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Heat
•Heat as a form of energy . Heat
can make things hot and we can
use heat to do work.

•We feel hot when the Sun
shines. This shows that the Sun is
a source of heat energy and gives
out heat. Most of the heat on the
Earth comes from the Sun.
•Apart from the Sun, there are many other sources
of heat. Heat can be produced in many ways.

•Here are some activities to show possible heat
sources.
Heat sources                      Activities

   •Rubbing or friction-       •Rub your hands together
rubbing two objects against     for some time and then
  each other can produce       hold them to your cheeks.
          heat.                   Your cheeks will feel
                               warm, showing that heat
                              can be produced by friction.




                                Rubbing hands can produce heat
•Burning- when an       •Burn a candle or a piece of
   object burns, it    paper and put your hands above
produce a flame that        it. Your hands will feel
   gives out heat.        hot, showing that burning
                        substances can produce heat.




                       Burning substances can produce heat
•Electricity – when    •Switch on the electric bulb for
 electric current flows some time and place your hands
through a wire, heat is   near the bulb. Your hands can
       produced.          feel the heat coming out from
                                     the bulb.




                            Electricity can produce heat
•Heat can also be produced by:

a. Bending metal- bending a coat hanger or a
   wire back and forth several times can
   produce heat in the object.

b. Chemical reaction – after mixing solid
   sodium hydroxide with water in a test
   tube, the test tube will get warm.

c. Collision – when an iron nail is hit by a
   hammer several times, the hammer and the
   nail will get hot.
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
•Heat is a useful form of energy. We use heat to:

a.   Cooking food
b.   Drying clothes
c.   Boiling water
d.   Producing steam to generate electricity
e.   Food drying for reservation
f.   Providing warmth
•Heat is a form of energy. An object becomes hot when it
absorbs heat. Heat is measured in Joules (J).

•Temperature measures how hot or cold an object is. The
unit of temperature is degree Celsius ( C) or Kelvin (K).
Temperature can be measured with a thermometer.

•Heat and temperature are different.

•The table below shows the differences between heat
and temperature.
Heat                          Temperature

     • A form of energy             •The degree of hotness or
                                       coldness of a body

     •Heat can do work            •Temperature cannot do work

   •Measured in Joule (J)        •Measured in degree Celsius (C)
                                         or Kelvin (K)

•Transfer from a hot area to a     Increases when heated and
          cold area.                 decreases when cooled
•The amount of heat
•Objects with the same    contained in an object
temperature contain the   depends on
same amount of heat.      a. The type of the
The higher the               material that the
temperature of an            object is made of.
object, the larger the    b. The mass or the size
amount of heat               of the objects, and
contained in it.          c. The temperature of
                             the object.
•Heat only travels from a hotter object (or place)
to a cooler object (or place)
•Heat has several interesting ways of travelling:
       It travel by three ways:
a. By conduction through solids
b. By convection through liquids or gases
c. By radiation through vacuum
•The flow of heat energy through solids such as metals
is called conduction.

•Heat energy uses molecules to help it to get around.

•For example, when a pan is heated, the molecules at
the bottom of the pan start to vibrate energetically.
They collide with their neighboring molecules and
cause them to vibrate faster. The passing of the heat
energy from one molecule to the next continues. In this
way, heat energy travels through the pan and then
through the food in the pan.
•Heat can flow through a liquid or a gas because
heated parts of the liquid gas move.

•Warm air rising above a heater is an example.

•The flow of heat that occurs when a warm liquid
or gas moves is known as convection.
•The process where heat energy travels through an
empty space or a vacuum is known as radiation.

•An example of radiation is the transfer of heat from
the Sun to the Earth through mostly empty space.
Such a transfer cannot occur via convection or
conduction, which requires the movement of material
from one place to another, or the collisions of
molecules within a material.
•Some natural phenomena occur as a result of
heat flow.

•Warming of the earth by the Sun

a. The Sun gives solar energy every day. During
   the day, the Earth’s surface is warmed up
   and during the night, this energy is radiated
   back into space as radiant heat energy.
b. A fraction of the solar energy that reaches the
    Earth is absorbed, causing evaporation of water
    from the oceans, the lakes, the lands and plants.
    Convection current carries the water vapour up
    to the atmosphere to form clouds, which will
    form rains and thunderstorms

c. The warming of the Earth by the Sun can cause
    changes in the climatic conditions of the Earth
    and many natural phenomena such as land ad
    sea breezes, thunderstorms, hurricanes and so
    on.
a. The unequal heating or air over land and water
   will result in breezes near the shores.

b. During the day, both land and sea are heated by
   the Sun. However, the land gets heated up
   faster than the sea. The air above the land
   surface heats up, expands and rises. It is lighter
   than the surroundings air. To replace the rising
   air, cooler air is drawn in from the surface of the
   sea. This is the sea breeze. It can offer a
   pleasant cooling effect on a hot afternoon.
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
c. At night, the land cools faster than the sea. When
this happens, the air over the warmer surface of sea
heats up and rises, pulling in air from the cooler land
surface to replace it. This is the Land breeze.
•A building can be kept cool by having a good
ventilation system, so that air circulation in the
building is ongoing. Hot air from the building flows out
from the top and cool air can flow in from the bottom.

•Most of the traditional houses are built with
ventilation holes at the base of the house and at the
top near the roof. Hot air inside the house will rise and
flow out through the ventilation holes at the roof. Cool
air will enter through the openings at the base of the
house to replace the hot air. This produces a natural
convection current inside the house.
•In modern buildings, the ventilation system is made
more effective by installing exhaust fans and extractor
fans. Hot and humid air can be sucked out and replaced
with fresh and cool air.

•Modern houses are equipped with fans and air
conditioners to make the house cooler. Modern
buildings use centralized air conditioning system to cool
the whole buildings.

•Insulation can also help to keep a building cool.
Buildings with loft insulation, insulating cavity walls or
double gazed windows are usually much cooler than
those which are built without insulating materials.
•When material allow heat to pass through them
rapidly, they are known as conductors. All metals are
good conductors of heat compared with other
materials.

•Other materials like- metals, liquids and gases that do
not allow heat to pass through easily are known as
bad conductors of heat or insulators.
Conductors               Insulators
Mercury (liquid)        Glass
Silver                  Air
Copper                  Water (liquid)
Aluminum                Plastics
Zinc                    Rubber
Iron                    Wood
Lead                    Materials containing trapped air
                        ( wool, plastic foam, expanded
                        polystyrene)
Examples of the uses of heat conductors in
daily life.

         Materials/ devises                Uses
Cooking utensils              •Cooking utensils such as
                              saucepans, pots and kettles are
Insert image                  usually made of aluminum or
                              stainless steel.

kettle                        •They conduct heat quickly and
                              easily to the food as thus save
                              fuels.
Electrical appliances   •Electrical irons and hot plates
                        are made of iron or stainless
Insert image            steel that conducts heat well.

                        •Heat sinks that are used in
iron                    computers, disk drives and
                        televisions as cooling fins are
                        made of aluminum

Others                  •Radiator coils and cooling fins
                        behind the refrigerator are made of
Insert image            copper.

                        •Soldering iron rods are made of
Soldering iron rods     iron with copper tips.
Insulators are used in many applications where
we want to minimize heat flow or heat loss.

   Materials/ devices                         Uses
Wood or plastics             •Handles for cooking utensils, kettles,
                             teapots, soldering iron rods and so on.
                             •They protect our hands from the hot
                             surfaces.
Cork, asbestos sheets, tiles To prevent tabletops from being
                             damages by hot kitchenware or
                             objects.
Sawdust                      To cover ice blocks to slow down the
                             melting process.
Woolen blanket or cloth   •Used to keep the body warm on cold
                          days. The woolen blanket and the air
                          layer trapped inside can prevent heat
                          loss from the body.


Fiberglass, expanded      •Used as insulators in the walls of ice
polystyrene foam          boxes and refrigerators. Air trapped
                          inside acts as insulator.

insulating cavity wall,   Used in the buildings to prevent heat
double- glazed glass      from entering by conduction during

Aluminum                  Plastics the day and prevent heat loss at
                          night.
There are many uses of heat flow in
our daily life:
a. The flow of heat through
   conduction is used for cooking
   and boiling. Conduction of heat
   is also applied in electric irons,
   ovens and toasters.

b. The flow of heat by convection
   and radiation is used to dry wet
   clothes, salted fish and others.     Drying wet
                                         clothes
c. Heat flow through radiation gives us hot water when
we use a solar heater to absorb heat from the Sun.

d. Convection currents can help to improve air
circulation and cool our houses and buildings. Fans and
air conditioners help to cool the surrounding air
through convection currents




                       Air conditioner.
e. Our life can be made healthier and more
comfortable with a good ventilation system in our
houses. Windows, opening and exhaust fans are things
that can help to improve the ventilation of air in a
house. Warm air inside the house can be drawn out
and replaced with fresh, cool air from the outside.
Ventilation of buildings

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Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy

  • 2. •Heat as a form of energy . Heat can make things hot and we can use heat to do work. •We feel hot when the Sun shines. This shows that the Sun is a source of heat energy and gives out heat. Most of the heat on the Earth comes from the Sun.
  • 3. •Apart from the Sun, there are many other sources of heat. Heat can be produced in many ways. •Here are some activities to show possible heat sources.
  • 4. Heat sources Activities •Rubbing or friction- •Rub your hands together rubbing two objects against for some time and then each other can produce hold them to your cheeks. heat. Your cheeks will feel warm, showing that heat can be produced by friction. Rubbing hands can produce heat
  • 5. •Burning- when an •Burn a candle or a piece of object burns, it paper and put your hands above produce a flame that it. Your hands will feel gives out heat. hot, showing that burning substances can produce heat. Burning substances can produce heat
  • 6. •Electricity – when •Switch on the electric bulb for electric current flows some time and place your hands through a wire, heat is near the bulb. Your hands can produced. feel the heat coming out from the bulb. Electricity can produce heat
  • 7. •Heat can also be produced by: a. Bending metal- bending a coat hanger or a wire back and forth several times can produce heat in the object. b. Chemical reaction – after mixing solid sodium hydroxide with water in a test tube, the test tube will get warm. c. Collision – when an iron nail is hit by a hammer several times, the hammer and the nail will get hot.
  • 9. •Heat is a useful form of energy. We use heat to: a. Cooking food b. Drying clothes c. Boiling water d. Producing steam to generate electricity e. Food drying for reservation f. Providing warmth
  • 10. •Heat is a form of energy. An object becomes hot when it absorbs heat. Heat is measured in Joules (J). •Temperature measures how hot or cold an object is. The unit of temperature is degree Celsius ( C) or Kelvin (K). Temperature can be measured with a thermometer. •Heat and temperature are different. •The table below shows the differences between heat and temperature.
  • 11. Heat Temperature • A form of energy •The degree of hotness or coldness of a body •Heat can do work •Temperature cannot do work •Measured in Joule (J) •Measured in degree Celsius (C) or Kelvin (K) •Transfer from a hot area to a Increases when heated and cold area. decreases when cooled
  • 12. •The amount of heat •Objects with the same contained in an object temperature contain the depends on same amount of heat. a. The type of the The higher the material that the temperature of an object is made of. object, the larger the b. The mass or the size amount of heat of the objects, and contained in it. c. The temperature of the object.
  • 13. •Heat only travels from a hotter object (or place) to a cooler object (or place) •Heat has several interesting ways of travelling: It travel by three ways: a. By conduction through solids b. By convection through liquids or gases c. By radiation through vacuum
  • 14. •The flow of heat energy through solids such as metals is called conduction. •Heat energy uses molecules to help it to get around. •For example, when a pan is heated, the molecules at the bottom of the pan start to vibrate energetically. They collide with their neighboring molecules and cause them to vibrate faster. The passing of the heat energy from one molecule to the next continues. In this way, heat energy travels through the pan and then through the food in the pan.
  • 15. •Heat can flow through a liquid or a gas because heated parts of the liquid gas move. •Warm air rising above a heater is an example. •The flow of heat that occurs when a warm liquid or gas moves is known as convection.
  • 16. •The process where heat energy travels through an empty space or a vacuum is known as radiation. •An example of radiation is the transfer of heat from the Sun to the Earth through mostly empty space. Such a transfer cannot occur via convection or conduction, which requires the movement of material from one place to another, or the collisions of molecules within a material.
  • 17. •Some natural phenomena occur as a result of heat flow. •Warming of the earth by the Sun a. The Sun gives solar energy every day. During the day, the Earth’s surface is warmed up and during the night, this energy is radiated back into space as radiant heat energy.
  • 18. b. A fraction of the solar energy that reaches the Earth is absorbed, causing evaporation of water from the oceans, the lakes, the lands and plants. Convection current carries the water vapour up to the atmosphere to form clouds, which will form rains and thunderstorms c. The warming of the Earth by the Sun can cause changes in the climatic conditions of the Earth and many natural phenomena such as land ad sea breezes, thunderstorms, hurricanes and so on.
  • 19. a. The unequal heating or air over land and water will result in breezes near the shores. b. During the day, both land and sea are heated by the Sun. However, the land gets heated up faster than the sea. The air above the land surface heats up, expands and rises. It is lighter than the surroundings air. To replace the rising air, cooler air is drawn in from the surface of the sea. This is the sea breeze. It can offer a pleasant cooling effect on a hot afternoon.
  • 21. c. At night, the land cools faster than the sea. When this happens, the air over the warmer surface of sea heats up and rises, pulling in air from the cooler land surface to replace it. This is the Land breeze.
  • 22. •A building can be kept cool by having a good ventilation system, so that air circulation in the building is ongoing. Hot air from the building flows out from the top and cool air can flow in from the bottom. •Most of the traditional houses are built with ventilation holes at the base of the house and at the top near the roof. Hot air inside the house will rise and flow out through the ventilation holes at the roof. Cool air will enter through the openings at the base of the house to replace the hot air. This produces a natural convection current inside the house.
  • 23. •In modern buildings, the ventilation system is made more effective by installing exhaust fans and extractor fans. Hot and humid air can be sucked out and replaced with fresh and cool air. •Modern houses are equipped with fans and air conditioners to make the house cooler. Modern buildings use centralized air conditioning system to cool the whole buildings. •Insulation can also help to keep a building cool. Buildings with loft insulation, insulating cavity walls or double gazed windows are usually much cooler than those which are built without insulating materials.
  • 24. •When material allow heat to pass through them rapidly, they are known as conductors. All metals are good conductors of heat compared with other materials. •Other materials like- metals, liquids and gases that do not allow heat to pass through easily are known as bad conductors of heat or insulators.
  • 25. Conductors Insulators Mercury (liquid) Glass Silver Air Copper Water (liquid) Aluminum Plastics Zinc Rubber Iron Wood Lead Materials containing trapped air ( wool, plastic foam, expanded polystyrene)
  • 26. Examples of the uses of heat conductors in daily life. Materials/ devises Uses Cooking utensils •Cooking utensils such as saucepans, pots and kettles are Insert image usually made of aluminum or stainless steel. kettle •They conduct heat quickly and easily to the food as thus save fuels.
  • 27. Electrical appliances •Electrical irons and hot plates are made of iron or stainless Insert image steel that conducts heat well. •Heat sinks that are used in iron computers, disk drives and televisions as cooling fins are made of aluminum Others •Radiator coils and cooling fins behind the refrigerator are made of Insert image copper. •Soldering iron rods are made of Soldering iron rods iron with copper tips.
  • 28. Insulators are used in many applications where we want to minimize heat flow or heat loss. Materials/ devices Uses Wood or plastics •Handles for cooking utensils, kettles, teapots, soldering iron rods and so on. •They protect our hands from the hot surfaces. Cork, asbestos sheets, tiles To prevent tabletops from being damages by hot kitchenware or objects. Sawdust To cover ice blocks to slow down the melting process.
  • 29. Woolen blanket or cloth •Used to keep the body warm on cold days. The woolen blanket and the air layer trapped inside can prevent heat loss from the body. Fiberglass, expanded •Used as insulators in the walls of ice polystyrene foam boxes and refrigerators. Air trapped inside acts as insulator. insulating cavity wall, Used in the buildings to prevent heat double- glazed glass from entering by conduction during Aluminum Plastics the day and prevent heat loss at night.
  • 30. There are many uses of heat flow in our daily life: a. The flow of heat through conduction is used for cooking and boiling. Conduction of heat is also applied in electric irons, ovens and toasters. b. The flow of heat by convection and radiation is used to dry wet clothes, salted fish and others. Drying wet clothes
  • 31. c. Heat flow through radiation gives us hot water when we use a solar heater to absorb heat from the Sun. d. Convection currents can help to improve air circulation and cool our houses and buildings. Fans and air conditioners help to cool the surrounding air through convection currents Air conditioner.
  • 32. e. Our life can be made healthier and more comfortable with a good ventilation system in our houses. Windows, opening and exhaust fans are things that can help to improve the ventilation of air in a house. Warm air inside the house can be drawn out and replaced with fresh, cool air from the outside.