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Ethical Implications & Social Impacts of Information
                                         Technology
                                                   &
                    Information Technology Security



                               Radhika Sharma (93)
                                Rahul Sharma (94)
Information security means protecting information 
and information systems from unauthorized access, 
  use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, 
         inspection, recording or destruction.
Objectives
   Information Security
       The Threats
       Scope of Security Management
       Tools for Computer Security
Information Security
   Information security is more than just protecting
    hardware and software from being crashed…
   It’s about protecting the information resources that
    keep the company operating
   Goals are to ensure:
       Data integrity, availability and confidentiality
       Business continuity
Threats from outside…
Common Attacks - Corporate
   Virus/Worm: A computer program that appears to
    perform a legitimate task, but is a hidden malware
         E.g., wipe out a hard drive; send out an unauthorized email,
          etc.
   Sniffing: Interception and reading of electronic messages
    as they travel over the Internet
         E.g., copy passwords, or credit card information
   Denial of Service: Attacks from coordinated computers
    that floods a site with so many requests until the site
    crashes
         Thousands of page requests/minute on an ecommerce site
          (virus as well)
Common Attacks - Personal
   Spoofing: Masquerade as a legitimate web site and
    redirect traffic to a fraudulent site
   Con artists: calling to offer credit card account to obtain
    info about email, SSN, etc.
   Phishing or Fishing: Fraudulent email attempt to obtain
    sensitive information
         E.g., email notifying a bank account owner that s/he account
          had a security breach, and request the owner to log in a
          fraudulent website to “reset the password”
Threats from inside….
   Employee illegally accesses email accounts
   Angry / misguided technical personnel:
       Deletes sensitive data
       Rewrites a program so that data is corrupted/company can’t operate
       Leaves a ‘cyber bomb’ that detonates in the event he/she is fired
   Employee steals sensitive data (customer) and sells it to a
    competitor
Dimensions of security
Security’s Five Pillars
    Authentication: Verifying the authenticity of users – ensuring
     people are who they say they are.
          ID/Password, biometric, questions
    Identification: Identifying users to grant them appropriate
     access
          Allowing system to know who someone is to give appropriate
           access rights
    Privacy: Protecting information from being seen
          E.g., against spyware installed without consent in a computer to
           collect information
Security’s Five Pillars(Contd..)
   Integrity: Keeping information in its original form
         Ensuring data is not altered in any way




   Non-repudiation: Preventing parties from denying
    actions they have taken
         Ensuring that the parties in a transaction are who they say
          they are and cannot deny that transaction took place
Technical Countermeasures
   Firewalls:
       hardware/software to control access between networks
        / blocking unwanted access
            >   Windows Vista
   Encryption/decryption:
       Using an algorithm (cipher) to make a plain text
        unreadable to anyone that does not have a key
           SSL
Technical Countermeasures
   Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
       Allow strong protection for data communications
       Cheaper than private networks, but do not provide
        100% end-to-end security
Encryption / SSL
                                                               An SSL Certificate
                                                                enables encryption of
                                                                sensitive information
                                                                during online
                                                                transactions.
                                                               Each SSL Certificate
                                                                contains unique,
                                                                authenticated
                                                                information about the
                                                                certificate owner.
     Each SSL Certificate consists of a public key and a
                                                               A Certificate Authority
      private key. Public key: scramble; Private Key:
                                                                verifies the identity of
      unscramble
                                                                the certificate owner
     Secure Sockets Layer handshake authenticates              when it is issued.
      the server (Web site) and the client (Web
      browser).
     Unique session key established and secure
      transmission can begin.
Ethics Defined

   Ethics refers to the principles of right and wrong that
    individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices
    to guide their behaviors.

   Information systems raise new ethical questions for
    both individuals and societies because they create
    opportunities for intense social change, and thus threaten
    existing distributions of power, money, rights, and
    obligations.
   Ethical issues in information systems have been given new
    urgency by the rise of the Internet and electronic
    commerce.

   Internet and digital firm technologies make it easier than
    ever to assemble, integrate, and distribute information,
    unleashing new concerns about the appropriate use of
    customer information, the protection of personal privacy,
    and the protection of intellectual property.

   Insiders with special knowledge can “fool” information
    systems by submitting phony records, and diverting cash, on
    a scale unimaginable in the pre-computer era.
The major ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems
include the following moral dimensions:

Information   rights and obligations. What information rights do individuals
and organizations possess with respect to themselves? What can they protect?
What obligations do individuals and organizations have concerning this
information?
Property rights and obligations. How will traditional intellectual property
rights be protected in a digital society in which tracing and accounting for
ownership are difficult and ignoring such property rights is so easy?
Accountability and control. Who can and will be held accountable and liable
for the harm done to individual and collective information and property rights?
System quality. What standards of data and system quality should we demand
to protect individual rights and the safety of society?
Quality of life. What values should be preserved in an information- and
knowledge-based society? Which institutions should we protect from violation?
Which cultural values and practices are supported by the new information
technology?
Ethics in Information Technology
The increased use of information technology has raised
many ethical issues for today’s IT professional. Various
ethical issues are:

Plagiarism
Piracy
Hacking
Computer     crime
Viruses
•   Intellectual property
Work     pressures imposed on computer professionals
Social Impacts
   This infrastructure might affect real-time transactions
    and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock
    brokers and travel agents, whose function is to
    provide an essential information link between buyers
    and sellers, redundant.

   Computers and communication technologies allow
    individuals to communicate with one another in ways
    complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic,
    and written modes.
Social Impacts
   It would be easier for individuals to work on flexible
    schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold
    two or more jobs simultaneously.

   Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought
    about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with
    different skill levels will be affected differently.
Social Impacts
   Advances in information technology will affect the craft of
    teaching by complementing rather than eliminating
    traditional classroom instruction.

   Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of
    content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls
    for mechanisms to control objectionable content.
ACHIEVING ETHICS IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
   Companies can get assistance in the form of ethics codes
    and ethics educational programs to provide the
    foundation for their culture
   The ethics codes can be used as is or tailored to the firm
   Educational programs can assist in developing a
    corporate credo and in putting ethics programs in place
“The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous
 economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious
 social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers.
  Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology
                                  design”
Managing IT security and Business Ethics

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Managing IT security and Business Ethics

  • 1. Ethical Implications & Social Impacts of Information Technology & Information Technology Security Radhika Sharma (93) Rahul Sharma (94)
  • 2. Information security means protecting information  and information systems from unauthorized access,  use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal,  inspection, recording or destruction.
  • 3. Objectives  Information Security  The Threats  Scope of Security Management  Tools for Computer Security
  • 4. Information Security  Information security is more than just protecting hardware and software from being crashed…  It’s about protecting the information resources that keep the company operating  Goals are to ensure:  Data integrity, availability and confidentiality  Business continuity
  • 6. Common Attacks - Corporate  Virus/Worm: A computer program that appears to perform a legitimate task, but is a hidden malware  E.g., wipe out a hard drive; send out an unauthorized email, etc.  Sniffing: Interception and reading of electronic messages as they travel over the Internet  E.g., copy passwords, or credit card information  Denial of Service: Attacks from coordinated computers that floods a site with so many requests until the site crashes  Thousands of page requests/minute on an ecommerce site (virus as well)
  • 7. Common Attacks - Personal  Spoofing: Masquerade as a legitimate web site and redirect traffic to a fraudulent site  Con artists: calling to offer credit card account to obtain info about email, SSN, etc.  Phishing or Fishing: Fraudulent email attempt to obtain sensitive information  E.g., email notifying a bank account owner that s/he account had a security breach, and request the owner to log in a fraudulent website to “reset the password”
  • 8. Threats from inside….  Employee illegally accesses email accounts  Angry / misguided technical personnel:  Deletes sensitive data  Rewrites a program so that data is corrupted/company can’t operate  Leaves a ‘cyber bomb’ that detonates in the event he/she is fired  Employee steals sensitive data (customer) and sells it to a competitor
  • 10. Security’s Five Pillars  Authentication: Verifying the authenticity of users – ensuring people are who they say they are.  ID/Password, biometric, questions  Identification: Identifying users to grant them appropriate access  Allowing system to know who someone is to give appropriate access rights  Privacy: Protecting information from being seen  E.g., against spyware installed without consent in a computer to collect information
  • 11. Security’s Five Pillars(Contd..)  Integrity: Keeping information in its original form  Ensuring data is not altered in any way  Non-repudiation: Preventing parties from denying actions they have taken  Ensuring that the parties in a transaction are who they say they are and cannot deny that transaction took place
  • 12. Technical Countermeasures  Firewalls:  hardware/software to control access between networks / blocking unwanted access > Windows Vista  Encryption/decryption:  Using an algorithm (cipher) to make a plain text unreadable to anyone that does not have a key  SSL
  • 13. Technical Countermeasures  Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)  Allow strong protection for data communications  Cheaper than private networks, but do not provide 100% end-to-end security
  • 14. Encryption / SSL  An SSL Certificate enables encryption of sensitive information during online transactions.  Each SSL Certificate contains unique, authenticated information about the certificate owner.  Each SSL Certificate consists of a public key and a  A Certificate Authority private key. Public key: scramble; Private Key: verifies the identity of unscramble the certificate owner  Secure Sockets Layer handshake authenticates when it is issued. the server (Web site) and the client (Web browser).  Unique session key established and secure transmission can begin.
  • 15. Ethics Defined  Ethics refers to the principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors.  Information systems raise new ethical questions for both individuals and societies because they create opportunities for intense social change, and thus threaten existing distributions of power, money, rights, and obligations.
  • 16. Ethical issues in information systems have been given new urgency by the rise of the Internet and electronic commerce.  Internet and digital firm technologies make it easier than ever to assemble, integrate, and distribute information, unleashing new concerns about the appropriate use of customer information, the protection of personal privacy, and the protection of intellectual property.  Insiders with special knowledge can “fool” information systems by submitting phony records, and diverting cash, on a scale unimaginable in the pre-computer era.
  • 17. The major ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems include the following moral dimensions: Information rights and obligations. What information rights do individuals and organizations possess with respect to themselves? What can they protect? What obligations do individuals and organizations have concerning this information? Property rights and obligations. How will traditional intellectual property rights be protected in a digital society in which tracing and accounting for ownership are difficult and ignoring such property rights is so easy? Accountability and control. Who can and will be held accountable and liable for the harm done to individual and collective information and property rights? System quality. What standards of data and system quality should we demand to protect individual rights and the safety of society? Quality of life. What values should be preserved in an information- and knowledge-based society? Which institutions should we protect from violation? Which cultural values and practices are supported by the new information technology?
  • 18. Ethics in Information Technology The increased use of information technology has raised many ethical issues for today’s IT professional. Various ethical issues are: Plagiarism Piracy Hacking Computer crime Viruses • Intellectual property Work pressures imposed on computer professionals
  • 19. Social Impacts  This infrastructure might affect real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant.  Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes.
  • 20. Social Impacts  It would be easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously.  Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently.
  • 21. Social Impacts  Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction.  Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content.
  • 22. ACHIEVING ETHICS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  Companies can get assistance in the form of ethics codes and ethics educational programs to provide the foundation for their culture  The ethics codes can be used as is or tailored to the firm  Educational programs can assist in developing a corporate credo and in putting ethics programs in place
  • 23. “The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design”