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TOPIC - LEUKOPENIAS
PRESENTED BY
OM VERMA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
INTRODUCTION
• A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a
decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes)
in your blood. Leukopenia is almost always
related to a decrease in a certain type of white
blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low
white blood cell count varies from one
medical practice to another.
Definition
• a reduction in the number of white cells in the
blood, typical of various diseases.
• It is - a condition in which the number of
white blood cells circulating in the blood is
abnormally low.
Con….
• A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a
decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes)
in your blood. Leukopenia is almost always
related to a decrease in a certain type of white
blood cell (neutrophil).
TYPES
etiology
• Causes of leukopenia
• Many diseases and conditions can cause
leukopenia, such as:
• Blood cell or bone marrow conditions
• These include:
• aplastic anemia
• hypersplenism, or overactive spleen
• myelodysplastic syndromes
• myeloproliferative syndrome
• myelofibrosis
Con…
• Cancer and treatments for cancer
• Different types of cancer, including leukemia,
can lead to leukopenia. Cancer treatments can
also cause leukopenia, including:
• chemotherapy
• radiation therapy (especially when used on
large bones, such as those in your legs and
pelvis)
• bone marrow transplant
Con…
• Congenital problems
• Congenital disorders are present at birth.
Congenital problems that can lead to
leukopenia include conditions that affect how
bone marrow works to make blood cells, such
as:
• Kostmann syndrome, or severe congenital
neutropenia
• myelokathexis
Con…
• Infectious diseases
• Infectious diseases that can cause leukopenia
include:
• HIV or AIDS
• tuberculosis
Con,,,
• Autoimmune disorders
• Autoimmune disorders that kill white blood
cells or bone marrow cells, which make blood
cells, can also lead to leukopenia. These
include:
• lupus
• rheumatoid arthritis
Con…
• Malnutrition
• Leukopenia can be caused by vitamin or
mineral deficiencies, such as deficiencies in:
• vitamin B-12
• folate
• copper
• zinc
Con…
• Medications
• Medications that can cause leukopenia include:
• bupropion (Wellbutrin)
• clozapine (Clozaril)
• cyclosporine (Sandimmune)
• interferons
• lamotrigine (Lamictal)
• minocycline (Minocin)
• mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
• penicillin
• sirolimus (Rapamune)
• sodium valproate
• steroids
• tacrolimus (Prograf)
Con…
• Sarcoidosis
• Sarcoidosis is a systemic illness caused by an
exaggerated immune response and
characterized by formation of granulomas, or
small areas of inflammation, in multiple
systems in your body. When these granulomas
form in your bone marrow, leukopenia can
result.
Con..
• Viral infections
• Viral infections that affect the bone marrow or
other severe infections can also lead to
leukopenia.
C.M.
• Symptoms of leukopenia
• You probably won’t notice any signs of
leukopenia. But if your white cell counts are very
low, you may have signs of infection, including:
• fever higher than 100.5˚F (38˚C)
• chills
• sweating
• Ask your doctor what to watch for. If you have
any symptoms, tell your doctor right away
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
C.B.C.
• complete blood count or CBC. A healthy white
blood cell count is between 3,500 and 11,000
white blood cells per microliter. A person
with leukopenia may have fewer than 3,500
white blood cells per microliter.D
• Medications
• Medications can be used to stimulate your
body to make more blood cells. Or you may be
prescribed medications to clear up the cause
of the reduced cell count, such as antifungals
to treat fungal infections or antibiotics to treat
bacterial infections.
• Treatments that use growth factors, such as
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, may
help leukopenia. These are often used when
chemotherapy is causing leukopenia or if the
cause is genetic.
• Stopping treatments that cause leukopenia
• Sometimes you may need to stop a treatment
like chemotherapy to give your body time to
make more blood cells. Your blood cell counts
may naturally rise when treatment like
radiation is over or between chemotherapy
sessions. Keep in mind that the amount of
time it takes for white blood cells to replenish
varies from person to person.
• Diet
• An immunocompromised diet, also called a
low-bacterial diet or neutropenic diet, may be
recommended if white blood cells are very
low. This diet is thought to reduce your
chances of getting germs from food or
because of the way food is prepared.
• The following home treatments and behaviors may
help a person with leukopenia improve their
condition and reduce their risk of infection:
• eating a healthful diet
• getting plenty of rest
• avoiding cuts and scrapes
• practicing good hygiene to avoid germs
• Treatment may also be needed for any infections
that result from a reduced white blood cell count.
This might include antibiotics or antifungals.
Leukopenias
Leukopenias

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Leukopenias

  • 1. TOPIC - LEUKOPENIAS PRESENTED BY OM VERMA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  • 2.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes) in your blood. Leukopenia is almost always related to a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical practice to another.
  • 4. Definition • a reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases. • It is - a condition in which the number of white blood cells circulating in the blood is abnormally low.
  • 5. Con…. • A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes) in your blood. Leukopenia is almost always related to a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil).
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 9.
  • 10. etiology • Causes of leukopenia • Many diseases and conditions can cause leukopenia, such as: • Blood cell or bone marrow conditions • These include: • aplastic anemia • hypersplenism, or overactive spleen • myelodysplastic syndromes • myeloproliferative syndrome • myelofibrosis
  • 11. Con… • Cancer and treatments for cancer • Different types of cancer, including leukemia, can lead to leukopenia. Cancer treatments can also cause leukopenia, including: • chemotherapy • radiation therapy (especially when used on large bones, such as those in your legs and pelvis) • bone marrow transplant
  • 12. Con… • Congenital problems • Congenital disorders are present at birth. Congenital problems that can lead to leukopenia include conditions that affect how bone marrow works to make blood cells, such as: • Kostmann syndrome, or severe congenital neutropenia • myelokathexis
  • 13. Con… • Infectious diseases • Infectious diseases that can cause leukopenia include: • HIV or AIDS • tuberculosis
  • 14. Con,,, • Autoimmune disorders • Autoimmune disorders that kill white blood cells or bone marrow cells, which make blood cells, can also lead to leukopenia. These include: • lupus • rheumatoid arthritis
  • 15. Con… • Malnutrition • Leukopenia can be caused by vitamin or mineral deficiencies, such as deficiencies in: • vitamin B-12 • folate • copper • zinc
  • 16. Con… • Medications • Medications that can cause leukopenia include: • bupropion (Wellbutrin) • clozapine (Clozaril) • cyclosporine (Sandimmune) • interferons • lamotrigine (Lamictal) • minocycline (Minocin) • mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) • penicillin • sirolimus (Rapamune) • sodium valproate • steroids • tacrolimus (Prograf)
  • 17. Con… • Sarcoidosis • Sarcoidosis is a systemic illness caused by an exaggerated immune response and characterized by formation of granulomas, or small areas of inflammation, in multiple systems in your body. When these granulomas form in your bone marrow, leukopenia can result.
  • 18. Con.. • Viral infections • Viral infections that affect the bone marrow or other severe infections can also lead to leukopenia.
  • 19.
  • 20. C.M. • Symptoms of leukopenia • You probably won’t notice any signs of leukopenia. But if your white cell counts are very low, you may have signs of infection, including: • fever higher than 100.5˚F (38˚C) • chills • sweating • Ask your doctor what to watch for. If you have any symptoms, tell your doctor right away
  • 22.
  • 24. C.B.C. • complete blood count or CBC. A healthy white blood cell count is between 3,500 and 11,000 white blood cells per microliter. A person with leukopenia may have fewer than 3,500 white blood cells per microliter.D
  • 25.
  • 26. • Medications • Medications can be used to stimulate your body to make more blood cells. Or you may be prescribed medications to clear up the cause of the reduced cell count, such as antifungals to treat fungal infections or antibiotics to treat bacterial infections.
  • 27. • Treatments that use growth factors, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, may help leukopenia. These are often used when chemotherapy is causing leukopenia or if the cause is genetic.
  • 28. • Stopping treatments that cause leukopenia • Sometimes you may need to stop a treatment like chemotherapy to give your body time to make more blood cells. Your blood cell counts may naturally rise when treatment like radiation is over or between chemotherapy sessions. Keep in mind that the amount of time it takes for white blood cells to replenish varies from person to person.
  • 29. • Diet • An immunocompromised diet, also called a low-bacterial diet or neutropenic diet, may be recommended if white blood cells are very low. This diet is thought to reduce your chances of getting germs from food or because of the way food is prepared.
  • 30. • The following home treatments and behaviors may help a person with leukopenia improve their condition and reduce their risk of infection: • eating a healthful diet • getting plenty of rest • avoiding cuts and scrapes • practicing good hygiene to avoid germs • Treatment may also be needed for any infections that result from a reduced white blood cell count. This might include antibiotics or antifungals.