SlideShare a Scribd company logo
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES (NCDS) PART 1
Zagazig university
By Alaa Nouh
Under supervision
Of
Prof Dr. Mona Aboserea
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
1. To understand the definition, risk factors & prevention of the NCDs
& to recognize the epidemiology of some common NCDs.
2. To understand the types, risk factors & prevention of accidents.
3. To Recognize the definition of mental health &mental illness, to
describe the risk factors affecting mental health, to identify the
interaction between physical and mental illness, & to understand
different levels of prevention in mental health.
4. To understand the magnitude, new trends in Egypt, risk factors,
consequences, and prevention of substance abuse.
DEFINITION OF NCD
Non-infectious & Non-
transmissible between
persons.
Mostly chronic diseases
of long duration & slow
progression which require
chronic care management.
Non communicable diseases part 1
CVDs
56%Cancer
25%
Resp.dis.
14%
DM
5%
The leading causes of NCD deaths in 2008
Non communicable diseases part 1
COMMON RISK FACTORS OF (NCDS)
Almost all NCDs have unknown cause, but they have some related RFs.
• Genetics
• Age
• Sex
• Race
Non
modifiable
• Smoking
• Alcoholism
• Unhealthy diet
• Physical inactivity
• Stress
• Environmental pollution
• Socio-economic conditions
Modifiable
WHO global status Report 2014: identified 5 important RFs for NCDs
in the top 10 leading risks to health.
↑ Blood pressure ↑ Cholesterol level Tobacco use
Alcohol
consumption
Overweight
Insufficient
physical activity.
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
REASONS OF THE INCREASING PREVALENCE OF NCDS
Demographic
transition
Epidemiologic
transition
Nutritional
Transition
Multi-factorial
nature of RFs
Migration
International
communication
Environmental
changes
Epidemiology of
NCDs differs
across countries
Epidemiology of
NCDs changing
all the time
Limited use of
scientific
progress in
management
Transition
Items
Demographic Epidemiologic Nutrition transition
Past
situations
-↑ Fertility
-↑ Mortality
↑ Infectious diseases ↑ Under nutrition
Interventi
ons
-Family planning
-Prevention & control
of infectious disease
-Env. sanitation
-Immunization
-Antibiotics
-Insecticides
Food production
Reducing Famines
Shift To -↓ Fertility
-↑ Life expectancy
-Aging
-↓ Infectious diseases
-↓ Mortality from
infectious diseases
↑ intake of saturated fat
& refined carb. + ↓
dietary fibers
Present
situation
NCDs associated with
aging.
NCDs predominates ↑ Obesity “↑ fat &
carb. intake +
Sedentary life”
• Compared to communicable diseases are difficult to identifying the specific cause-
effect relationship.
• RFs Multiplicity limit the opportunities to have specific intervention for prevention
& control.
• RFs are difficult to be controlled by medical technology (in communicable diseases ,
immunization & antibiotics are effective in prevention & control of diseases)
• RFs are related to genetic, environmental, culture and behavior which represent a
challenging issue to public health programs.
Multi-factorial nature of the risk factors for NCDs
Migration from low risk culture (e.g. rural areas) to high risk culture
(e.g. Urban areas ) follow the new life style → ↑NCDs risk.
Migration of population across different cultures
International
communication,
multinational business &
new food technologies →
new life-style & new food
products.
Communication through
the mass media∕ satellites∕
internet, overseas travel,
and international food
marketing → Introduction
of different concepts &
dietary pattern.
Adolescents & youth are
population segments who
are exposed to such
modernization in concepts
and behavior.
Early exposure →
development of large
cohort with health
problems during
adulthood & older age.
International communication
Environmental changes
Place
• Differences in prevalence of
RFs (genetic, environmental,
cultural & behavioral) across
countries → Limitations for
generalization.
• National Public health
specialists should have specific
surveillance system for different
NCDs (e.g. ↑ spicy food
→↑peptic ulcers & stomach
neoplasm).
Time
• Some countries succeeded in
improving pattern of some
NCDs (i.e. ↓ coronary heart
diseases by extensive anti-
smoking programs).
Epidemiology of NCDs differs across countries &changing all the time
Rapid & successful achievements in the science of risk detection, use
of medication & technologies to prevent & control NCDs.
However, in the developing countries high cost of NCDs prevention &
control programs is challenging.
Limited use of scientific progress in management of NCDs
3ry
Rehabilitate the complicated cases
2ry
Early detection of cases “Screening tests” Proper management
1ry
Health promotion & Health
education
Healthy life style
Enhancing the role of laws &
governance
PREVENTION OF NCD
Health promotion &
Health education
Adopting healthy
life style
• Balanced diet
• Physical activity
• Social activity
• Avoid SAD
“Smoking, Alcohol,
Drugs”
• Living in a healthy
environment
Enhancing the role of
laws & governance
• Improving access to
ttt
• Addressing social
impacts of illness (↑
taxes on tobacco,
Smoking bans in
public places,
Improving food
labeling).
HPN DM CVDs
Cancer cervix Cancer breast Cancer liver
Screening tests
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
EGYPT NATIONAL MULTISECTORAL ACTION PLAN FOR
PREVENTION & CONTROL OF NCD 2018-2022 (EGYPT MAP-NCD)
Framework Element Baseline Target 2021 Target 2025
Premature mortality from NCD 25% 15% relative reduction 20% relative reduction
Physical inactivity 32.1% 5% relative reduction 10% relative reduction
Salt/sodium intake 12.8 g/day 20% relative reduction
(10.0 g/ day)
10% relative reduction
(9.0 g/ day)
Tobacco use 24.4% 10% relative reduction
(22.0 %)
20% relative reduction
(20 %)
Raised blood Pressure 39% 15%relative reduction
(33%)
10 %relative reduction
(30%)
Diabetes & obesity 17.2% DM
31.3% Obesity
Halt the rise in DM & obesity
Drug therapy to prevent CVD *N/A % 10 % coverage 15% coverage
Essential NCDs medicines & basic
technologies to treat major NCDs
60% 70% availability 80 % availability
*As there is currently no available baseline data, the approach will be piloted in selected PHC settings.
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
HYPERTENSION
Hypertension “HPN” is one of the major risk factors for
CVDs.
TYPES & RF OF HYPERTENSION
1ry
No identified
cause (in most
cases).
Genetic or
familial
tendency.
Middle age
Males but equal
sex incidence
after menopause.
↑Cholesterol &
LDL or ↓ HDL.
Unhealthy
lifestyle
Smoking
Alcohol intake
Physical
inactivity
Stress,
↑ Salt, ↓ K
intake
Obesity
DM
2ry
Renal &
endocrine causes
Hormonal &
drug intake.
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
SCREENING TESTS FOR HPN
For screening purpose in the
community-based epidemiological
cross-sectional studies, these
standards could be used.
2 readings should be taken at least 5
minutes apart & average result
represents current Bl.Pr.
measurement
In the medical settings, diagnosis of
HPN depends on findings of Bl.Pr.
levels for >2 times few weeks apart.
COMPLICATIONS
Life style
modifications
(key management)
as ↓weight,
avoidance of
smoking & alcohol
intake, dietary salt &
fat restriction,
avoidance of stress
& keeping physical
exercise.
Early detection
Frequent blood
pressure
measurements after
age of 40 years.
Antihypertensive
drugs
If the lifestyle
modifications are
ineffective alone or
the level of HPN at
the start is so high.
Management of
causes of 2ry HPM.
Prevention
DIABETES MELLITUS
Non communicable diseases part 1
It is a common metabolic disorder of
impaired carbohydrate utilization by
the body due to insulin deficiency.
• Intermediate
conditions
between normality
& DM.
• At high risk of
progressing to
T2DM.
Impaired
Glucose
Tolerance
(IGT) &
Impaired
Fasting
Glycaemia
(IFG)
Non communicable diseases part 1
Age
• IDDM: young age
• NIDDM and glucose
intolerance: old age .
Sex
• Both sexes are equal.
• Males “stress”
• Females “pregnancy &
obesity”.
Race/ethnicity
• Native American, African
American, Latino, Asian
American, Pacific Islander
Obesity
• 80% of NIDDM patients
are obese.
Genetic or familial
tendency
• Children whom parents are
diabetic.
Autoimmunity
• To islet cells of pancreas.
Stress
• Trauma, operation,
depression, anxiety or
severe infection.
Pancreatic disorder
• Viral Infection (mumps,
coxsackie, enterovirus)
• Cancer pancreas
• Pancreatectomy.
Drugs
• Diuretics
• Corticosteroids
• Contraceptive pills.
Hormone
disturbance
• ↑ Thyroid & Growth
hormones “insulin
antagonistic action”.
RFs
Non-modifiable RF for T2DM Modifiable RF for T2DM
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF DM
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
1ry prevention: Prevent predisposing factors. Dietary
education. Screening youth: children & adolescents <18 years of
age who are overweight or obese (BMI >85th percentile for age
and sex, weight for height >85th percentile, or weight >120% of
ideal for height), & have one or more additional RFs.
2ry prevention: Early case finding by screening tests for
glucose intolerance, or during check up for at risk groups.
Proper management of diagnosed cases: health education for
adherence to diet & ttt to prevent complications. Frequent check
up on retina & renal functions every 6 months & diet regimen.
Non communicable diseases part 1
HEALTH TECHNOLOGY & DIABETES MANAGEMENT
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology: helps improve
glycemic control for adults with T1DM starting at age 18.
DIABETES MANAGEMENT IN SPECIFIC GROUPS
Individualizing pharmacologic therapy for older adults to reduce the
risk of hypoglycemia, avoid overtreatment & simplify complex
regimens while maintaining personalized blood glucose targets.
New guideline recommends all
pregnant women with preexisting
T1DM or T2DM should consider
daily low-dose aspirin starting at the
end of the 1st trimester → ↓ the risk
of pre-eclampsia.
Non communicable diseases part 1
DEFINITION
It is an abnormal proliferation of cells in any organ in the body forming
mass or tumor. It invades the surrounding tissues and destroys them.
RISK FACTORS
• Age: >40 years.
• Sex: males.
• Residence: urban.
• Genetic & familial
susceptibility.
Demographic
or personal
factors
• Food.
• Smoking “30%”.
• Obesity.
• Alcohol.
Life style
• Human papilloma
virus.
• HCV, HBV &
bilharziasis.
• Helicobacter pylori.
Infectious
agents
• Drugs (OCPs) &
hormones (estrogen
replacement
therapy).
Drugs &
hormones
• Asbestos &
Pesticides
• Radiation
• Pollution
• Fungi (Aflatoxin in
grains & peanuts).
Environmental
& Occupational
risks
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
PREVENTION OF CANCER
1ry
• Stop smoking & alcohol
drinking
• Avoid food preservatives,
spicy foods
• Proper storage of grains
& peanuts
• Avoid hormone intake
expect under medial
supervision
• Vaccination for HBV.
• Early ttt of any disease
• Control of environmental
pollution
• Encourage breast feeding.
2ry
• Early diagnosis:screening
tests for at risk groups.
• Breast self-examination
• Cervical smear
• Sputum or X-ray for
cancer lung
• Tumor markers
• Biopsy for benign tumors.
3ry
• Rehabilitation
• Psychological assurance
• Palliative ttt.
BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
Non communicable diseases part 1
PRIMARY PREVENTION
Stop smoking
Control of
environmental pollution
Prevention of infection
Avoidance of allergic
foods
Pre-marital examination Physical exercise Early case detection. Skin tests
SECONDRY PREVENTION
TERTIARY PREVENTION
Breathing exercises
Psychological
support
Rehabilitation
Non communicable diseases part 1

More Related Content

What's hot

Non communicable diseases (final)
Non communicable diseases (final)Non communicable diseases (final)
Non communicable diseases (final)
Public Health Update
 
Non communicable disease and risk factors
Non communicable disease and risk factorsNon communicable disease and risk factors
Non communicable disease and risk factors
Rabin Dani
 
Health promotion (2)
Health promotion (2)Health promotion (2)
Health promotion (2)
University of Khartoum
 
Non Communicable Disease (NCD)
Non Communicable Disease (NCD)Non Communicable Disease (NCD)
Non Communicable Disease (NCD)
Rishad Choudhury Robin
 
Health promotion
Health promotionHealth promotion
Health promotion
Amany El-seoud
 
Population Health
Population HealthPopulation Health
Population Health
PYA, P.C.
 
Non communicable disease
Non communicable diseaseNon communicable disease
Non communicable disease
Dalia El-Shafei
 
NCD presentation.pptx
NCD presentation.pptxNCD presentation.pptx
NCD presentation.pptx
Poojakarki10
 
Health promotion
Health promotionHealth promotion
Health promotion
garvsuthar
 
National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...
National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...
National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...
Pawan Dhami
 
Millenium development goals
Millenium development goalsMillenium development goals
Millenium development goals
Dr.Hari Prakash
 
Health promotion
Health promotionHealth promotion
Health promotion
Lubna Mohammad
 
Health care of elderly
Health care of elderlyHealth care of elderly
Health care of elderly
Narasimha Bc
 
Health in sustainable development goals
Health in sustainable development goalsHealth in sustainable development goals
Health in sustainable development goals
Tahani Bashir
 
Health promotion conferences 30 years
Health promotion conferences  30 yearsHealth promotion conferences  30 years
Health promotion conferences 30 years
Ahmed-Refat Refat
 
National nutrition program
National nutrition programNational nutrition program
National nutrition program
NabinChaudhary14
 
Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases
Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseasesRisk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases
Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases
Vineetha K
 
Ncd ppt
Ncd pptNcd ppt
Ncd ppt
Vipin K Ravi
 
Health policy
Health policyHealth policy
Health policy
Zainab&Sons
 
National nutritional program
National nutritional programNational nutritional program
National nutritional program
Santosh Bista
 

What's hot (20)

Non communicable diseases (final)
Non communicable diseases (final)Non communicable diseases (final)
Non communicable diseases (final)
 
Non communicable disease and risk factors
Non communicable disease and risk factorsNon communicable disease and risk factors
Non communicable disease and risk factors
 
Health promotion (2)
Health promotion (2)Health promotion (2)
Health promotion (2)
 
Non Communicable Disease (NCD)
Non Communicable Disease (NCD)Non Communicable Disease (NCD)
Non Communicable Disease (NCD)
 
Health promotion
Health promotionHealth promotion
Health promotion
 
Population Health
Population HealthPopulation Health
Population Health
 
Non communicable disease
Non communicable diseaseNon communicable disease
Non communicable disease
 
NCD presentation.pptx
NCD presentation.pptxNCD presentation.pptx
NCD presentation.pptx
 
Health promotion
Health promotionHealth promotion
Health promotion
 
National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...
National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...
National health programs and policies for prevention and control of ncds in n...
 
Millenium development goals
Millenium development goalsMillenium development goals
Millenium development goals
 
Health promotion
Health promotionHealth promotion
Health promotion
 
Health care of elderly
Health care of elderlyHealth care of elderly
Health care of elderly
 
Health in sustainable development goals
Health in sustainable development goalsHealth in sustainable development goals
Health in sustainable development goals
 
Health promotion conferences 30 years
Health promotion conferences  30 yearsHealth promotion conferences  30 years
Health promotion conferences 30 years
 
National nutrition program
National nutrition programNational nutrition program
National nutrition program
 
Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases
Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseasesRisk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases
Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases
 
Ncd ppt
Ncd pptNcd ppt
Ncd ppt
 
Health policy
Health policyHealth policy
Health policy
 
National nutritional program
National nutritional programNational nutritional program
National nutritional program
 

Similar to Non communicable diseases part 1

Chronic diseases
Chronic diseasesChronic diseases
Chronic diseases
Ali Alsarhan
 
NCD _1.ppt
NCD _1.pptNCD _1.ppt
NCD _1.ppt
AhmedSamir462624
 
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIX
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIXNON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIX
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIX
AP Singh
 
NPCDCS BY DR.R.MOHAN
NPCDCS  BY  DR.R.MOHANNPCDCS  BY  DR.R.MOHAN
NPCDCS BY DR.R.MOHAN
Dr.Ravindra Mohan
 
Resiko metabolik
Resiko metabolik Resiko metabolik
Resiko metabolik
Ronald David Martua
 
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes  mellitusDiabetes  mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
SushantLuitel1
 
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus
Mohammad Amir
 
Epidemiology prevention control of hypertension
Epidemiology prevention control of hypertensionEpidemiology prevention control of hypertension
Epidemiology prevention control of hypertension
Abhi Manu
 
Over nutrition.pptx
Over nutrition.pptxOver nutrition.pptx
Over nutrition.pptx
AliDahir4
 
cpg prev cvd 17.pptx
cpg prev cvd 17.pptxcpg prev cvd 17.pptx
cpg prev cvd 17.pptx
ManjubashiniSelvaraj
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptx
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptxEPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptx
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptx
Steve462
 
NPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer Shoaib
NPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer ShoaibNPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer Shoaib
NPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer Shoaib
Tabeer Shoaib
 
Preventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disorders
Preventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disordersPreventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disorders
Preventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disorders
HealthXn
 
Management of diabetes in elderly
Management of diabetes in elderlyManagement of diabetes in elderly
Management of diabetes in elderly
Aditya Sarin
 
Diabesity with Sharon Weinstein
Diabesity with Sharon WeinsteinDiabesity with Sharon Weinstein
Diabesity with Sharon Weinstein
HPCareer.Net / State of Wellness Inc.
 
Epi and control of Diabetes.ppt
Epi and control of Diabetes.pptEpi and control of Diabetes.ppt
Epi and control of Diabetes.ppt
FaizanGMustafaMBBS
 
Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...
Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...
Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...
Jodean Campbell
 
Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’
Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’
Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’
drsanjaymaitra
 
NCDs Burden in Bangladesh
NCDs Burden in BangladeshNCDs Burden in Bangladesh
NCDs Burden in Bangladesh
S.M. Jashim Uddin Razib
 
LIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPUR
LIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx    DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPURLIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx    DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPUR
LIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPUR
DrallinwonDrShivani
 

Similar to Non communicable diseases part 1 (20)

Chronic diseases
Chronic diseasesChronic diseases
Chronic diseases
 
NCD _1.ppt
NCD _1.pptNCD _1.ppt
NCD _1.ppt
 
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIX
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIXNON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIX
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES WITH REFERENCE TO OBESITY AND CA CERVIX
 
NPCDCS BY DR.R.MOHAN
NPCDCS  BY  DR.R.MOHANNPCDCS  BY  DR.R.MOHAN
NPCDCS BY DR.R.MOHAN
 
Resiko metabolik
Resiko metabolik Resiko metabolik
Resiko metabolik
 
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes  mellitusDiabetes  mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
 
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus
 
Epidemiology prevention control of hypertension
Epidemiology prevention control of hypertensionEpidemiology prevention control of hypertension
Epidemiology prevention control of hypertension
 
Over nutrition.pptx
Over nutrition.pptxOver nutrition.pptx
Over nutrition.pptx
 
cpg prev cvd 17.pptx
cpg prev cvd 17.pptxcpg prev cvd 17.pptx
cpg prev cvd 17.pptx
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptx
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptxEPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptx
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES.pptx
 
NPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer Shoaib
NPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer ShoaibNPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer Shoaib
NPCDCS by Dr. Tabeer Shoaib
 
Preventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disorders
Preventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disordersPreventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disorders
Preventing diabetes and obesity in mental health disorders
 
Management of diabetes in elderly
Management of diabetes in elderlyManagement of diabetes in elderly
Management of diabetes in elderly
 
Diabesity with Sharon Weinstein
Diabesity with Sharon WeinsteinDiabesity with Sharon Weinstein
Diabesity with Sharon Weinstein
 
Epi and control of Diabetes.ppt
Epi and control of Diabetes.pptEpi and control of Diabetes.ppt
Epi and control of Diabetes.ppt
 
Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...
Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...
Health Awareness as a Predictor of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in St. V...
 
Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’
Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’
Concept of a ‘CKD Clinic’
 
NCDs Burden in Bangladesh
NCDs Burden in BangladeshNCDs Burden in Bangladesh
NCDs Burden in Bangladesh
 
LIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPUR
LIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx    DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPURLIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx    DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPUR
LIFESTYLE DISEASES ppt.pptx DR SHIVANI BANDEKAR, MD PSM, RCSM,GMC KOLHAPUR
 

More from monaaboserea

Prisoners' health
Prisoners' healthPrisoners' health
Prisoners' health
monaaboserea
 
Traveler medicine
Traveler medicineTraveler medicine
Traveler medicine
monaaboserea
 
Refugee &migrants health
Refugee &migrants healthRefugee &migrants health
Refugee &migrants health
monaaboserea
 
Arthropod borne mc qs
Arthropod borne  mc qsArthropod borne  mc qs
Arthropod borne mc qs
monaaboserea
 
Cases of-arthropod-borne-diseases
Cases of-arthropod-borne-diseasesCases of-arthropod-borne-diseases
Cases of-arthropod-borne-diseases
monaaboserea
 
Arthropod borne part 2
Arthropod borne part 2Arthropod borne part 2
Arthropod borne part 2
monaaboserea
 
Arthropod. borne part 1
Arthropod. borne  part 1Arthropod. borne  part 1
Arthropod. borne part 1
monaaboserea
 
Screening tests
Screening  testsScreening  tests
Screening tests
monaaboserea
 
Sampling
SamplingSampling
Sampling
monaaboserea
 
Risk assessment
Risk assessmentRisk assessment
Risk assessment
monaaboserea
 
Research methodology
Research methodologyResearch methodology
Research methodology
monaaboserea
 
Statistics
StatisticsStatistics
Statistics
monaaboserea
 
Ncds part 2
Ncds part 2Ncds part 2
Ncds part 2
monaaboserea
 
Mcqs general epidemiology
Mcqs   general epidemiologyMcqs   general epidemiology
Mcqs general epidemiology
monaaboserea
 
General epidemiology
General epidemiologyGeneral epidemiology
General epidemiology
monaaboserea
 
Disaster and-communicable-diseases
Disaster and-communicable-diseasesDisaster and-communicable-diseases
Disaster and-communicable-diseases
monaaboserea
 
Substance abuse
Substance abuseSubstance abuse
Substance abuse
monaaboserea
 
Mcqs food borne
Mcqs food borneMcqs food borne
Mcqs food borne
monaaboserea
 
Aids issues
Aids  issuesAids  issues
Aids issues
monaaboserea
 
Cases.on conatct infections
Cases.on conatct  infectionsCases.on conatct  infections
Cases.on conatct infections
monaaboserea
 

More from monaaboserea (20)

Prisoners' health
Prisoners' healthPrisoners' health
Prisoners' health
 
Traveler medicine
Traveler medicineTraveler medicine
Traveler medicine
 
Refugee &migrants health
Refugee &migrants healthRefugee &migrants health
Refugee &migrants health
 
Arthropod borne mc qs
Arthropod borne  mc qsArthropod borne  mc qs
Arthropod borne mc qs
 
Cases of-arthropod-borne-diseases
Cases of-arthropod-borne-diseasesCases of-arthropod-borne-diseases
Cases of-arthropod-borne-diseases
 
Arthropod borne part 2
Arthropod borne part 2Arthropod borne part 2
Arthropod borne part 2
 
Arthropod. borne part 1
Arthropod. borne  part 1Arthropod. borne  part 1
Arthropod. borne part 1
 
Screening tests
Screening  testsScreening  tests
Screening tests
 
Sampling
SamplingSampling
Sampling
 
Risk assessment
Risk assessmentRisk assessment
Risk assessment
 
Research methodology
Research methodologyResearch methodology
Research methodology
 
Statistics
StatisticsStatistics
Statistics
 
Ncds part 2
Ncds part 2Ncds part 2
Ncds part 2
 
Mcqs general epidemiology
Mcqs   general epidemiologyMcqs   general epidemiology
Mcqs general epidemiology
 
General epidemiology
General epidemiologyGeneral epidemiology
General epidemiology
 
Disaster and-communicable-diseases
Disaster and-communicable-diseasesDisaster and-communicable-diseases
Disaster and-communicable-diseases
 
Substance abuse
Substance abuseSubstance abuse
Substance abuse
 
Mcqs food borne
Mcqs food borneMcqs food borne
Mcqs food borne
 
Aids issues
Aids  issuesAids  issues
Aids issues
 
Cases.on conatct infections
Cases.on conatct  infectionsCases.on conatct  infections
Cases.on conatct infections
 

Recently uploaded

Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaipromInformation Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
TanapatLimsaiprom1
 
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaipromAWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
ธนาพัฒน์ ลิ้มสายพรหม
 
Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)
Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)
Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)
Kashyap J
 
Tarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy Fears
Tarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy FearsTarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy Fears
Tarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy Fears
Tarun Gaur
 
Steps involved in the implementation of EDI in a company
Steps involved in the implementation of EDI in a companySteps involved in the implementation of EDI in a company
Steps involved in the implementation of EDI in a company
sivaraman163206
 
Draya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptx
Draya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptxDraya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptx
Draya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptx
ashishkumarrana9
 
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai AvailableChennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
shamrisumri
 
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show caseDewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
DEWANSTUDIO.COM
 
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
mahigarg2024#G05
 
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAEWhy Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
adelewhite125
 
PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024
PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024
PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024
Bestdesign2hub
 
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdfworkbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
anya2024forgya
 
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
Zsolt Nemeth
 
Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
elbertablack
 
202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧
202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧
202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧
ffg01100
 
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhấtBai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
Thiên Đường Tình Yêu
 
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdfCyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
RohitRoshanBengROHIT
 
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptxCorporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
byubyu7
 
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
shamrisumri
 
202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影
202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影
202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影
ffg01100
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaipromInformation Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
Information Systems Auditing, Controls and Assurance , tanapat limsaiprom
 
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaipromAWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
AWS Networking Basic , tanapat limsaiprom
 
Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)
Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)
Quiz Quiz Hota Hai (School Quiz 2018-19)
 
Tarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy Fears
Tarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy FearsTarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy Fears
Tarun Gaur On Data Breaches and Privacy Fears
 
Steps involved in the implementation of EDI in a company
Steps involved in the implementation of EDI in a companySteps involved in the implementation of EDI in a company
Steps involved in the implementation of EDI in a company
 
Draya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptx
Draya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptxDraya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptx
Draya Michele’s Son – Kniko Howard’s Rise to Fame.pptx
 
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai AvailableChennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
Chennai Girls Call ServiCe X00XXX00XX Tanisha Best High Class Chennai Available
 
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show caseDewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
Dewanstudio Project Portfolio 2023 show case
 
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Mahipalpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAEWhy Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
Why Your Business Needs a Professional Web Design Company UAE
 
PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024
PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024
PSD to Wordpress Service Providers in 2024
 
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdfworkbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
workbook and project U5 1ºsecundaria.pdf
 
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
2023. Archive - Gigabajtos selfpublisher homepage
 
Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Female Service Girls Call Delhi 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
 
202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧
202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧
202254.com免费观看《长相思第二季》免费观看高清,长相思第二季线上看,《长相思第二季》最新电视剧在线观看,杨紫最新电视剧
 
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhấtBai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5  hot nhất
Bai-Tập-Tiếng-Anh-On-Tập-He lớp 1- lớp 5 hot nhất
 
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdfCyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
Cyber Security Course & Guide. X.GI. pdf
 
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptxCorporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
Corporate Minimal Newspaper Headline Style Newsletter.pptx
 
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
@Girls @Call Chennai 🛬 XXXXXXXXXX 🛬 available 24*7 cash payment book now pay ...
 
202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影
202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影
202254.com香蕉影视,在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看最新电影,香蕉影视在线观看《我才不要和你做朋友呢》在线观看高清电影
 

Non communicable diseases part 1

  • 1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES (NCDS) PART 1 Zagazig university By Alaa Nouh Under supervision Of Prof Dr. Mona Aboserea
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. To understand the definition, risk factors & prevention of the NCDs & to recognize the epidemiology of some common NCDs. 2. To understand the types, risk factors & prevention of accidents. 3. To Recognize the definition of mental health &mental illness, to describe the risk factors affecting mental health, to identify the interaction between physical and mental illness, & to understand different levels of prevention in mental health. 4. To understand the magnitude, new trends in Egypt, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of substance abuse.
  • 3. DEFINITION OF NCD Non-infectious & Non- transmissible between persons. Mostly chronic diseases of long duration & slow progression which require chronic care management.
  • 7. COMMON RISK FACTORS OF (NCDS) Almost all NCDs have unknown cause, but they have some related RFs. • Genetics • Age • Sex • Race Non modifiable • Smoking • Alcoholism • Unhealthy diet • Physical inactivity • Stress • Environmental pollution • Socio-economic conditions Modifiable
  • 8. WHO global status Report 2014: identified 5 important RFs for NCDs in the top 10 leading risks to health. ↑ Blood pressure ↑ Cholesterol level Tobacco use Alcohol consumption Overweight Insufficient physical activity.
  • 11. REASONS OF THE INCREASING PREVALENCE OF NCDS Demographic transition Epidemiologic transition Nutritional Transition Multi-factorial nature of RFs Migration International communication Environmental changes Epidemiology of NCDs differs across countries Epidemiology of NCDs changing all the time Limited use of scientific progress in management
  • 12. Transition Items Demographic Epidemiologic Nutrition transition Past situations -↑ Fertility -↑ Mortality ↑ Infectious diseases ↑ Under nutrition Interventi ons -Family planning -Prevention & control of infectious disease -Env. sanitation -Immunization -Antibiotics -Insecticides Food production Reducing Famines Shift To -↓ Fertility -↑ Life expectancy -Aging -↓ Infectious diseases -↓ Mortality from infectious diseases ↑ intake of saturated fat & refined carb. + ↓ dietary fibers Present situation NCDs associated with aging. NCDs predominates ↑ Obesity “↑ fat & carb. intake + Sedentary life”
  • 13. • Compared to communicable diseases are difficult to identifying the specific cause- effect relationship. • RFs Multiplicity limit the opportunities to have specific intervention for prevention & control. • RFs are difficult to be controlled by medical technology (in communicable diseases , immunization & antibiotics are effective in prevention & control of diseases) • RFs are related to genetic, environmental, culture and behavior which represent a challenging issue to public health programs. Multi-factorial nature of the risk factors for NCDs
  • 14. Migration from low risk culture (e.g. rural areas) to high risk culture (e.g. Urban areas ) follow the new life style → ↑NCDs risk. Migration of population across different cultures
  • 15. International communication, multinational business & new food technologies → new life-style & new food products. Communication through the mass media∕ satellites∕ internet, overseas travel, and international food marketing → Introduction of different concepts & dietary pattern. Adolescents & youth are population segments who are exposed to such modernization in concepts and behavior. Early exposure → development of large cohort with health problems during adulthood & older age. International communication
  • 17. Place • Differences in prevalence of RFs (genetic, environmental, cultural & behavioral) across countries → Limitations for generalization. • National Public health specialists should have specific surveillance system for different NCDs (e.g. ↑ spicy food →↑peptic ulcers & stomach neoplasm). Time • Some countries succeeded in improving pattern of some NCDs (i.e. ↓ coronary heart diseases by extensive anti- smoking programs). Epidemiology of NCDs differs across countries &changing all the time
  • 18. Rapid & successful achievements in the science of risk detection, use of medication & technologies to prevent & control NCDs. However, in the developing countries high cost of NCDs prevention & control programs is challenging. Limited use of scientific progress in management of NCDs
  • 19. 3ry Rehabilitate the complicated cases 2ry Early detection of cases “Screening tests” Proper management 1ry Health promotion & Health education Healthy life style Enhancing the role of laws & governance PREVENTION OF NCD
  • 20. Health promotion & Health education Adopting healthy life style • Balanced diet • Physical activity • Social activity • Avoid SAD “Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs” • Living in a healthy environment Enhancing the role of laws & governance • Improving access to ttt • Addressing social impacts of illness (↑ taxes on tobacco, Smoking bans in public places, Improving food labeling).
  • 21. HPN DM CVDs Cancer cervix Cancer breast Cancer liver Screening tests
  • 26. EGYPT NATIONAL MULTISECTORAL ACTION PLAN FOR PREVENTION & CONTROL OF NCD 2018-2022 (EGYPT MAP-NCD) Framework Element Baseline Target 2021 Target 2025 Premature mortality from NCD 25% 15% relative reduction 20% relative reduction Physical inactivity 32.1% 5% relative reduction 10% relative reduction Salt/sodium intake 12.8 g/day 20% relative reduction (10.0 g/ day) 10% relative reduction (9.0 g/ day) Tobacco use 24.4% 10% relative reduction (22.0 %) 20% relative reduction (20 %) Raised blood Pressure 39% 15%relative reduction (33%) 10 %relative reduction (30%) Diabetes & obesity 17.2% DM 31.3% Obesity Halt the rise in DM & obesity Drug therapy to prevent CVD *N/A % 10 % coverage 15% coverage Essential NCDs medicines & basic technologies to treat major NCDs 60% 70% availability 80 % availability *As there is currently no available baseline data, the approach will be piloted in selected PHC settings.
  • 33. Hypertension “HPN” is one of the major risk factors for CVDs.
  • 34. TYPES & RF OF HYPERTENSION 1ry No identified cause (in most cases). Genetic or familial tendency. Middle age Males but equal sex incidence after menopause. ↑Cholesterol & LDL or ↓ HDL. Unhealthy lifestyle Smoking Alcohol intake Physical inactivity Stress, ↑ Salt, ↓ K intake Obesity DM 2ry Renal & endocrine causes Hormonal & drug intake.
  • 38. SCREENING TESTS FOR HPN For screening purpose in the community-based epidemiological cross-sectional studies, these standards could be used. 2 readings should be taken at least 5 minutes apart & average result represents current Bl.Pr. measurement In the medical settings, diagnosis of HPN depends on findings of Bl.Pr. levels for >2 times few weeks apart.
  • 40. Life style modifications (key management) as ↓weight, avoidance of smoking & alcohol intake, dietary salt & fat restriction, avoidance of stress & keeping physical exercise. Early detection Frequent blood pressure measurements after age of 40 years. Antihypertensive drugs If the lifestyle modifications are ineffective alone or the level of HPN at the start is so high. Management of causes of 2ry HPM. Prevention
  • 43. It is a common metabolic disorder of impaired carbohydrate utilization by the body due to insulin deficiency. • Intermediate conditions between normality & DM. • At high risk of progressing to T2DM. Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) & Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG)
  • 45. Age • IDDM: young age • NIDDM and glucose intolerance: old age . Sex • Both sexes are equal. • Males “stress” • Females “pregnancy & obesity”. Race/ethnicity • Native American, African American, Latino, Asian American, Pacific Islander Obesity • 80% of NIDDM patients are obese. Genetic or familial tendency • Children whom parents are diabetic. Autoimmunity • To islet cells of pancreas. Stress • Trauma, operation, depression, anxiety or severe infection. Pancreatic disorder • Viral Infection (mumps, coxsackie, enterovirus) • Cancer pancreas • Pancreatectomy. Drugs • Diuretics • Corticosteroids • Contraceptive pills. Hormone disturbance • ↑ Thyroid & Growth hormones “insulin antagonistic action”. RFs
  • 46. Non-modifiable RF for T2DM Modifiable RF for T2DM
  • 56. 1ry prevention: Prevent predisposing factors. Dietary education. Screening youth: children & adolescents <18 years of age who are overweight or obese (BMI >85th percentile for age and sex, weight for height >85th percentile, or weight >120% of ideal for height), & have one or more additional RFs. 2ry prevention: Early case finding by screening tests for glucose intolerance, or during check up for at risk groups. Proper management of diagnosed cases: health education for adherence to diet & ttt to prevent complications. Frequent check up on retina & renal functions every 6 months & diet regimen.
  • 58. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY & DIABETES MANAGEMENT Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology: helps improve glycemic control for adults with T1DM starting at age 18.
  • 59. DIABETES MANAGEMENT IN SPECIFIC GROUPS Individualizing pharmacologic therapy for older adults to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia, avoid overtreatment & simplify complex regimens while maintaining personalized blood glucose targets.
  • 60. New guideline recommends all pregnant women with preexisting T1DM or T2DM should consider daily low-dose aspirin starting at the end of the 1st trimester → ↓ the risk of pre-eclampsia.
  • 62. DEFINITION It is an abnormal proliferation of cells in any organ in the body forming mass or tumor. It invades the surrounding tissues and destroys them.
  • 63. RISK FACTORS • Age: >40 years. • Sex: males. • Residence: urban. • Genetic & familial susceptibility. Demographic or personal factors • Food. • Smoking “30%”. • Obesity. • Alcohol. Life style • Human papilloma virus. • HCV, HBV & bilharziasis. • Helicobacter pylori. Infectious agents • Drugs (OCPs) & hormones (estrogen replacement therapy). Drugs & hormones • Asbestos & Pesticides • Radiation • Pollution • Fungi (Aflatoxin in grains & peanuts). Environmental & Occupational risks
  • 66. PREVENTION OF CANCER 1ry • Stop smoking & alcohol drinking • Avoid food preservatives, spicy foods • Proper storage of grains & peanuts • Avoid hormone intake expect under medial supervision • Vaccination for HBV. • Early ttt of any disease • Control of environmental pollution • Encourage breast feeding. 2ry • Early diagnosis:screening tests for at risk groups. • Breast self-examination • Cervical smear • Sputum or X-ray for cancer lung • Tumor markers • Biopsy for benign tumors. 3ry • Rehabilitation • Psychological assurance • Palliative ttt.
  • 71. PRIMARY PREVENTION Stop smoking Control of environmental pollution Prevention of infection Avoidance of allergic foods Pre-marital examination Physical exercise Early case detection. Skin tests