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EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION
 An Embedded system is a programmed
controlling and operating system with a
dedicated function within a larger mechanical or
electrical system , often with real-time
computing constrain.
 It is a system that has software embedded into
computer hardware , which makes a system
dedicated for an applications or specific part of
an application.
Examples
Digital Calculators
 It is a pure embedded system which collects
input from user via buttons/keys on it,
microcontroller inside it performs the
calculations according to the keys pressed and
send an output to display.
 Here input device is keypad, brain is
microcontroller and output device is display.
TV
 There is an embedded system inside a
television which allow users to change
channels while sitting few meters away
from it.
 User sends input using wireless remote
control, microcontroller inside TV receives
the input via receiver, microcontroller
identify which key is pressed and perform
the output on the screen.
First Embedded System
 One of the first modern embedded system was
Apollo Guidance Computer.
 Developed by Charles Stark Darper at MIT
instrumentation lab.
 It was considerd the riskiest item in the Apollo
project.
Analog Signal
 An Analog Signal is a continuous signal
contains time-varying quantities.
Digital Signal
 A Digital Signal is a signal that is being used to
represent data as a sequence of discrete
values.
Microcontroller
 A Microcontroller is a compact integrated
circuit designed to govern a specific operation.
 A typical microcontroller includes a processor ,
memory and input/output peripherals on a
single chip.
What Is An Arduino?
 Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics
projects .
 Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit
board(microcontroller) and a piece of software or IDE(Integrated
Development Environment).
Types Of Arduino boards
UNO
MEGA
Nano
MKR1000
LillyPad
Arduino Uno
Digital Input / Output Pins
• Digital IO is binary valued—it’s either on or off, 1 or 0.
• Pins- D0 To D13
• Can be used as input pin or output pin.
• Digital sensors and actuators can be interfaced with
these I/O pins.
• Modules can be interfaced-IR sensor module,L293D
Chip , LCD , Bluetooth, WiFi .
Analog Input Pins
• Reads Analog Values Between 0 to 1024.
• Pins- A0 to A5.
• Converts 0 to 5 volts values to 0 to 1024 scale.
• Sensors can be attached like temperature ,LDR
,piezoelectric , pressure sensor.
Pulse Width Modulation
• Can’t use digital pins
to directly supply say
2.5V, but can pulse
the output on and off
really fast to produce
the same effect
• Pins-3,5,6,9,10,11
Two required functions /
methods / routines:
void setup()
{
// runs once
}
void loop()
{
// repeats
}
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Void Setup()
 The Setup() function is called when a sketch
starts . Use it to initialize variables , pin modes
, start using libraries, etc.
 The Setup() function will only run once, after
each power up or reset of the Arduino board.
Void Loop()
 The Loop Function is Repeated continuously
because it is called by a hidden Loop that
Controls the Arduino program .
 In other words , the loop function is the body of
a loop that is running in a master(or main)
program
Basic Commands
 PinMode
 DigitalWrite
 AnalogWrite
 AnalogRead
 DigitalRead
 Delay
PinMode
 To define whether pin will acting as a input pin or output
pin.
 Syntax:- pinMode(pin,input/output)
 Example:-pinMode(12,OUTPUT)
DigitalWrite
 Write a HIGH or a LOW value to a digital pin.
 Syntax:- digitalWrite(pin,high/low)
 Example:-digitalWrite (12,HIGH)
AnalogRead
 Reads the value from the specified analog pin. The
Arduino board contains a 6 channel 10-bit analog to
digital converter.
 Syntax:- analogRead (pin)
 Example:- analogRead (A1)
AnalogWrite
 Works Only with PWM pins.
 Output Voltage Range Can Be Changed
 Syntax:-analogWrite(pin,value)
 Example:- analogWrite(6,255)
DigitalRead
 Reads the value from a specified digital pin,
either HIGH or LOW.
 Syntax:-digitalRead(pin)
 Example:-digitalRead(12)
Delay
 Pauses the program for the amount of time (in
milliseconds) specified as parameter.
 Syntax:-delay(delay_value)
 Example:- delay(5000)
Settings: Tools  Serial Port
Settings: Tools  Board
Led
 Light Emitting Diode
#define ledpin 13
void setup()
{
pinMode(ledpin,OUTPUT);
}
void loop()
{
digitalWrite(ledpin,HIGH);
delay(1000);
digitalWrite(ledpin,LOW);
delay(1000);
}
LED Blinking Program
Buzzer
 void setup() {
 }
 void loop() {


 tone(6, 4600);
 delay(2000);
 noTone(6);
 delay(1000);


 }
IR Sensor
 Consist An IR LED(Emitter)
 A Photodiode(Receiver)
How An IR Sensor Works?
Interfacing Of IR Sensor
 #define sensor 4
 #define led 13
 int state;
 void setup() {
 pinMode(sensor,INPUT);
 pinMode(led,OUTPUT);
 }
 void loop() {
 state=digitalRead(sensor);
 if(state==HIGH)
 {
 digitalWrite(led,HIGH);
 }
 else
 {
 digitalWrite(led,LOW);
 }
 }
Temprature(LM35)
 Calibrated directly in celcius.
 Range from -55(degree Celsius) to 150(degree Celsius)
Analog Value to Temp
Conversion
 Value=analogRead(pin)
 Volts=(value/1024)*5
 Temp=Volts*100
Bluetooth Module
Blink Led Via Bluetooth
char state = 0;
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
pinMode(13, OUTPUT);
}
void loop()
{
if(Serial.available() > 0)
{
state = Serial.read();
if(state == '1')
digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
else if(state == '0')
digitalWrite(13, LOW);
}
}
LCD
 Liquid Crystal Display

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Embedded systems presentation

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  An Embedded system is a programmed controlling and operating system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system , often with real-time computing constrain.  It is a system that has software embedded into computer hardware , which makes a system dedicated for an applications or specific part of an application.
  • 3.
  • 4. Examples Digital Calculators  It is a pure embedded system which collects input from user via buttons/keys on it, microcontroller inside it performs the calculations according to the keys pressed and send an output to display.  Here input device is keypad, brain is microcontroller and output device is display.
  • 5. TV  There is an embedded system inside a television which allow users to change channels while sitting few meters away from it.  User sends input using wireless remote control, microcontroller inside TV receives the input via receiver, microcontroller identify which key is pressed and perform the output on the screen.
  • 6. First Embedded System  One of the first modern embedded system was Apollo Guidance Computer.  Developed by Charles Stark Darper at MIT instrumentation lab.  It was considerd the riskiest item in the Apollo project.
  • 7. Analog Signal  An Analog Signal is a continuous signal contains time-varying quantities.
  • 8. Digital Signal  A Digital Signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values.
  • 9. Microcontroller  A Microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation.  A typical microcontroller includes a processor , memory and input/output peripherals on a single chip.
  • 10.
  • 11. What Is An Arduino?
  • 12.  Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects .  Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board(microcontroller) and a piece of software or IDE(Integrated Development Environment).
  • 13. Types Of Arduino boards UNO MEGA Nano MKR1000 LillyPad
  • 15. Digital Input / Output Pins • Digital IO is binary valued—it’s either on or off, 1 or 0. • Pins- D0 To D13 • Can be used as input pin or output pin. • Digital sensors and actuators can be interfaced with these I/O pins. • Modules can be interfaced-IR sensor module,L293D Chip , LCD , Bluetooth, WiFi .
  • 16. Analog Input Pins • Reads Analog Values Between 0 to 1024. • Pins- A0 to A5. • Converts 0 to 5 volts values to 0 to 1024 scale. • Sensors can be attached like temperature ,LDR ,piezoelectric , pressure sensor.
  • 17. Pulse Width Modulation • Can’t use digital pins to directly supply say 2.5V, but can pulse the output on and off really fast to produce the same effect • Pins-3,5,6,9,10,11
  • 18. Two required functions / methods / routines: void setup() { // runs once } void loop() { // repeats } Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
  • 19. Void Setup()  The Setup() function is called when a sketch starts . Use it to initialize variables , pin modes , start using libraries, etc.  The Setup() function will only run once, after each power up or reset of the Arduino board.
  • 20. Void Loop()  The Loop Function is Repeated continuously because it is called by a hidden Loop that Controls the Arduino program .  In other words , the loop function is the body of a loop that is running in a master(or main) program
  • 21. Basic Commands  PinMode  DigitalWrite  AnalogWrite  AnalogRead  DigitalRead  Delay
  • 22. PinMode  To define whether pin will acting as a input pin or output pin.  Syntax:- pinMode(pin,input/output)  Example:-pinMode(12,OUTPUT)
  • 23. DigitalWrite  Write a HIGH or a LOW value to a digital pin.  Syntax:- digitalWrite(pin,high/low)  Example:-digitalWrite (12,HIGH)
  • 24. AnalogRead  Reads the value from the specified analog pin. The Arduino board contains a 6 channel 10-bit analog to digital converter.  Syntax:- analogRead (pin)  Example:- analogRead (A1)
  • 25. AnalogWrite  Works Only with PWM pins.  Output Voltage Range Can Be Changed  Syntax:-analogWrite(pin,value)  Example:- analogWrite(6,255)
  • 26. DigitalRead  Reads the value from a specified digital pin, either HIGH or LOW.  Syntax:-digitalRead(pin)  Example:-digitalRead(12)
  • 27. Delay  Pauses the program for the amount of time (in milliseconds) specified as parameter.  Syntax:-delay(delay_value)  Example:- delay(5000)
  • 28. Settings: Tools  Serial Port
  • 31. #define ledpin 13 void setup() { pinMode(ledpin,OUTPUT); } void loop() { digitalWrite(ledpin,HIGH); delay(1000); digitalWrite(ledpin,LOW); delay(1000); } LED Blinking Program
  • 32. Buzzer  void setup() {  }  void loop() {    tone(6, 4600);  delay(2000);  noTone(6);  delay(1000);    }
  • 33. IR Sensor  Consist An IR LED(Emitter)  A Photodiode(Receiver)
  • 34. How An IR Sensor Works?
  • 35. Interfacing Of IR Sensor  #define sensor 4  #define led 13  int state;  void setup() {  pinMode(sensor,INPUT);  pinMode(led,OUTPUT);  }  void loop() {  state=digitalRead(sensor);  if(state==HIGH)  {  digitalWrite(led,HIGH);  }  else  {  digitalWrite(led,LOW);  }  }
  • 36. Temprature(LM35)  Calibrated directly in celcius.  Range from -55(degree Celsius) to 150(degree Celsius)
  • 37. Analog Value to Temp Conversion  Value=analogRead(pin)  Volts=(value/1024)*5  Temp=Volts*100
  • 39. Blink Led Via Bluetooth char state = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); pinMode(13, OUTPUT); } void loop() { if(Serial.available() > 0) { state = Serial.read(); if(state == '1') digitalWrite(13, HIGH); else if(state == '0') digitalWrite(13, LOW); } }