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KNOW YOUR
POWER
UNIT 1 & UNIT 2
THE NEED FOR THE
PRIMER
Electricity to Economics

 Electricity
           has become the lifeblood of the
   modern world.



 The   electricity sector in India supplies the
   world's 5th largest energy consumer
   ,accounting for 4.0% of global energy
   consumption by more than 17% of global
   population.[11]
Introduction
 Allof us use Energy.
 Variable sources of energy.
 Various fields use different kind of energy.
 Most versatile form of commercial energy.
Commercial Energy           Non Commercial Energy


Coal                        Fire wood & cow dung



Oil &Gas                    Agricultural waste



Nuclear                     Sunlight(for drying things)



Hydro                       Animals(for transport)



Solar ,Wind ,Biomass etc.   Human activities(farming,weaving)
Total Energy Dig

    Commercial
      Energy
                    Total
                   Energy

  Non Commercial
      Energy
Commercial Energy Supply:
Electric energy consumption

 Fig:2 Electric energy consumption
Power as infrastructure

   Power   is the Backbone of the Indian economy.

   Power   sector has a growth rate of 6.79%(2010-2011).
   [1]

   At
     the time of Independence our generating capacity
   was 1361(MW). [2.]

   Our   present generating capacity is 176990.40(MW).
   [3.]
Revenue

 “India's power sector will generate a
  revenue of Rs 13 lakh crore (US $ 294
  billion) during the 12th five year plan
  (2012-17)” .


                              - P. Uma Shankar
                       Union power secretary[4.]
Features of Electricity

  Today    electricity plays key role in society.

  It   is key to economic growth of the country.

  Itcan be economically transported over long
   distance.

  Easily
       converted to heat ,light , shaft power,
   communication or medical equipments.

  Thereis no option but to depend on
   ELECTRICITY……
Invention of electricity


 1600   AD the history of electricity begins
   with William Gilbert, a physician, who
   coined the expression "electrica" in his famous
   book.

  In 1660, Otto von Guericke invented a
   machine that produced static electricity, this
   was the first electric generator.

 In  1729, Stephen Gray discovered the
   principle of the conduction of electricity.
Invention of electricity

 Ben  Franklin's important discovery was that
  electricity and lightning were one and the same.
  Ben Franklin's lightning rod was the first
  practical application of electricity.

 THOMAS      EDISON helped change everyone's
  life -- he perfected his invention -- the electric
  light bulb.
Invention of electricity

  Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in
  1821.

 “Communism=Socialism     + Electricity”

                    ----Lenin , Soviet Union
 Architect
Flux in power sector of India
Government in 1991
The  government in 1991, liberalized the sector
 and opened it for foreign and private
 investments to increase the availability of funds
 for the power sector.

Around   189 projects, with an expected capacity
 of 75 GW, were proposed; however, only a
 few of these projects cleared the approval
 process.
Enron Case:
Orissa Reform
Electricity Act 2003

The  Electricity Act 2003, which came into effect
 from June 10, 2003, replaced the earlier laws,
 acts governing the Indian power sector. The bill
 sought to provide a legal framework for
 enabling reforms and restructuring the power
 sector.

With  the enactment of the Electricity Act 2003
 and implementation of open access, the market
 structure in the power sector changed from the
 old single buyer structure to a multi-buyer
 model.
UNDERSTANDING THE
POWER SYSTEM
ELECTRICITY :
“ An Invention that has changed the quality of Man’s Life”

 Some basic questions most of us have in their mind :

 Have you ever wondered how electricity generated thousands of miles away
 reaches you?

 Why lightning that strikes at a far off place affects our power supply?

 Why erratic monsoons result in a power shortage?

  How can excess power generated in one state be used to solve power
 shortage in the other?



  To understand the root of these questions, and to assess and
  effectively analyze their viability, as power managers, we first
  would need to understand how a Power System actually
  works….
BASICS OF ELECTRICITY:
Measuring Electricity :
There are three basic entities in electricity :

1.Voltage:
Potential difference between two points.
SI Unit : Volts
2.Current :
The Current is the flow of electric charge (electrons or ions).
SI Unit : Amperes .
3. Resistance:
‘Resistance’ is obstruction in the flow of current. This is an inherent
property of all materials.
SI Unit : Ohms.
POWER SYSTEM :
Power  system is
 defined as the network
 of generating stations,
 substations and power
 lines.

Power   system may be
 considered as one of
 the largest and most
 expensive system of all
 manmade systems.
COMPONETS OF POWER SYSTEM :
The power system network and operation can be divided into
three broad sections:
   Generation:
    “ Process by which electric power is produced. It may be termed as
    production stage.”


It can be done in different ways using different fuels:
 Thermal: Fuels can be coal, gas, oil, and biomass.
 Hydro
 Nuclear
 Wind
 Solar
 Geothermal
COMPONETS OF POWER SYSTEM :
     Transmission & Distribution:
      “The process by which the generated electric power is transmitted and
      distributed to the end users.”

 Transmission is bulk
  transport and is generally done
  at high voltages. Generally
  between power plants and sub
  stations.


    Distribution is
    more like the retail
    stage and operates
    at much lower
    voltages.
COMPONETS OF POWER SYSTEM :
     Utilization:
      “The process of Utilizing Electricity for various purposes.”

The uses of electricity can be
generally classified as :
Industrial
Domestic
Agricultural.
Commercial



    “Generation, transmission, distribution and utilization
    need to work in close coordination for healthy operation
    of power system.”
Schematic Diagram of a Power System
BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM:
Understanding Electricity flow – The electric circuit:
  “ Circuit is interconnection of wires and devices. It is the path of
  flow of current.”



  Electricity always travels in
  closed loops .
BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM:
Measuring Electricity :

                      Ohm’s Law
 It states that the current through a conductor between
 two points is directly proportional to the potential
 difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely
 proportional to the resistance between them.
 The mathematical equation that describes
  this relationship is:
                          I = V/R
BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM:
Measuring Electricity :

WHAT IS POWER ?
“Electric power is defined as the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by
an electric circuit.”
              POWER = VOLTAGE X CURRENT
It is measured in watts.


The above equation can be transformed as :
Power = Current x Current x Resistance= (Current)2 X Resistance
 
BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM:
Measuring Electricity :

WHAT IS UNIT ?
“ The unit is measure of electric energy.”
            ENERGY = POWER X TIME
It is measured in kilowatt - hour (KWh).

One unit is the energy consumed when power is 1000W in period of
1 hour.

Units = No. of Hours of operation x Power consumed
 

   “The calculation of power supplied to a consumer is
   based upon the ‘Units’ of electricity consumed by him.”
WHAT IS DC & WHAT IS AC ?
DIRECT CURRENT (DC):
“Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. It is produced
by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, etc.”

In direct current, the electric charges flow in a constant direction,
distinguishing it from alternating current (AC).




Fig3.
WHAT IS DC & WHAT IS AC ?
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC):
“An alternating current (AC) is an electric current whose direction reverses
cyclically, as opposed to direct current (DC), whose direction remains constant.
The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave.”

The AC is generated based on the principle of electromagnetic induction
.
AC V/S DC
All power systems today operate on AC, because of its
distinct advantages over DC as stated as below:
WHY IT IS NECESSARY TO TRANSFORM VOLTAGE
?
In Transmission , Most of the Power is lost in the wires in the
form of heat.


 It can be seen that for a fixed value of power , if voltage is increased , current will
 be decreased.




“ Power is generated at 11kV or 22 kV but generally transmitted at
  132 kV ,400 kV , 765 kV.”
WHAT IS FREQUENCY?
FREQUENCY:

“In an AC circuit, the voltage and current oscillate with time. The number of
times the voltage or current wave oscillates in a second is known as frequency.
Measured in Hertz.

In India, the frequency is 50 Hz. That is, the voltage and current oscillate
at 50 times per second.
HOW DOES ELECTRIC POWER FLOW?

“As power is a function of the voltage and current, the flow of electrons in a
circuit guides the flow of Electric power.”

The Power which is capable of doing work is called active
power.

In DC circuits there is only Active power.

An AC circuit has two types of power components--- Active &
Reactive.
REACTIVE POWER
AC CIRCUIT
THREE PHASE SYSTEM
WHAT IS REACTIVE POWER?

 Two kinds of power flow in an AC circuit –

 Active   power which does some visible work –
   like turning a fan or a motor.

 Reactive   power just goes back and forth in the
   circuit. But it is quite necessary to have reactive
   power flowing in an AC circuit to make a
   motor turn or a fan move.
REACTIVE POWER ANALOGIES


  The   ‘loft’ in a baseball throw

  The   ‘lift’ in an airplane
The “loft” analogy




The upward component of the trajectory does not
contribute to getting the ball any closer to the hitter, but
without it the ball won’t get there.
The aircraft “lift” analogy




   Lift does not get you any closer to your
   destination, but without it you are driving ,not
   flying.
WHY DO WE NEED REACTIVE POWER?

  While  active power is the energy supplied to run a
   motor ,heat a home, or illuminate an electric light bulb,
   reactive power provides the important functions of
   regulating voltage.

  Reactivepower is used to provide the voltage levels
   necessary for active power to do useful work.

  Reactive power is essential to move active power
   through the transmission and distribution system to the
   customer.
Voltage and reactive Power planning
and assessment Practices
Key Principles:
 Reactive power cannot be transmitted over a long distance
  or through power transformers due to excessive reactive
  power losses.

 Reactive  power supply should be located in close proximity
  to its consumption.

 Sufficientstatic and dynamic voltage support is needed to
  maintain voltage levels within an acceptable range.

 Sufficientreactive power reserves must be available to
  regulate voltage at all times.
Transmitting reactive power




  Reactive power cannot be effectively
  transmitted across long distances or through
  power transformers due to high heat losses.
Reactive Power location




 Reactive power should be located in close proximity to
 its consumption.
Power factor
 The   average power dissipation given by




 is termed the Active Power in the circuit and is
 measured in watts (W)

 The  product of the r.m.s. voltage and current VI is
 termed Apparent Power, S. To avoid confusion this
 is given the units of volt amperes (VA)
Conti…
 From   the above discussion it is clear that



• In other words, the active power is the apparent
   power times the cosine of the phase angle.

• This cosine is referred to as the Power Factor

• Power Factor =Active power(in watts)/Apparent
power (in volt amperes)

• Power factor= P/S=
Facts about power factor

  Power  factor is the measure of the degree to which the
   system is utilizing the power fed in it.

  Its   value is always between 0 and 1

  When     there is no reactive power, the p.f. is 1

  Lower   value of power factor [near to 0] means, the
   circuit will have more reactive power
Power Factor Correction

  Power    factor is particularly important in high-power
   applications.
  Inductive loads have a lagging power factor.
  Capacitive loads have a leading power factor.
  Many high-power devices are inductive.
    ◦ A typical AC motor has a power factor of 0.9 lagging
    ◦ The total load on the national grid is 0.8-0.9 lagging
    ◦ This leads to major efficiencies.
    ◦ Power companies therefore penalize industrial users
      who introduce a poor power factor.
Power Factor Correction

 The problem of poor power factor is tackled by adding
 additional components to bring the power factor back
 closer to unity.

  ◦ A capacitor of an appropriate size in parallel with a
    lagging load can ‘cancel out’ the inductive element

  ◦ This is Power Factor Correction

  ◦ A capacitor can also be used in series but this is less
    common (since this alters the load voltage)
Three-Phase systems

 So far, our discussion of AC systems has been
  restricted to single-phase arrangement
  (As in conventional domestic supplies)

 Inhigh-power industrial applications we often use
  three-phase arrangements.
  ◦ These have three supplies, differing in phase by
    120 °
  ◦ Phases are labeled red, yellow and blue (R, Y &
    B)
Relationship between the phases
 Relationship   between the phases in a three-phase
  arrangement
How Is Power Utilized ?
Consumers can be divided into four broad
categories:



          Power Utilized Percentages [5.]
 Agriculture:           23%

 Industrial:           35.9%

 Commercial:            8%

 Domestic:             24%

 Others:                9%
Utilisation can be viewed from two
 points of view


Consumer      Point Of View

Utility   Point Of View
Consumer Point Of View


Calculating Power Consumption
Charge may depend on

 Amount  of load connected
 Time of use of electricity
 Power factor
How Can We Reduce Consumption

 Usenatural lighting and cooling methods as much
 as possible.

 CFL’s   and Tube lights are much more efficient.

 Switch   off when you don’t need a bulb or fan.

 Powerdown computers, televisions, playstations
 etc when not in use.

 Encourage   others to conserve.
Potential to save in offices and
  factories is much more

 Motors    should be sized properly.

 Unwanted     motors should be turned off.

 Pipes   should be properly insulated.

 Energy   leakage must be plugged.

 Processimprovements should be carried out to
  improve energy efficiency.
Protecting Your Interests


Prevention   of electric shocks.

Protecting   electrical equipment.

Keeping   track of quality of power.
Electric Shocks

  Equipments    should be connected to earth.

  Put   off main switch while doing repairs.

  Ensure   wires are not exposed.

  Wear  rubber footwear while working on
   equipments.

  Plugpoints should be covered or should be out of
   reach of children.
Electric Shocks

Earthleakage Circuit
 breakers can be
 employed.

Tallbuildings are
 protected by lightning
 arrestors.
Equipment Protection

Circuit   breakers.
Fuses.
UPS
Power Supply Quality

 Voltage variations.

 Power interruptions.

 Frequency and harmonic components.
Efficiency And Standards

ISI   mark with relevant standard number.

  Ex. IS:325- 3 phase induction motors
       IS:374- ceiling fans
       IS:2418- Tube lights
       IS:418- ordinary bulbs[6.]

 Test instruments
Grievances and Redressal

  Errors    in electricity bill.

  Erratic   power supply.

  Load   shedding.

  Damage     of equipment due to high or low voltages.

  Electric   shock accidents.

  Undue     delay in getting a connection.
Utility Point Of View

Three important issues that utility is
concerned with in an area of utilisation.

 Load Behavior
 Quality Issues
 Safety issues
Load Behaviour

 Load  depends on the kind of equipment
   consumers use and the value of load.

 Load   curve
Quality Issues

  Preventivemaintenance.
  Problem handling.
Safety and Protection

 Utility has to ensure that power equipments
  are not damaged by lightning or by short
  circuit.

 Safetyof workers repairing the line has to be
  ensured.
References:
[1].[Source – CSO, MOSPI, Government of India]
[2.][Source-Decide & Confidence http://www.dnb.co.in]
[3.][Source – Office of Economic Adviser, MOC&I, Govt of India]
[4.][Source :Times Of India 22Jul 2011]
[5.][Power Utilisation Percentage][Source:]
[6] ISI values:[source : Bureau of Indian Standards.Govt of India]
[Fig3.]Voltage time graph[Source : Wikipedia]
Common source for images:[Source : wikipedia.org & Google
  images]
[Exhibit2.2Post Reform Framework][Source:D&BIndustry
 Research Service]
[Box 2.3][Enron Case][Source:D&BIndustry Research
 Service]
[Box 2.4][Orissa] [Source:D&BIndustry Research Service]


[Exhibit2.1Regulation For power sector][Source: D&BIndustry
 Research Service]
[Exhibit2.3Segment wise impact of Electricity Act2003]
 [Source:D&BIndustry Research Service]
Book referred : Know Your Power

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Need of Power?

  • 2. THE NEED FOR THE PRIMER
  • 3. Electricity to Economics Electricity has become the lifeblood of the modern world. The electricity sector in India supplies the world's 5th largest energy consumer ,accounting for 4.0% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population.[11]
  • 4. Introduction Allof us use Energy. Variable sources of energy. Various fields use different kind of energy. Most versatile form of commercial energy.
  • 5. Commercial Energy Non Commercial Energy Coal Fire wood & cow dung Oil &Gas Agricultural waste Nuclear Sunlight(for drying things) Hydro Animals(for transport) Solar ,Wind ,Biomass etc. Human activities(farming,weaving)
  • 6. Total Energy Dig Commercial Energy Total Energy Non Commercial Energy
  • 8. Electric energy consumption Fig:2 Electric energy consumption
  • 9. Power as infrastructure  Power is the Backbone of the Indian economy.  Power sector has a growth rate of 6.79%(2010-2011). [1]  At the time of Independence our generating capacity was 1361(MW). [2.]  Our present generating capacity is 176990.40(MW). [3.]
  • 10. Revenue “India's power sector will generate a revenue of Rs 13 lakh crore (US $ 294 billion) during the 12th five year plan (2012-17)” . - P. Uma Shankar Union power secretary[4.]
  • 11. Features of Electricity  Today electricity plays key role in society.  It is key to economic growth of the country.  Itcan be economically transported over long distance.  Easily converted to heat ,light , shaft power, communication or medical equipments.  Thereis no option but to depend on ELECTRICITY……
  • 12. Invention of electricity 1600 AD the history of electricity begins with William Gilbert, a physician, who coined the expression "electrica" in his famous book.  In 1660, Otto von Guericke invented a machine that produced static electricity, this was the first electric generator. In 1729, Stephen Gray discovered the principle of the conduction of electricity.
  • 13. Invention of electricity Ben Franklin's important discovery was that electricity and lightning were one and the same. Ben Franklin's lightning rod was the first practical application of electricity. THOMAS EDISON helped change everyone's life -- he perfected his invention -- the electric light bulb.
  • 14. Invention of electricity  Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in 1821. “Communism=Socialism + Electricity” ----Lenin , Soviet Union Architect
  • 15. Flux in power sector of India
  • 16. Government in 1991 The government in 1991, liberalized the sector and opened it for foreign and private investments to increase the availability of funds for the power sector. Around 189 projects, with an expected capacity of 75 GW, were proposed; however, only a few of these projects cleared the approval process.
  • 19. Electricity Act 2003 The Electricity Act 2003, which came into effect from June 10, 2003, replaced the earlier laws, acts governing the Indian power sector. The bill sought to provide a legal framework for enabling reforms and restructuring the power sector. With the enactment of the Electricity Act 2003 and implementation of open access, the market structure in the power sector changed from the old single buyer structure to a multi-buyer model.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 23. ELECTRICITY : “ An Invention that has changed the quality of Man’s Life” Some basic questions most of us have in their mind : Have you ever wondered how electricity generated thousands of miles away reaches you? Why lightning that strikes at a far off place affects our power supply? Why erratic monsoons result in a power shortage?  How can excess power generated in one state be used to solve power shortage in the other? To understand the root of these questions, and to assess and effectively analyze their viability, as power managers, we first would need to understand how a Power System actually works….
  • 24. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY: Measuring Electricity : There are three basic entities in electricity : 1.Voltage: Potential difference between two points. SI Unit : Volts 2.Current : The Current is the flow of electric charge (electrons or ions). SI Unit : Amperes . 3. Resistance: ‘Resistance’ is obstruction in the flow of current. This is an inherent property of all materials. SI Unit : Ohms.
  • 25. POWER SYSTEM : Power system is defined as the network of generating stations, substations and power lines. Power system may be considered as one of the largest and most expensive system of all manmade systems.
  • 26. COMPONETS OF POWER SYSTEM : The power system network and operation can be divided into three broad sections:  Generation: “ Process by which electric power is produced. It may be termed as production stage.” It can be done in different ways using different fuels:  Thermal: Fuels can be coal, gas, oil, and biomass.  Hydro  Nuclear  Wind  Solar  Geothermal
  • 27. COMPONETS OF POWER SYSTEM :  Transmission & Distribution: “The process by which the generated electric power is transmitted and distributed to the end users.” Transmission is bulk transport and is generally done at high voltages. Generally between power plants and sub stations. Distribution is more like the retail stage and operates at much lower voltages.
  • 28. COMPONETS OF POWER SYSTEM :  Utilization: “The process of Utilizing Electricity for various purposes.” The uses of electricity can be generally classified as : Industrial Domestic Agricultural. Commercial “Generation, transmission, distribution and utilization need to work in close coordination for healthy operation of power system.”
  • 29. Schematic Diagram of a Power System
  • 30. BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM: Understanding Electricity flow – The electric circuit: “ Circuit is interconnection of wires and devices. It is the path of flow of current.” Electricity always travels in closed loops .
  • 31. BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM: Measuring Electricity : Ohm’s Law It states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is: I = V/R
  • 32. BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM: Measuring Electricity : WHAT IS POWER ? “Electric power is defined as the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.” POWER = VOLTAGE X CURRENT It is measured in watts. The above equation can be transformed as : Power = Current x Current x Resistance= (Current)2 X Resistance  
  • 33. BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM: Measuring Electricity : WHAT IS UNIT ? “ The unit is measure of electric energy.” ENERGY = POWER X TIME It is measured in kilowatt - hour (KWh). One unit is the energy consumed when power is 1000W in period of 1 hour. Units = No. of Hours of operation x Power consumed   “The calculation of power supplied to a consumer is based upon the ‘Units’ of electricity consumed by him.”
  • 34. WHAT IS DC & WHAT IS AC ? DIRECT CURRENT (DC): “Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. It is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, etc.” In direct current, the electric charges flow in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). Fig3.
  • 35. WHAT IS DC & WHAT IS AC ? ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC): “An alternating current (AC) is an electric current whose direction reverses cyclically, as opposed to direct current (DC), whose direction remains constant. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave.” The AC is generated based on the principle of electromagnetic induction .
  • 36. AC V/S DC All power systems today operate on AC, because of its distinct advantages over DC as stated as below:
  • 37. WHY IT IS NECESSARY TO TRANSFORM VOLTAGE ? In Transmission , Most of the Power is lost in the wires in the form of heat. It can be seen that for a fixed value of power , if voltage is increased , current will be decreased. “ Power is generated at 11kV or 22 kV but generally transmitted at 132 kV ,400 kV , 765 kV.”
  • 38. WHAT IS FREQUENCY? FREQUENCY: “In an AC circuit, the voltage and current oscillate with time. The number of times the voltage or current wave oscillates in a second is known as frequency. Measured in Hertz. In India, the frequency is 50 Hz. That is, the voltage and current oscillate at 50 times per second.
  • 39. HOW DOES ELECTRIC POWER FLOW? “As power is a function of the voltage and current, the flow of electrons in a circuit guides the flow of Electric power.” The Power which is capable of doing work is called active power. In DC circuits there is only Active power. An AC circuit has two types of power components--- Active & Reactive.
  • 41. WHAT IS REACTIVE POWER? Two kinds of power flow in an AC circuit – Active power which does some visible work – like turning a fan or a motor. Reactive power just goes back and forth in the circuit. But it is quite necessary to have reactive power flowing in an AC circuit to make a motor turn or a fan move.
  • 42. REACTIVE POWER ANALOGIES  The ‘loft’ in a baseball throw  The ‘lift’ in an airplane
  • 43. The “loft” analogy The upward component of the trajectory does not contribute to getting the ball any closer to the hitter, but without it the ball won’t get there.
  • 44. The aircraft “lift” analogy Lift does not get you any closer to your destination, but without it you are driving ,not flying.
  • 45. WHY DO WE NEED REACTIVE POWER?  While active power is the energy supplied to run a motor ,heat a home, or illuminate an electric light bulb, reactive power provides the important functions of regulating voltage.  Reactivepower is used to provide the voltage levels necessary for active power to do useful work.  Reactive power is essential to move active power through the transmission and distribution system to the customer.
  • 46. Voltage and reactive Power planning and assessment Practices Key Principles:  Reactive power cannot be transmitted over a long distance or through power transformers due to excessive reactive power losses.  Reactive power supply should be located in close proximity to its consumption.  Sufficientstatic and dynamic voltage support is needed to maintain voltage levels within an acceptable range.  Sufficientreactive power reserves must be available to regulate voltage at all times.
  • 47. Transmitting reactive power Reactive power cannot be effectively transmitted across long distances or through power transformers due to high heat losses.
  • 48. Reactive Power location Reactive power should be located in close proximity to its consumption.
  • 49. Power factor  The average power dissipation given by is termed the Active Power in the circuit and is measured in watts (W)  The product of the r.m.s. voltage and current VI is termed Apparent Power, S. To avoid confusion this is given the units of volt amperes (VA)
  • 50. Conti…  From the above discussion it is clear that • In other words, the active power is the apparent power times the cosine of the phase angle. • This cosine is referred to as the Power Factor • Power Factor =Active power(in watts)/Apparent power (in volt amperes) • Power factor= P/S=
  • 51. Facts about power factor  Power factor is the measure of the degree to which the system is utilizing the power fed in it.  Its value is always between 0 and 1  When there is no reactive power, the p.f. is 1  Lower value of power factor [near to 0] means, the circuit will have more reactive power
  • 52. Power Factor Correction  Power factor is particularly important in high-power applications.  Inductive loads have a lagging power factor.  Capacitive loads have a leading power factor.  Many high-power devices are inductive. ◦ A typical AC motor has a power factor of 0.9 lagging ◦ The total load on the national grid is 0.8-0.9 lagging ◦ This leads to major efficiencies. ◦ Power companies therefore penalize industrial users who introduce a poor power factor.
  • 53. Power Factor Correction  The problem of poor power factor is tackled by adding additional components to bring the power factor back closer to unity. ◦ A capacitor of an appropriate size in parallel with a lagging load can ‘cancel out’ the inductive element ◦ This is Power Factor Correction ◦ A capacitor can also be used in series but this is less common (since this alters the load voltage)
  • 54. Three-Phase systems  So far, our discussion of AC systems has been restricted to single-phase arrangement (As in conventional domestic supplies)  Inhigh-power industrial applications we often use three-phase arrangements. ◦ These have three supplies, differing in phase by 120 ° ◦ Phases are labeled red, yellow and blue (R, Y & B)
  • 55. Relationship between the phases  Relationship between the phases in a three-phase arrangement
  • 56. How Is Power Utilized ?
  • 57. Consumers can be divided into four broad categories: Power Utilized Percentages [5.]  Agriculture: 23%  Industrial: 35.9%  Commercial: 8%  Domestic: 24%  Others: 9%
  • 58. Utilisation can be viewed from two points of view Consumer Point Of View Utility Point Of View
  • 59. Consumer Point Of View Calculating Power Consumption Charge may depend on  Amount of load connected  Time of use of electricity  Power factor
  • 60. How Can We Reduce Consumption  Usenatural lighting and cooling methods as much as possible.  CFL’s and Tube lights are much more efficient.  Switch off when you don’t need a bulb or fan.  Powerdown computers, televisions, playstations etc when not in use.  Encourage others to conserve.
  • 61. Potential to save in offices and factories is much more  Motors should be sized properly.  Unwanted motors should be turned off.  Pipes should be properly insulated.  Energy leakage must be plugged.  Processimprovements should be carried out to improve energy efficiency.
  • 62. Protecting Your Interests Prevention of electric shocks. Protecting electrical equipment. Keeping track of quality of power.
  • 63. Electric Shocks  Equipments should be connected to earth.  Put off main switch while doing repairs.  Ensure wires are not exposed.  Wear rubber footwear while working on equipments.  Plugpoints should be covered or should be out of reach of children.
  • 64. Electric Shocks Earthleakage Circuit breakers can be employed. Tallbuildings are protected by lightning arrestors.
  • 65. Equipment Protection Circuit breakers. Fuses. UPS
  • 66. Power Supply Quality  Voltage variations.  Power interruptions.  Frequency and harmonic components.
  • 67. Efficiency And Standards ISI mark with relevant standard number. Ex. IS:325- 3 phase induction motors IS:374- ceiling fans IS:2418- Tube lights IS:418- ordinary bulbs[6.]  Test instruments
  • 68. Grievances and Redressal  Errors in electricity bill.  Erratic power supply.  Load shedding.  Damage of equipment due to high or low voltages.  Electric shock accidents.  Undue delay in getting a connection.
  • 69. Utility Point Of View Three important issues that utility is concerned with in an area of utilisation.  Load Behavior  Quality Issues  Safety issues
  • 70. Load Behaviour Load depends on the kind of equipment consumers use and the value of load. Load curve
  • 71. Quality Issues Preventivemaintenance. Problem handling.
  • 72. Safety and Protection Utility has to ensure that power equipments are not damaged by lightning or by short circuit. Safetyof workers repairing the line has to be ensured.
  • 73. References: [1].[Source – CSO, MOSPI, Government of India] [2.][Source-Decide & Confidence http://www.dnb.co.in] [3.][Source – Office of Economic Adviser, MOC&I, Govt of India] [4.][Source :Times Of India 22Jul 2011] [5.][Power Utilisation Percentage][Source:] [6] ISI values:[source : Bureau of Indian Standards.Govt of India] [Fig3.]Voltage time graph[Source : Wikipedia] Common source for images:[Source : wikipedia.org & Google images]
  • 74. [Exhibit2.2Post Reform Framework][Source:D&BIndustry Research Service] [Box 2.3][Enron Case][Source:D&BIndustry Research Service] [Box 2.4][Orissa] [Source:D&BIndustry Research Service] [Exhibit2.1Regulation For power sector][Source: D&BIndustry Research Service] [Exhibit2.3Segment wise impact of Electricity Act2003] [Source:D&BIndustry Research Service] Book referred : Know Your Power