performed to define and mature the project scope, develop the project management plan, and identify and schedule the project activities within the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executing processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's objectives defined in the project scope statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and controlling processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performed to measure and monitor project execution so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to control the execution of the phase or project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performed to finalize all activities across all of the project process groups to formally close the project or phase </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>Project Life Cycle Phases: </li></ul><ul><li>All projects have to pass through certain phases. The attention that a particular project receives is again not uniformly distributed throughout its life span, but it varies from phase to phase. At a particular phase appropriate attention has to be paid. </li></ul><ul><li>Following are the general phases of a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Conception phase </li></ul><ul><li>Definition phase </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and organizing people </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation phase </li></ul><ul><li>Project clean up phase </li></ul><ul><li>The above phases won’t follow a sequence … rather they overlap; sometimes this overlapping is done deliberately in the interest of compressing the overall project schedule. There are others who would encourage natural growth. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Project Life Cycle Phases <ul><li>Conception phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase in which the project idea germinates. This phase is also known as Identification of the problem, identifying the performance gap. </li></ul><ul><li>It we avoid or truncate this phase, the project will have innate defects and may eventually become a liability for the investors. </li></ul><ul><li>How to implement the project is not the botheration of this phase. It we start thinking about the implementation during this phase, it will unnecessary delays this phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Phase: </li></ul><ul><li>The definition phase of the project will develop the idea generated during the conception phase and produce a document describing the project in sufficient details covering all aspects necessary for the customer or investors to make up their minds on the project idea. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Project Life Cycle Phases <ul><li>Planning and organizing phase: </li></ul><ul><li>This phase can effectively start only after definition phase, but in practice it start much earlier, almost immediately after the conception phase. This phase overlaps so much with the definition and also with implementation phases. That is why no formal recognition is given to this by most organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Period of hectic activity for the project. It is during this period, something starts growing in the field and people for the first time can see the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Project clean up phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Completion and handing over the project. </li></ul><ul><li>The curve in the above diagram shows that effort to build up a project is very slow, but effort to withdraw is very sharp. It can also be seen that time taken for the formative and clean up stage & implementation stage. While this pattern is true for all the projects, the percentage of effort in different phases would not be the same for all projects. However for the same class projects the curve may be more or less the same. A life cycle curve can thus represent a class of projects. </li></ul>
    35. 36. The Development Project Life Cycle PP DD I Preliminary Planning Detailed Design Implementation Implementation TO & CO Turnover & Closeout Completed Project clean up phase Duration 5-7 years Duration 20 - 30 years Duration 5-7 years “ A Sustainable PROGRAM” Conception phase Definition phase Planning and organizing The Project is only an Intermediate Means to a Higher Level objective
    36. 38. Project Life Cycle Phases <ul><li>Conception Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Programming / organizing Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Termination Phase </li></ul>
    37. 39. Project Life Cycles Man Hours Conceptualization Planning Execution Termination
    38. 40. The Project Cycle Implementation Identification Programming Evaluation Financing Appraisal Political acceptability Financial feasibility Economic viability Technical feasibility
    39. 41. The Project Life Cycle 2 CLOSE -OUT EXECUTE ORGANISE PLAN DEFINE <ul><li>FEASABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>called scoping </li></ul><ul><li>risk is assessed </li></ul><ul><li>feasibility tested </li></ul><ul><li>“ GO ” or “ NO GO ” </li></ul><ul><li>decision made. </li></ul><ul><li>If “GO”  </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>tasks </li></ul><ul><li>sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>milestones </li></ul><ul><li>estimating </li></ul><ul><li>budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANISING </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>tools </li></ul><ul><li>reviews </li></ul><ul><li>reporting </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLEM- </li></ul><ul><li>ENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>activities </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring: </li></ul><ul><li>costs </li></ul><ul><li>progress </li></ul><ul><li>controlling </li></ul><ul><li>quality </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETION </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>client “hand-over (= acceptance) </li></ul><ul><li>complete documentation. </li></ul><ul><li>review: sign off </li></ul><ul><li>post implementation audit </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>“ value assessment” </li></ul>R E V I E W 1. 2. 4. 3. 5. PLAN Implementation Phase
    40. 43. Spatial Data Temporal Data Social/Institutional Information Discrete data Indigenous or local data Stakeholders Analysis, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis Problem-Alternative-Objective tree Micro-Finance, Co-operative and Group Formation, Indigenous Forest Management Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Participatory Impact Monitoring Monitoring Exercise The Logical Framework The Work Breakdown structure The Gantt chart The Critical Path Method (CPM) Exit strategies for project ending
    41. 44. Strategy or Methodology Needs Analysis includes Social Analysis Situation of the target group Political Analysis Problem Analysis Economic Analysis Project Planning Steps – Needs Analysis Need Analysis Why? Aims & Objectives What for ? How ? Plan of Activities Where ? Implementation With What ? Follow up With What ?
    42. 45. Problem Tree Objective Tree Overall objectives Project Purpose Results Problem Tree Effects Focal problem Causes
    43. 46. High infant & Maternal mortality rates High rates of infection among babies & infants High incidence of acute birth complications High rates of post- partum & neo- natal infection Poor nutritional status of babies & infants Birth complications diagnosed late or not at all Few babies & Infants vaccinated Low standards of hygiene & patient care by staff Effects Problem Tree Commercial pressure to use milk supplements Poor seasonal availability of high protein foods Mothers unwilling to attend clinics Infrequent & inadequate coverage of clinics Shortage of drugs Low staff skills Low attendance at rural clinics Causes
    44. 47. Means Problem tree Objective tree Problem & Objective Analysis Problems Identified Soil erosion on hill slopes Rice production in low lands decreasing Irrigation water does not reach field in desired quantity High incidence of malnutrition Food shortages Food production in hills decreasing High immigration rates Irregular supply of inputs for rice cultivation Soil fertility on hill slopes is decreasing Ethnic clashes in neighboring districts Canals are blocked Dikes are degraded Poor maintenance system for irrigation facilities Cause Effect Soil erosion on hill slopes reduced Rice production in low lands improved Sufficient Irrigation water reaches the field Incidence of Malnutrition reduced Improved food situation Food production in hills increased Lower immigration rates Regular supply of inputs for rice cultivation Soil fertility on hill slopes is increased Less Ethnic clashes in neighboring districts Canals cleared Dikes are upgraded Maintenance system for irrigation facilities improved Ends
    45. 48. Drivers are courteous Regular Workday Fair Salaries Financial situation of the company improved Increased use of the CBS by the public Service offered by the CBS is reliable Number of wounded passengers decreased Fewer delays Scheduling & utilization of buses is improved Drivers Drive well Safety precautions & inspection system implemented Incentive system implemented Bus drivers trained Schedule for replacement of buses established Roads are in good condition Good road maintenance Redesign & recondition of roads Bus fleet in good condition Fewer bus accidents Good bus maintenance City Bus Service –Objective Tree City Bus Service –Problem Tree Drivers drive poorly Bus fleet in poor condition Frequent delays Bus fleet in old Poor bus maintenance Poor topography Roads are poor Long workday Low salaries Use of CBS by the population decreases Service offered by the CBS unreliable Many passengers wounded Frequent bus accidents Drivers are rude
    46. 49. Objectives Infant & maternal mortality rates reduced Reduced incidence of acute birth complications Increased / earlier diagnosis of birth complications Transforming problems into objectives High infant & maternal mortality rates High incidence of acute birth complications Birth complications diagnosed late or not at all Problems
    47. 50. Lack of income No money to buy new seeds Crop yields decreases No money to pay school fees Children miss schools Few Jobs Poor yields Local factory closed Immigration But why But why But why But why So what But why So what So what So what Nothing to sell
    48. 51. Strategies Incidence of malnutrition reduced Improved food situation Rice production in low lands increased Food Production on hills increased Lower Immigration rates Sufficient irrigation water reaches field Regular supply of inputs for rice production Soil fertility on hill slopes increased Less ethinic clashes on hill slopes Soil erosion of hill slopes reduced Canals cleared Dikes are upgraded Maintenance of irrigation facilities improved Agricultural inputs Soil fertility Immigration Irrigation system
    49. 52. Work Breakdown Structure Work breakdown structure for the recruitment of a new person to fill a vacant post.
    50. 53. Project Evaluation Review Technique CRITICAL PATH Network diagram for the recruitment of a new person to fill a vacant post. PERT Chart
    51. 54. GANTT Chart for the recruitment of a new person to fill a vacant post GANTT charts are a user-friendly visual version of ‘network diagrams’, designed to be easily understood and applied by non - ‘chart-ographers’ !
    52. 55. GANTT Chart PERT Diagram
    53. 56. •   Administrator •  Closure •    Transfer of product and information Finishing •    Decision maker •  Balances work and fun •  Trustworthiness •  Team and synergy •   Re-alignment Execution •    Team builder •  Power and influence •  Integrator •   Participative/Acceptance    and commitment •  Cooperative Development •   Analytical •  Listener •  Change master •  Convergence •   Listening •  Analysis •  Alignment Conceptual (Formulation) •   Visionary •  Creates future •  Empowerment •  Expansive •   Sense of vision •  &quot;Big Picture&quot; (conceptual) •  Analysis Feasibility Study (Pre-formulation) Leadership Style/Blend Major Attributes/Emphasis Phase
    54. 58. Success of a Project Good / Careful Planning Parties involved stick to their commitments Fair allocation of costs & benefits between men & women Fair representation of different interests through participation Success of a Project Efficient project management Competent & Motivated project team Project addresses the real problems of the target groups Beneficiaries are clearly identified by gender & socio economic group Organizational capacity
    55. 59. What is a successful project? <ul><li>Customer / Clients requirements satisfied/exceeded </li></ul><ul><li>Completed within allocated time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Completed within allocated budget </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance by the customer </li></ul>
    56. 60. Project Sustainability
    57. 61. Sustainability Defined <ul><li>To keep in existence; maintain (The American Heritage) </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of a system of any kind to endure and be healthy over the long term. A “sustainable society” is one that is healthy, vital, resilient, and able to creatively adapt to changing conditions over time. (Top 10 by 2010, Southwest Louisiana) </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of an organization to develop a strategy of growth and development that continues to function indefinitely. (Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy & Leadership) </li></ul>
    58. 62. Project Sustainability Defined <ul><li>What project sustainability means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining the outcomes, goals and products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalizing the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What project sustainability doesn’t mean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining staff positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining all activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on grant funding </li></ul></ul>
    59. 63. Project Sustainability: Ask the right questions <ul><li>What are we doing? Do other people know what we’re doing? </li></ul><ul><li>What outcomes do we want to sustain? Is there data to support our results? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the fiscal needs? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the management needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Who champions this initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>Who else do these outcomes affect? Whose interests does this support? </li></ul>
    60. 64. Strategies for Sustainability <ul><li>Develop broad-based relationships/partnerships that foster collaboration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve all stakeholders: parents, students, business, politicians, community leaders, school administrations, funders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurture community involvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a core of supporters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be visible. Develop an outreach plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Link evaluation to project success and then to marketing. </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible. Modify the project based on evaluation and feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate, communicate, communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Share resources. Share expertise. Share successes. </li></ul>