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Francesc Pedro: Back into the Future
Back into the Future
Emerging trends in educational innovations in higher education,
before and after the pandemic
How was teaching before the
pandemic?
Francesc Pedro: Back into the Future
The reality of teaching in HE
Main teaching strategies used in business administration programs in 237 European universities
(Leon, 2016)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Teamwork
Discussiones
Problem solving
Case studies
Lecturing
Slow progress
Evolution of teaching strategies in economics programs in US colleges and universities (Asarta,
Chambers & Haarter, 2021)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Lectures Graphs on
blackboards
Powerpoint Overhead
projector
Films Discussions
amongstudents
Discussions
with the
instructor
Clickers Experiments Games and
simulations
Cooperative
learning
2000 2010 2020
Francesc Pedro: Back into the Future
Yet, innovation is more than a
pedagogical imperative
Digitalization, the first driver
Change in teachers and students attitudes in the US after the pandemic (Bay View, 2021)
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Online proctoring
OER
Digital materials
Hybridization
Virtual learning
Teachers
Optimistic Same Pessimistic
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Online proctoring
OER
Digital materials
Hybridization
Virtual learning
Students
Optimistic Same Pessimistic
Skills, the second driver
Most demanded skills in HE graduates by UK companies (The Economist, 2016)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Problem solving
Teamwork
Communication
Critical thinking
Creativity
Literacy
Digital skills
Is this an A or an F?
A third driver lies in the diversification of student academic profiles
Net Access rates to HE in 2005 – 2015 (OECD, 2018)
More students, more diverse, less academically engaged
Average weekly study hours of US college students in 1960 and 2016 (Philip S. Babcock and Mindy
S. Marks., 2018)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1960 2016
- 50 %
Fourth driver: the need to improve HE productivity
Gross HE Access and Graduation Rates (OECD, 2017)
The response: globally emerging
trends in innovation
1. A dramatic change: a shift from content to objectives
Percentage of European universities using an objective-centered approach in study programs in 2010 and 2015
(European University Association, 2015)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Yes, in all courses
Yes, in some courses
No
Don't know
2015 2010
Beyond setting objectives: a competency-based approach
Examples in US undergraduate programs (Measuring College Learning, 2016)
2. PBL is gaining ground
Percentage of US undergraduate programs that require PBL (AACU, 2016)
Required for all
students
23%
Required for some
students
50%
Optional for all
students
11%
Offered option for
some students
10%
Not a current option
6%
3. Hybridization, well before the pandemic and even more after
Student preferred teaching methods when face to face instruction resumes after the pandemic (Bay View Analytics, 2021)
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Follow some of my courses totally online
Follow some of my courses in a hybrid format
Use technology in more courses
Use more digital resources and materials
Totally agree Agree Desagree
The flipped classroom is a good example of hybridization
With a key success factor: student engagement
4. The consolidation of distance HE for the masses
Percentage of all HE students in distance programs (Red INDICES, 2021)
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Argentina Brasil Chile Colombia Cuba Honduras México
Online HE sees demand spike
Interanual change in student demand of distance education programs in US higher education
(National Student Clearinghouse Research Center, 2020)
-7
-1,2
-2,7
-3,5
-4,5
1,5
15,7
5,2
15,8
6,7
Undergraduate full-time
Undergraduate part-time
Graduate full-time
Graduate part-time
Total
Fall 2020 Fall 2019
But do these innovations work?
The paradox: more research is needed
Summary of existing evidence (different sources)
Innovation Evidence on learning gains Cost estimates
Objective vs.
Content
Inexisting, but strong on cultural change Marginal
PBL - Enhances deep learning(ES=0.11) (Dolmans,
Loyens, Marcq & Gijbels, 2016)
- Superior when it comes to long-term retention,
skill development and satisfaction of students and
teachers (Strobel & van Barneveld, 2009)
3 times traditional
Hybridization Superior if used for PBL (ES= 0.5), better student
engagement (Fukuzawa & Boyd, 2016)
2 times traditional
Distance
education
No significant difference (phenomenon) but
interaction is critical for retention and gains (Zhao
et al., 2016)
3-5 times traditional, depending on
degree of interaction
Preach what you pray
A cultural change is pending
Many thanks
www.iesalc.unesco.org

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Francesc Pedro: Back into the Future

  • 2. Back into the Future Emerging trends in educational innovations in higher education, before and after the pandemic
  • 3. How was teaching before the pandemic?
  • 5. The reality of teaching in HE Main teaching strategies used in business administration programs in 237 European universities (Leon, 2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Teamwork Discussiones Problem solving Case studies Lecturing
  • 6. Slow progress Evolution of teaching strategies in economics programs in US colleges and universities (Asarta, Chambers & Haarter, 2021) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Lectures Graphs on blackboards Powerpoint Overhead projector Films Discussions amongstudents Discussions with the instructor Clickers Experiments Games and simulations Cooperative learning 2000 2010 2020
  • 8. Yet, innovation is more than a pedagogical imperative
  • 9. Digitalization, the first driver Change in teachers and students attitudes in the US after the pandemic (Bay View, 2021) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Online proctoring OER Digital materials Hybridization Virtual learning Teachers Optimistic Same Pessimistic 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Online proctoring OER Digital materials Hybridization Virtual learning Students Optimistic Same Pessimistic
  • 10. Skills, the second driver Most demanded skills in HE graduates by UK companies (The Economist, 2016) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Problem solving Teamwork Communication Critical thinking Creativity Literacy Digital skills
  • 11. Is this an A or an F?
  • 12. A third driver lies in the diversification of student academic profiles Net Access rates to HE in 2005 – 2015 (OECD, 2018)
  • 13. More students, more diverse, less academically engaged Average weekly study hours of US college students in 1960 and 2016 (Philip S. Babcock and Mindy S. Marks., 2018) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1960 2016 - 50 %
  • 14. Fourth driver: the need to improve HE productivity Gross HE Access and Graduation Rates (OECD, 2017)
  • 15. The response: globally emerging trends in innovation
  • 16. 1. A dramatic change: a shift from content to objectives Percentage of European universities using an objective-centered approach in study programs in 2010 and 2015 (European University Association, 2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Yes, in all courses Yes, in some courses No Don't know 2015 2010
  • 17. Beyond setting objectives: a competency-based approach Examples in US undergraduate programs (Measuring College Learning, 2016)
  • 18. 2. PBL is gaining ground Percentage of US undergraduate programs that require PBL (AACU, 2016) Required for all students 23% Required for some students 50% Optional for all students 11% Offered option for some students 10% Not a current option 6%
  • 19. 3. Hybridization, well before the pandemic and even more after Student preferred teaching methods when face to face instruction resumes after the pandemic (Bay View Analytics, 2021) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Follow some of my courses totally online Follow some of my courses in a hybrid format Use technology in more courses Use more digital resources and materials Totally agree Agree Desagree
  • 20. The flipped classroom is a good example of hybridization With a key success factor: student engagement
  • 21. 4. The consolidation of distance HE for the masses Percentage of all HE students in distance programs (Red INDICES, 2021) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Argentina Brasil Chile Colombia Cuba Honduras México
  • 22. Online HE sees demand spike Interanual change in student demand of distance education programs in US higher education (National Student Clearinghouse Research Center, 2020) -7 -1,2 -2,7 -3,5 -4,5 1,5 15,7 5,2 15,8 6,7 Undergraduate full-time Undergraduate part-time Graduate full-time Graduate part-time Total Fall 2020 Fall 2019
  • 23. But do these innovations work?
  • 24. The paradox: more research is needed Summary of existing evidence (different sources) Innovation Evidence on learning gains Cost estimates Objective vs. Content Inexisting, but strong on cultural change Marginal PBL - Enhances deep learning(ES=0.11) (Dolmans, Loyens, Marcq & Gijbels, 2016) - Superior when it comes to long-term retention, skill development and satisfaction of students and teachers (Strobel & van Barneveld, 2009) 3 times traditional Hybridization Superior if used for PBL (ES= 0.5), better student engagement (Fukuzawa & Boyd, 2016) 2 times traditional Distance education No significant difference (phenomenon) but interaction is critical for retention and gains (Zhao et al., 2016) 3-5 times traditional, depending on degree of interaction
  • 25. Preach what you pray A cultural change is pending