SlideShare a Scribd company logo
PRESENTATION ON THERMIONIC CONVERTERS
Presented By
Rajbala Purnima Priya
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATION
3. COMPONENTS IN THERMIONIC CONVERTERS
4. TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
5. CLASSIFICATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATERS
6. Advantages & Disadvantages of TIC
7. APPLICATIONS
8. Thermionic Energy Converters for Space Applications
9. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems
10. Thermionic refrigeration
INTRODUCTION
• Thermionic Power Convertor is a static device that converts heat into electricity by utilizing the
emission of electrons from a hot emitter surface(approx 1800 K) across a small inter electrode
gap(< 0.5 mm) to a cooler collector surface(approx 1000 K).
• A Thermionic Generator consists of one or more of these convertors coupled to give desired
power output
• Thermionic generators can be operated from any primary heat source.
• For low power level(3 kW or less) solar energy can be used
• For high power level (50 kW or more) nuclear heat source can be used
• Series of work :-
In 1883 Edison discovered release of
electrons from a hot body
In 1904 Fleming invented thermionic
diode rectifier
In 1915 Schlicter proposed thermionic
conversion
After 1950 serious research on this
began
THERMIONIC POWER
CONVERTER
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATION
• Electron distribution follows FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION LAW.
• Distribution functions are nothing but the probability density functions used to describe the
probability with which a particular particle can occupy a particular energy level .
• When we speak of Fermi-Dirac distribution function, we are particularly interested in knowing the
chance by which we can find a fermion in a particular energy state of an atom.
• The Fermi function is given by the below equation:-
Where
f(E) is Probability of Occupation
k is the Boltzmann constant
T is the absolute temperature
Ef is the Fermi level or the Fermi energy
• At absolute zero temperature the kinetic energy of electron will occupy some discrete quantum state
from zero to maximum value known as Fermi level.
• It is also the maximum kinetic energy an electron which can attain at 0K. Fermi energy is constant for
each solid.
When heat is applied at emitter some high energy electron escapes from the emitter surface and
strike the collector surface where it gives up the energy and comes to the Fermi level of the
collector. Because of movement of electrons the potential difference is created between emitter
and collector.
Again the electron at collector surface can move to emitter through an external circuit .
Schematic of the thermionic energy conversion (TEC)
process
COMPONENTS IN THERMIONIC CONVERTERS
TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS:-
MATERIALS :-
CLASSIFICATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATERS
Classification according to methods of neutralization space charge
Vacuum close-spaced Cesium Gas Filled or Plasma
converter
 It Has been under extensive research since
1957.
 Physical spacing of .0005 inch or less is
maintained between anode and cathode.
 It will have engineering difficulty.
 Lifetime is 40 hours.
 Cesium gas is filled between anode and
cathode
 Working efficiency is higher than former
one
 Lifetime is nearly 600 hours
 Main problem is efficient sealing and
corrosive nature of cesium
Advantages of TIC
 Rotating equipment is not employed
 Liquid-Vapour phase problems do not
exist
 Separators for fluids are not required
 Frictional losses due to bearings are not
present
Disadvantages of TIC
 Individual convertors are low voltage &
high current devices.
 A large number of convertors must be
sequentially arranged to obtain useful
voltage.
 Power losses in convertors can seriously
cut useful power output.
APPLICATIONS
 Thermionic conversion is also recently revisited for concentrated solar power applications.
 Formulation of new concepts such as thermionic–photovoltaic and thermionic–
thermoelectric combined hybrid devices are recent applications.
 Nuclear thermionic power system are used for space applications.
 Thermionic converters are also used for cooling of electronics devices.
Thermionic Energy Converters for Space Applications
 Work in the US and USSR space programs
culminated in the Soviet flights of 6 KW TOPAZ
thermionic converters in 1987.
 Source of heat: fission
 Basic technology: vacuum tubes.
 Machined metal with large gaps (>100 μm) and
required cesium plasma to reduce work function
and neutralize space charge
Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator
systems
Solar-energy conversion usually takes one of two forms: the 'quantum' approach, which uses the
large per-photon energy of solar radiation to excite electrons, as in photovoltaic cells, or the 'thermal'
approach, which uses concentrated sunlight as a thermal-energy source to indirectly produce electricity
using a heat engine
photon-enhanced thermionic emission, which combines quantum and thermal mechanisms into a
single physical process. The device is based on thermionic emission of photoexcited electrons from a
semiconductor cathode at high temperature.
Photovoltaic + thermionic effect
Higher conduction band population
from photoexcitation.
Higher V at same T than in
thermionic emission.
PV-like efficiency at high
temperatures: excess energy no longer
“waste heat”
Diagram of a parallel-plate PETE converter
Thermionic refrigeration
Thermionic refrigeration is a solid-state refrigerator.
Thermionic refrigeration is an example of evaporative cooling. Any system will cool if its most energetic
particles are removed regularly.
fmH
fmC
Cathode Anode
Vacuum
Barrier
 Utilizes fact that electrons with high thermal energy
(greater than the work function) can escape from the
metal.
 Work function is the minimum quantity of energy which
is required to remove an electron to infinity from the
surface of a given solid, usually a metal.
 A high work function metal cathode in contact with a
heat source will emit electrons to a lower work function
anode.
 Practical thermionic refrigerators should emit at least 1
A/cm2 from the cathode.
 80% of Carnot efficiency
 Current: 1.3W/cm2
Presentation on  thermionic converter for direct energy conversion

More Related Content

What's hot

Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems	Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Niraj Solanki
 
Thermoelectric generator
Thermoelectric generatorThermoelectric generator
Thermoelectric generator
geethu sara johns
 
Magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generation
Magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generationMagneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generation
Magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generation
Hemanth Duru
 
Mhd power generation
Mhd power  generationMhd power  generation
Mhd power generation
Hiren Mahida
 
Thermionic conversion
Thermionic conversionThermionic conversion
Thermionic conversion
Dr. Yogesh Dhote
 
Concentrated solar power
Concentrated solar powerConcentrated solar power
Concentrated solar power
Pradeep Avanigadda
 
Solar photo voltaics
Solar photo voltaics Solar photo voltaics
Solar photo voltaics
Sumalatha kalakotla
 
Thermal power plant
Thermal power plantThermal power plant
Thermal power plant
Vinod Srivastava
 
Solar collectors nces
Solar collectors ncesSolar collectors nces
Solar collectors nces
Anu71
 
Power plant technology
Power plant technologyPower plant technology
Power plant technology
Harshit Srivastava
 
Solar flat plate collector
Solar flat plate collectorSolar flat plate collector
Solar flat plate collector
Bipin Gupta
 
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEETHERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
jiyadh.k. sabeer
 
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORTHERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR
Sandeep Jaiswal
 
Magneto hydro dynamic Power Generation
Magneto hydro dynamic Power GenerationMagneto hydro dynamic Power Generation
Magneto hydro dynamic Power Generation
New Horizon Collage of Engineering
 
STEAM POWER PLANT
STEAM POWER PLANTSTEAM POWER PLANT
STEAM POWER PLANT
Pratheeka p nair
 
Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)
Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)
Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)
Abhishek Choksi
 
Wind energy
Wind energyWind energy
Wind energy
Ganesh Peketi
 
Solar Refrigeration System
Solar Refrigeration SystemSolar Refrigeration System
Solar Refrigeration System
Mohammad Shakil Khan
 
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and ArraySolar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
Dr Naim R Kidwai
 
Solar photovoltaic powerpoint
Solar photovoltaic powerpointSolar photovoltaic powerpoint
Solar photovoltaic powerpoint
William Wallace
 

What's hot (20)

Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems	Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
 
Thermoelectric generator
Thermoelectric generatorThermoelectric generator
Thermoelectric generator
 
Magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generation
Magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generationMagneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generation
Magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) power generation
 
Mhd power generation
Mhd power  generationMhd power  generation
Mhd power generation
 
Thermionic conversion
Thermionic conversionThermionic conversion
Thermionic conversion
 
Concentrated solar power
Concentrated solar powerConcentrated solar power
Concentrated solar power
 
Solar photo voltaics
Solar photo voltaics Solar photo voltaics
Solar photo voltaics
 
Thermal power plant
Thermal power plantThermal power plant
Thermal power plant
 
Solar collectors nces
Solar collectors ncesSolar collectors nces
Solar collectors nces
 
Power plant technology
Power plant technologyPower plant technology
Power plant technology
 
Solar flat plate collector
Solar flat plate collectorSolar flat plate collector
Solar flat plate collector
 
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEETHERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
 
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORTHERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR
 
Magneto hydro dynamic Power Generation
Magneto hydro dynamic Power GenerationMagneto hydro dynamic Power Generation
Magneto hydro dynamic Power Generation
 
STEAM POWER PLANT
STEAM POWER PLANTSTEAM POWER PLANT
STEAM POWER PLANT
 
Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)
Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)
Gas turbine cycle (open and closed gas turbine cycle)
 
Wind energy
Wind energyWind energy
Wind energy
 
Solar Refrigeration System
Solar Refrigeration SystemSolar Refrigeration System
Solar Refrigeration System
 
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and ArraySolar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
 
Solar photovoltaic powerpoint
Solar photovoltaic powerpointSolar photovoltaic powerpoint
Solar photovoltaic powerpoint
 

Similar to Presentation on thermionic converter for direct energy conversion

Direct energy conservation system
Direct energy conservation systemDirect energy conservation system
Direct energy conservation system
Bhaskar Choubey
 
atomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptx
atomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptxatomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptx
atomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptx
AnkitGupta385379
 
Nuclear Battery PPT
Nuclear Battery PPTNuclear Battery PPT
Nuclear Battery PPT
Seminar Links
 
Nuclear battery
Nuclear batteryNuclear battery
Nuclear battery
Sunil Kamboj
 
Nuclear Battery
Nuclear BatteryNuclear Battery
Nuclear Battery
Pankaj Gupta
 
Magneto hydrodynamics power generation
Magneto hydrodynamics power generationMagneto hydrodynamics power generation
Magneto hydrodynamics power generation
Pratik Potdar
 
Seminar Presentation on Neclear battery
Seminar Presentation on Neclear batterySeminar Presentation on Neclear battery
Seminar Presentation on Neclear battery
LekhraJ Meena
 
Thermoeletric Air Cooling System
Thermoeletric Air Cooling SystemThermoeletric Air Cooling System
Thermoeletric Air Cooling System
Keshav Kumar Jha
 
Thermoelectric generator technologies and hybrid photovoltaic.pptx
Thermoelectric generator technologies  and hybrid  photovoltaic.pptxThermoelectric generator technologies  and hybrid  photovoltaic.pptx
Thermoelectric generator technologies and hybrid photovoltaic.pptx
ahmedjassim36
 
Nuclear battery 2019
Nuclear battery 2019 Nuclear battery 2019
Nuclear battery 2019
RajanRajput11
 
DEC.pptx
DEC.pptxDEC.pptx
DEC.pptx
Raja Manyam
 
Electric Rocket Propulsion
Electric Rocket PropulsionElectric Rocket Propulsion
Electric Rocket Propulsion
vinitha41
 
Thermal ionization in MHD generator
Thermal ionization in MHD generatorThermal ionization in MHD generator
Thermal ionization in MHD generator
Praveen Kumar Kushwah
 
Direct energy systems
Direct energy systemsDirect energy systems
Direct energy systems
Jesna Mohammed
 
Direct energy conversion v
Direct energy conversion vDirect energy conversion v
Direct energy conversion v
SARAN RAJ I
 
Thermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversion
Thermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversionThermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversion
Thermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversion
vishal shankar srivastava
 
Горбунов Н.А.
Горбунов Н.А.Горбунов Н.А.
Горбунов Н.А.
ThinTech
 
Thermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric GenerationThermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric Generation
AhMed ReZq
 
Thermoelectric Generators.docx
Thermoelectric Generators.docxThermoelectric Generators.docx
Thermoelectric Generators.docx
MuhammadKhalil502533
 
Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)
Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)
Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)
1000kv technologies
 

Similar to Presentation on thermionic converter for direct energy conversion (20)

Direct energy conservation system
Direct energy conservation systemDirect energy conservation system
Direct energy conservation system
 
atomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptx
atomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptxatomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptx
atomic-battery-design-and-technology-715-twjC1Be.pptx
 
Nuclear Battery PPT
Nuclear Battery PPTNuclear Battery PPT
Nuclear Battery PPT
 
Nuclear battery
Nuclear batteryNuclear battery
Nuclear battery
 
Nuclear Battery
Nuclear BatteryNuclear Battery
Nuclear Battery
 
Magneto hydrodynamics power generation
Magneto hydrodynamics power generationMagneto hydrodynamics power generation
Magneto hydrodynamics power generation
 
Seminar Presentation on Neclear battery
Seminar Presentation on Neclear batterySeminar Presentation on Neclear battery
Seminar Presentation on Neclear battery
 
Thermoeletric Air Cooling System
Thermoeletric Air Cooling SystemThermoeletric Air Cooling System
Thermoeletric Air Cooling System
 
Thermoelectric generator technologies and hybrid photovoltaic.pptx
Thermoelectric generator technologies  and hybrid  photovoltaic.pptxThermoelectric generator technologies  and hybrid  photovoltaic.pptx
Thermoelectric generator technologies and hybrid photovoltaic.pptx
 
Nuclear battery 2019
Nuclear battery 2019 Nuclear battery 2019
Nuclear battery 2019
 
DEC.pptx
DEC.pptxDEC.pptx
DEC.pptx
 
Electric Rocket Propulsion
Electric Rocket PropulsionElectric Rocket Propulsion
Electric Rocket Propulsion
 
Thermal ionization in MHD generator
Thermal ionization in MHD generatorThermal ionization in MHD generator
Thermal ionization in MHD generator
 
Direct energy systems
Direct energy systemsDirect energy systems
Direct energy systems
 
Direct energy conversion v
Direct energy conversion vDirect energy conversion v
Direct energy conversion v
 
Thermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversion
Thermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversionThermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversion
Thermionic and thermoelectric Energy conversion
 
Горбунов Н.А.
Горбунов Н.А.Горбунов Н.А.
Горбунов Н.А.
 
Thermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric GenerationThermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric Generation
 
Thermoelectric Generators.docx
Thermoelectric Generators.docxThermoelectric Generators.docx
Thermoelectric Generators.docx
 
Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)
Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)
Km93 refrigeration using waste heats in car (wecompress)
 

More from RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA

Environmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recovery
Environmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recoveryEnvironmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recovery
Environmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recovery
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
Presentation on an exhaust heat
Presentation on an exhaust heatPresentation on an exhaust heat
Presentation on an exhaust heat
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
Biogass
BiogassBiogass
Derivation of formula
Derivation of formula Derivation of formula
Derivation of formula
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
DESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGE
DESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGEDESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGE
DESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGE
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
Green building
Green buildingGreen building
Green building
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
solar air heater Using ANN
solar air heater Using ANNsolar air heater Using ANN
solar air heater Using ANN
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
internet of things
internet of thingsinternet of things
internet of things
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
Clean and green energy
Clean and green energyClean and green energy
Clean and green energy
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
Embedded systems presentation
Embedded systems presentationEmbedded systems presentation
Embedded systems presentation
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 
Presentation on INTERNET OF THINGS
Presentation on INTERNET OF THINGSPresentation on INTERNET OF THINGS
Presentation on INTERNET OF THINGS
RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA
 

More from RAJBALA PURNIMA PRIYA (11)

Environmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recovery
Environmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recoveryEnvironmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recovery
Environmental and economic benefits of car exhaust heat recovery
 
Presentation on an exhaust heat
Presentation on an exhaust heatPresentation on an exhaust heat
Presentation on an exhaust heat
 
Biogass
BiogassBiogass
Biogass
 
Derivation of formula
Derivation of formula Derivation of formula
Derivation of formula
 
DESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGE
DESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGEDESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGE
DESIGNING OF HYBRID POWER GRID FOR REMOTE VILLAGE
 
Green building
Green buildingGreen building
Green building
 
solar air heater Using ANN
solar air heater Using ANNsolar air heater Using ANN
solar air heater Using ANN
 
internet of things
internet of thingsinternet of things
internet of things
 
Clean and green energy
Clean and green energyClean and green energy
Clean and green energy
 
Embedded systems presentation
Embedded systems presentationEmbedded systems presentation
Embedded systems presentation
 
Presentation on INTERNET OF THINGS
Presentation on INTERNET OF THINGSPresentation on INTERNET OF THINGS
Presentation on INTERNET OF THINGS
 

Recently uploaded

NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENT
NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENTNATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENT
NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENT
Addu25809
 
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
Paris Salesforce Developer Group
 
TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptx
TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptxTIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptx
TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptx
CVCSOfficial
 
Blood finder application project report (1).pdf
Blood finder application project report (1).pdfBlood finder application project report (1).pdf
Blood finder application project report (1).pdf
Kamal Acharya
 
Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...
Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...
Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...
Prakhyath Rai
 
P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil
P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civilP5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil
P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil
AnasAhmadNoor
 
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason WebinarData Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
UReason
 
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
upoux
 
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler DesignssAn Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
ElakkiaU
 
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.pptIntroduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Dwarkadas J Sanghvi College of Engineering
 
Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...
Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...
Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...
cannyengineerings
 
Mechatronics material . Mechanical engineering
Mechatronics material . Mechanical engineeringMechatronics material . Mechanical engineering
Mechatronics material . Mechanical engineering
sachin chaurasia
 
5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf
5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf
5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf
AlvianRamadhani5
 
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdfApplications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Atif Razi
 
2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt
2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt
2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt
abdatawakjira
 
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
ecqow
 
smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...
smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...
smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...
um7474492
 
Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications
Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and ApplicationsZener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications
Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications
Shiny Christobel
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
VANDANAMOHANGOUDA
 
一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理
upoux
 

Recently uploaded (20)

NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENT
NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENTNATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENT
NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS AS ANTI-FREEZING AGENT
 
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...
 
TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptx
TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptxTIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptx
TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM testing.pptx
 
Blood finder application project report (1).pdf
Blood finder application project report (1).pdfBlood finder application project report (1).pdf
Blood finder application project report (1).pdf
 
Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...
Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...
Software Engineering and Project Management - Software Testing + Agile Method...
 
P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil
P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civilP5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil
P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil
 
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason WebinarData Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
 
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
 
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler DesignssAn Introduction to the Compiler Designss
An Introduction to the Compiler Designss
 
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.pptIntroduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
 
Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...
Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...
Pressure Relief valve used in flow line to release the over pressure at our d...
 
Mechatronics material . Mechanical engineering
Mechatronics material . Mechanical engineeringMechatronics material . Mechanical engineering
Mechatronics material . Mechanical engineering
 
5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf
5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf
5G Radio Network Througput Problem Analysis HCIA.pdf
 
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdfApplications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
Applications of artificial Intelligence in Mechanical Engineering.pdf
 
2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt
2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt
2. protection of river banks and bed erosion protection works.ppt
 
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理
 
smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...
smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...
smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...
 
Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications
Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and ApplicationsZener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications
Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
 
一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理
 

Presentation on thermionic converter for direct energy conversion

  • 1. PRESENTATION ON THERMIONIC CONVERTERS Presented By Rajbala Purnima Priya
  • 2. CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATION 3. COMPONENTS IN THERMIONIC CONVERTERS 4. TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 5. CLASSIFICATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATERS 6. Advantages & Disadvantages of TIC 7. APPLICATIONS 8. Thermionic Energy Converters for Space Applications 9. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems 10. Thermionic refrigeration
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Thermionic Power Convertor is a static device that converts heat into electricity by utilizing the emission of electrons from a hot emitter surface(approx 1800 K) across a small inter electrode gap(< 0.5 mm) to a cooler collector surface(approx 1000 K). • A Thermionic Generator consists of one or more of these convertors coupled to give desired power output • Thermionic generators can be operated from any primary heat source. • For low power level(3 kW or less) solar energy can be used • For high power level (50 kW or more) nuclear heat source can be used • Series of work :- In 1883 Edison discovered release of electrons from a hot body In 1904 Fleming invented thermionic diode rectifier In 1915 Schlicter proposed thermionic conversion After 1950 serious research on this began THERMIONIC POWER CONVERTER
  • 4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATION • Electron distribution follows FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION LAW. • Distribution functions are nothing but the probability density functions used to describe the probability with which a particular particle can occupy a particular energy level . • When we speak of Fermi-Dirac distribution function, we are particularly interested in knowing the chance by which we can find a fermion in a particular energy state of an atom. • The Fermi function is given by the below equation:- Where f(E) is Probability of Occupation k is the Boltzmann constant T is the absolute temperature Ef is the Fermi level or the Fermi energy
  • 5. • At absolute zero temperature the kinetic energy of electron will occupy some discrete quantum state from zero to maximum value known as Fermi level. • It is also the maximum kinetic energy an electron which can attain at 0K. Fermi energy is constant for each solid. When heat is applied at emitter some high energy electron escapes from the emitter surface and strike the collector surface where it gives up the energy and comes to the Fermi level of the collector. Because of movement of electrons the potential difference is created between emitter and collector. Again the electron at collector surface can move to emitter through an external circuit . Schematic of the thermionic energy conversion (TEC) process
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION OF THERMIONIC GENERATERS Classification according to methods of neutralization space charge Vacuum close-spaced Cesium Gas Filled or Plasma converter  It Has been under extensive research since 1957.  Physical spacing of .0005 inch or less is maintained between anode and cathode.  It will have engineering difficulty.  Lifetime is 40 hours.  Cesium gas is filled between anode and cathode  Working efficiency is higher than former one  Lifetime is nearly 600 hours  Main problem is efficient sealing and corrosive nature of cesium
  • 9. Advantages of TIC  Rotating equipment is not employed  Liquid-Vapour phase problems do not exist  Separators for fluids are not required  Frictional losses due to bearings are not present Disadvantages of TIC  Individual convertors are low voltage & high current devices.  A large number of convertors must be sequentially arranged to obtain useful voltage.  Power losses in convertors can seriously cut useful power output. APPLICATIONS  Thermionic conversion is also recently revisited for concentrated solar power applications.  Formulation of new concepts such as thermionic–photovoltaic and thermionic– thermoelectric combined hybrid devices are recent applications.  Nuclear thermionic power system are used for space applications.  Thermionic converters are also used for cooling of electronics devices.
  • 10. Thermionic Energy Converters for Space Applications  Work in the US and USSR space programs culminated in the Soviet flights of 6 KW TOPAZ thermionic converters in 1987.  Source of heat: fission  Basic technology: vacuum tubes.  Machined metal with large gaps (>100 μm) and required cesium plasma to reduce work function and neutralize space charge
  • 11. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems Solar-energy conversion usually takes one of two forms: the 'quantum' approach, which uses the large per-photon energy of solar radiation to excite electrons, as in photovoltaic cells, or the 'thermal' approach, which uses concentrated sunlight as a thermal-energy source to indirectly produce electricity using a heat engine photon-enhanced thermionic emission, which combines quantum and thermal mechanisms into a single physical process. The device is based on thermionic emission of photoexcited electrons from a semiconductor cathode at high temperature. Photovoltaic + thermionic effect Higher conduction band population from photoexcitation. Higher V at same T than in thermionic emission. PV-like efficiency at high temperatures: excess energy no longer “waste heat” Diagram of a parallel-plate PETE converter
  • 12. Thermionic refrigeration Thermionic refrigeration is a solid-state refrigerator. Thermionic refrigeration is an example of evaporative cooling. Any system will cool if its most energetic particles are removed regularly. fmH fmC Cathode Anode Vacuum Barrier  Utilizes fact that electrons with high thermal energy (greater than the work function) can escape from the metal.  Work function is the minimum quantity of energy which is required to remove an electron to infinity from the surface of a given solid, usually a metal.  A high work function metal cathode in contact with a heat source will emit electrons to a lower work function anode.  Practical thermionic refrigerators should emit at least 1 A/cm2 from the cathode.  80% of Carnot efficiency  Current: 1.3W/cm2