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WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE
                                       JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS

PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
(PALMER)

PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT/ NURSING JURISPRUDENCE                                 Be a registered nurse and holder of a master's degree in
                                                                               nursing, education or other allied medical profession
A. Patient’s Bill of Rights                                                    conferred by a college or university duly recognized by
                                                                               the Government: Provided, That the majority of the
                                                                               members of the Board shall be holders of a master's
   The patient has the right to considerate & respectful care,
                                                                               degree in nursing: Provided, further, That the Chairperson
    irrespective of socio-economic status.                                     shall be a holder of a master's degree in nursing;
   The patient has the right to obtain from his physician                     Have at least ten (10) years of continuous practice of the
    complete current information concerning his diagnosis,                     profession prior to appointment: Provided, however, That
    treatment and prognosis in terms the patient can reasonably                the last five (5) years of which shall be in the
    be expected to understand.                                                 Philippines; and
   The patient has the right to receive from his physician                     Not have been convicted of any offense involving moral
    information necessary to give informed consent prior to start              turpitude
    of any procedure and or treatment (except in emergencies).
   The patient has the right to refuse treatment / life-giving          The Board shall supervise and regulate the practice of
    measures, to the extent permitted by law and to be informed           the nursing profession and shall have the following
    of the medical consequence of his action.                             powers, duties and functions: CIMECPRP
   The patient has the right to every consideration of his                    Conduct the licensure examination for nurses;
    privacy concerning his own medical care program. Case                      Issue, suspend or revoke certificates of registration for
    discussion, consultation, examination and treatment are                    the practice of nursing;
    confidential and should be conducted discreetly.                           Monitor and enforce quality standards of nursing practice
                                                                               in the Philippines.
   The patient has the right to expect that all communication
                                                                               Ensure quality nursing education
    and records pertaining to his care should be treated as
                                                                               Conduct hearings and investigations to resolve
    confidential.                                                              complaints against nurse practitioners
   The patient has the right that within its capacity, a hospital             Promulgate a Code of Ethics
    must make reasonable response to the request of patient for                Recognize nursing specialty organizations in
    services.                                                                  coordination with the accredited professional
   The patient has the right to obtain information as to any                  organization
    relationship of the hospital to other health care and to other             Prescribe, adopt issue and promulgate guidelines,
    health care and educational institutions in so far as his care             regulations, measures and decisions as may be necessary
    is concerned.                                                              for the improvements of the nursing practice
   The patient has the right to refuse or participate in such
    research projects.                                                   The president may remove or suspend any member of
   The patient has the right to expect reasonable continuity of          the Board after having been given the opportunity to
    care.                                                                 defend himself/herself in a proper administrative
   The patient has the right to examine and receive an                   investigation, on the following grounds:
    explanation of his bill regardless of source of payment.                   Continued neglect of duty or incompetence;
   The patient has the right to know what hospital rules and                  Commission or toleration of irregularities in the licensure
    regulations apply to his conduct as a patient.                             examination; and
                                                                               Unprofessional immoral or dishonorable conduct.
B. Nursing as a Profession
Nursing is a profession. A profession possesses the following         D. Licensure Examination
primary characteristics:
     Education, requires an extended education of its                   In order to be admitted to the examination for nurses, an
         members, as well as basic liberal foundation.                    applicant must, at the time of filing his/her application,
     Theory, has a theoretical body of knowledge leading to              establish to the satisfaction of the Board that:
         defined skills, abilities and norms.                                  He/she is a citizen of the Philippines, or a citizen or
     Service                                                                  subject of a country which permits Filipino nurses to
                                                                               practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as
     Autonomy
                                                                               the subject or citizen of such country: Provided, That the
     Code of ethics                                                           requirements for the registration or licensing of nurses in
     Caring                                                                   said country are substantially the same as those
                                                                               prescribed in this Act;
C. Organization of the Board of Nursing                                        He/she is of good moral character; and
                                                                               He/she is a holder of a Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from
   The Board is composed of a Chairperson and six (6)                         a college or university that complies with the standards of
    members                                                                    nursing education duly recognized by the proper
   That the membership to the Board shall represent the                       government agency.
    three (3) areas of nursing, namely: nursing education,
    nursing service and community health nursing.                        In order to pass the examination, an examinee must
   The Chairperson and Members of the Board shall                        obtain a general average of at least seventy-five
    possess the following qualifications:                                 percent (75%) with a rating of not below sixty
          Be a natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines       percent (60%) in any subject.
          Be a member of good standing of the accredited                       An examinee who obtains an average rating of seventy-
          professional organization of nurses;                                 five percent (75%) or higher but gets a rating below sixty
POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE
*Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students
on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE
                                       JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS

PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
(PALMER)

         percent (60%) in any subject must take the examination                     Possess a degree of Bachelors of Science in Nursing, with
         again but only in the subject or subjects where he/she is                  at least nine (9) units in management and administration
         rated below sixty percent (60%).                                           courses at the graduate level; and
         In order to pass the succeeding examination, an examinee                   Be a member of good standing of the accredited
         must obtain a rating of at least seventy-five percent                      professional organization of nurses;
         (75%) in the subject or subjects repeated.                                 Provided, That a person occupying the position of chief
                                                                                    nurse or director of nursing service shall, in addition to
   A special/temporary permit may be issued by the Board                           the foregoing qualifications, possess:
    to the following persons subject to the approval of the                         At least five (5) years of experience in a supervisory or
    Commission and upon payment of the prescribed fees:                             managerial position in nursing; and
         Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states whose                        A master's degree major in nursing
         service are either for a fee or free if they are
         internationally well-known specialists or outstanding
         experts in any branch or specialty of nursing;                  F. Laws Affecting Nursing Profession
         Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states on
         medical mission whose services shall be free in a               PD 442                Labor Code
         particular hospital, center or clinic; and                      PD 651                Birth registration following delivery (all health
         Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states employed                                workers shall identify and encourage the
         by schools/colleges of nursing as exchange professors                                 registration of all births within 30 days
         in a branch or specialty of nursing;                                                  following delivery)
                                                                         PD 825                Anti- improper garbage disposal
   The Board shall have the power to revoke or suspend the              PD 856                Code of Sanitation
    certificate of registration/professional license or cancel           PD 996                Compulsory immunization for all children
    the special/temporary permit of a nurse upon any of the                                    below eight (8) years old against six (6)
    following grounds:                                                                         immunizable diseases
         Person convicted by final judgment of any criminal              EO 51                 Milk Code
         offense involving moral turpitude or any person guilty of       RA. 1136              Tuberculosis Law
         immoral or dishonorable conduct or any person declared          RA. 3573              Reporting communicable Disease
         by the court to be of unsound mind                              RA. 4073              Liberalized the treatment of Leprosy
         For unprofessional and unethical conduct;                       RA. 6425              Dangerous Drug Act – the sale, administration,
         For gross incompetence or serious ignorance;                                          delivery, distribution and transportation of
         For malpractice or negligence in the practice of nursing;                             prohibited drugs is punished by law.
         For the use of fraud, deceit, or false statements in            RA. 6675              Generics Act of 1988 – this promotes, requires
         obtaining a certificate of registration/professional license                          and ensures the production of an adequate
         or a temporary/special permit;                                                        supply, distribution, use an acceptance of
         For violation of this Act, the rules and regulations, Code of                         drugs and medicines identified by their generic
         Ethics for nurses and technical standards for nursing                                 names.
         practice, policies of the Board and the Commission, or the      RA. 7160              Local Government Code
         conditions and limitations for the issuance of the              RA. 7170              Organ Donation Law
         temporarily/special permit; or                                  RA. 7277              Magna Carta for Disabled persons
         For practicing his/her profession during his/her                RA. 7305              Magna Carta for Public Health workers
         suspension from such practice;                                  RA. 9257              Expanded Senior Citizen Act of 2003
                                                                         RA. 7600              Rooming –In and Breast feeding Act
E. Nursing Education and Practice                                        RA. 7610              Anti-Child Abuse Law
                                                                         RA. 8172              Asin Law / Iodize Salt Law
   A member of the faculty in a college of nursing teaching             RA. 8423              Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act
                                                                         RA. 8504              Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act
    professional courses must:
                                                                         RA. 8976              Food Fortification Act
        Be a registered nurse in the Philippines;
                                                                         RA. 9173              The Nursing Act of 2002
        Have at least one (1) year of clinical practice in a field of
        specialization;
        Be a member of good standing in the accredited                   G. Inform Consent
        professional organization of nurses; and                          Requisites for Validity of Informed Consent
         Be a holder of a master's degree in nursing, education, or           Written permission is best and legally accepted.
        other allied medical and health sciences conferred by a               To ensure that the client understand the nature of the
        college or university duly recognized by the Government               treatment including the potential complications and
        of the Republic of the Philippines.                                   disfigurement (explained by AMD)
        In addition to the aforementioned qualifications, the dean            Signature is obtained with the client’s complete understanding
        of a college must have a master's degree in nursing.                  of what to occur.
        He/she must have at least five (5) years of experience in             - adult sign their own operative permit
        nursing.                                                              - obtained before sedation
                                                                              For minors, parents or someone standing in their behalf,
   A person occupying supervisory or managerial positions                    gives the consent.
    requiring knowledge of nursing must:                                      Note: for a married emancipated minor parental consent is not
                                                                              needed anymore, spouse is accepted
        Be a registered nurse in the Philippines;
                                                                              For mentally ill and unconscious patient, consent must be
        Have at least two (2) years experience in general nursing
                                                                              taken from the parents or legal guardian
        service administration;

POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE
*Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students
on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE
                                         JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS

PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
(PALMER)

      If the patient is unable to write, an “X” ia accepted if there is        Doctrine of Negligence
      a witness to his mark                                                     1. RES IPSA LOQUITOR
      Secured without pressure and threat                                       “the things speak for itself” - the injury is enough proof of
      A witness is desirable – nurse, physician or authorized                   negligence
      persons.                                                                  2. RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR
      When an emergency situation exists, no consent is necessary               Let the master answer for the acts of the subordinate
      because inaction at such time may cause greater injury.                   The liability is expanded to include the master as well as the
      (permission via telephone/cellphone is accepted but must be               employee
      signed within 24hrs.)                                                     3. FORCE MAJEURE
                                                                                Irresistible force; unforeseen or inevitable event
                                                                                No person shall be responsible for those events which cannot be
H. Living Will                                                                  foreseen
 It is a legal declaration of a person’s intentions upon                       Ex. Flood, fire, earthquake
     death.
 The nurse should note the soundness of the patient’s                    J. Malpractice
     mind and that there was free from fraud or undue                        Doing acts or conducts that are not authorized or licensed
                                                                                or competent or skilled to perform, resulting to injuries or
     influence and that the patient was above 18 years or of
                                                                                non-injurious consequences
     age.
                                                                             Stepping beyond one’s authority
 The patient should write that the will was signed by the
                                                                             RN exceeding the scope of nursing practice & does an
     testator, that the witnesses were all present at the same
                                                                                MD’s job.
     time and signed the will I the presence of the testator.
 Advance Directive
                                                                          K. Torts
           Signed request to be allowed to die when life can be
           supported only mechanically or by heroic measures
           Includes the decision to accept or refuse any treatment,              Assault is a unjustifiable attempt to touch another
           service or procedure used to diagnose or treat his/her                 person or even the threat of doing so
           physical or mental condition and decisions to provide                 Battery is the actual carrying out of the threatened
                                                                                  physical contact
   Health Care Proxy                                                            Defamation of character occurs where a person
           The patient designates a health care representative,
                                                                                  discusses another individual in terms that diminish
           usually a member of the family, a friend or a family
           physician to make decisions for him/her when he/she is                 reputation. Libel is written defamation. Slander is oral
           unable, due to physical or mental incapacity, accept or                Defamation
           refuse treatment, service or procedure used to diagnose               False Imprisonment it is making someone wrongfully
           or treat his/her physical or mental condition and                      feel that he or she cannot leave the place.
           decisions to provide, withhold or withdraw life sustaining
           measures                                                       L. Restraints
                                                                             Restraints are protective devices used to limit the physical
I. Negligence                                                                   activity of a client or to immobilize a client or an
                                                                                extremity.
   NEGLIGENCE” refers to the commission or omission of                           R-equires physician’s order; consent
    an act, pursuant to a duty, that a reasonably prudent                         E-mergency, get MD’s order ASAP
    person in the same or similar circumstance would or                           S-hortest duration, least restrictive type
    would not to, and acting or the non-acting of which is the                    T-o protect pt. and others
    proximate cause of injury to another person to his                            R-enew order every 24 hours
    property.                                                                     A-ssess every 15 to 30 minutes and document
                                                                                  I-ndividualized supervision
   Elements of Negligence:
                                                                                  N-ever used as a punishment
       Existence of a duty on the part of the person charged                      T-otal documentation
       Failure to meet the standard of due care                                   S-eclusion as last step
       Harm resulting from failure to meet the standard
   Specific examples of Negligence:                                      M. Crimes
           Failure to report observations to attending Physicians           Conspiracy to commit a crime:
           Failure to exercise the degree of diligence which the                      Principals- are those who take a direct part in the
           circumstances of the particular case demands                               execution of the act, who’s directly force or induce others
           Mistaken Identity                                                          to commit it; or who cooperate in the commission of the
           Wrong medicine, wrong concentration, wrong route,                          offense by another act without which it would not have
           wrong dose                                                                 been accomplished.
           Defects in the equipment such as stretchers and                            Accomplices- are those who, not being principals,
           wheelchairs may lead to falls thus injuring the patients                   cooperate in the execution of the offense by previous and
           Errors due to family assistance                                            simultaneous act.
                                                                                      Accessories- are those who, having the knowledge of the
                                                                                      commission of the crime. Assisting the offender to profit
                                                                                      from the crime either by disposing the body, concealing
                                                                                      or assisting in escape of the principal of the crime.


POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE
*Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students
on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE
                                            JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS

PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
(PALMER)

        Degree of the acts of execution:                                            Non Experimental, the researcher collects data without
             Consummated- when all the elements necessary for its                     introducing any treatment or making any changes.
             execution and accomplishment are present.                               Quasi – Experimental, is like experimental research because
                                                                                      it actively introduces some form of treatment or manipulation
             Frustrated- when the offender performs all the acts or
                                                                                      of an independent variable.
             execution which will produce the felony as a consequence
                                                                                     Quantitative Research, a formal, objective, systematic
             but which nevertheless, do not produce it by reason of
                                                                                      process in which numerical data are used to obtain
             causes independent of the will of the perpetrator.
                                                                                      information about the world.
             Attempted- when the offender commences the                              Qualitative Research, systematic, interactive, subjective
             commission of the same directly by overt acts, and does                  approach used to describe life experiences and give them
             not perform the acts which shall produce the felony.                     meaning.
                                                                                     Phenomenological Research, begin with accumulation of
                                                                                      evidence when little topic is known or when studying new
                                                                                      topic it involves gathering of fresh perspective.
LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT                                                            Grounded Theory Research, the primary purpose of
                                                                                      grounded theory research is to develop a theory. The
A. Leadership Style                                                                   concepts and theories discovered through this research
                                                                                      approach are derived directly from the data.
          Authoritarian leadership style or autocratic leader                       Ethnographic Research, a tool for studying cultures
                                                                                     Narrative Research, Focus on story as the object of inquiry,
           keeps strict, close control over followers by keeping
                                                                                      to determine how individuals make sense of events in their
           close regulation of policy and procedures given to                         lives.
           followers.
          Democratic leadership style consists of the leader
           sharing the decision-making abilities with group                   B. Differences Between Conceptual and Theoretical
           members by promoting the interests of the group                    Model
           members and by practicing social equality.
          Laissez faire style is sometimes described as a
           "hands off" leadership style because the leader                          Conceptual Model or              Theoretical Model or
           delegates the tasks to their followers while providing                        Paradigm                        Framework
           little or no direction to the followers
                                                                              It is a pre-theoretical basis     It proposes a framework
                                                                              from which substantive            derived from theories
Transactional Leadership                    Transformational
                                                                              theories may be derived
                                                Leadership                    It is highly abstract             It is less abstract
Focuses on management                 Identify common values                  Concept are related and           Concepts are narrowly
task                                                                          multidimensional                  bounded, specific and explicitly
Caretaker                             Is committed                                                              interrelated.
                                                                              It provides a perspective for     It postulates relationship.
Uses trade-offs to meet               Inspires other with vision              science                           It is descriptive, explanatory or
goals                                                                                                           predictive.
                                                                              It is derived from systematic     It is constructed from available
Shared values not identified          Has a long term vision                  observation and intuition.        theories and findings of
                                                                                                                empirical research.
Examines causes                       Looks at effect                         It is developed through the       It is develop through the
Uses contingency reward               Empowers other                          process of intuition              process of induction and
                                                                                                                deduction.
                                                                              It must be evaluated through      It permits empirical tests.
                                                                              logical grounds and cannot be
                                                                              empirically tested.
RESEARCH

A. Types of Research
                                                                              C. Variables
        Basic / Pure Research, it is done for the intellectual pleasure
         of learning to search for knowledge for its own sake and                    Independent Variables (CAUSE), These are factors
         eventually filter down the result into real life situation.                  that are being manipulated by the researcher and the
        Applied Research, seeks for practical application of                         focus of the inquiry.
         theoretical or abstract knowledge. The truth is adapted to                  Dependent Variable (EFFECT), This is the factor or
         every situation.                                                             variable that is affected or influenced by the
        Action Research, the process involves the study of certain                   independent variable.
         problem and from that experience, decisions, actions and                    Intervening Variable (MEDIATOR), This is a factor or
         conclusion are drawn.
                                                                                      variable that exists between the independent and the
        Correlational      Research,     involves       the     systematic
         investigation of relationship between or among variables.                    dependent variable.
        Experimental, an objective, systematic, highly controlled                   Moderator Variable, This is a variable that affects the
         investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling                  strength or direction of the relationship between the
         phenomena in nursing practice.                                               independent and the dependent variables.

POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE
*Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students
on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE
                                         JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS

PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
(PALMER)

                                                                           Systematic Sampling – consist of taking every nth
Examples                                                                    person in a school, community telephone directory.
IV Independent Variables                                                   Cluster Sampling – small sample is taken from
DV Dependent Variable                                                       various section of a total population.
                                                                           Convenience or Accidental Sampling – data is
                                                                            collected from anyone most conveniently available.
     Self-Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics of Staff      Snowball or Network Sampling – involves subjects
     Nurses (IV) in Relation to Patient’s Satisfaction Index (DV)
                                                                            suggesting or referring other subjects who meet the
     Thermoregulation of Infants (DV ) utilizing Mineral Water              researcher’s criteria.
     Container and Droplight (IV)                                           Judgmental or Purposive Sampling – researcher
                                                                            selects and studies a specific number of a special group
                                                                            that represent the target population with regards to
D. Hypothesis                                                               certain characteristics such as age, sex or economic
  Simple Hypotheses – predicts the relationship                            status.
     between one independent variable and one dependent                    Cross-cultural Sampling – conducted in a variety of
     variable.                                                              cultural settings.
         Example: Performance in the College of Nursing is                 Longitudinal Sampling – given group of subjects are
         related to success in the nurse’s licensure exam.                  studied for an extended period of time
                                                                           Cross-sectional Sampling – subjects are observed at
      Complex Hypotheses – predicts the relationship                       only one point in time.
       between two or more independent variables and two                   Quota Sampling – identifies the strata of the
       or more dependent variables.                                         population and determines the proportion of elements.
           Example: Heredity, home environment and quality
           of instruction are related to intelligence,
           motivation and performance of school.

      Directional/Predictive Hypotheses – specifies the
       direction of relationship between the variables being
       studied.
           Example: People who smoke are more prone to
           lung cancer than those who do not smoke.

      Non Directional Hypotheses – predicts only that
       there is a relationship between the variables being
       studied but does not specify what it is.
           Example: There is a difference in the level of
           anxiety of pre-operative patients who receive pre-
           operative instruction than those who do not
           receive such instruction.

      Statistical / Null Hypotheses – is an assumption that
       there is no difference between the studied variables.
           Example: There will be no correlation between
           liberalization attitudes and completion of a course
           in human sexuality.

      Research Hypotheses – this is also referred to as
       substantive or declarative hypotheses or statement of
       expected relationship between variables.
          Example: There is a significant relationship
          between maternal heroin addiction and birth
          weight of infants.


E. Sampling Technique

      Simple Random Sampling – the selection of sample is
       done by chance. e.g Lottery draw
      Stratified Random Sampling – population is
       subdivided into areas, section then random sample as
       are taken from each.

POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE
*Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students
on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE

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July 2012 nle tips palmer

  • 1. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH (PALMER) PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT/ NURSING JURISPRUDENCE Be a registered nurse and holder of a master's degree in nursing, education or other allied medical profession A. Patient’s Bill of Rights conferred by a college or university duly recognized by the Government: Provided, That the majority of the members of the Board shall be holders of a master's  The patient has the right to considerate & respectful care, degree in nursing: Provided, further, That the Chairperson irrespective of socio-economic status. shall be a holder of a master's degree in nursing;  The patient has the right to obtain from his physician Have at least ten (10) years of continuous practice of the complete current information concerning his diagnosis, profession prior to appointment: Provided, however, That treatment and prognosis in terms the patient can reasonably the last five (5) years of which shall be in the be expected to understand. Philippines; and  The patient has the right to receive from his physician Not have been convicted of any offense involving moral information necessary to give informed consent prior to start turpitude of any procedure and or treatment (except in emergencies).  The patient has the right to refuse treatment / life-giving  The Board shall supervise and regulate the practice of measures, to the extent permitted by law and to be informed the nursing profession and shall have the following of the medical consequence of his action. powers, duties and functions: CIMECPRP  The patient has the right to every consideration of his Conduct the licensure examination for nurses; privacy concerning his own medical care program. Case Issue, suspend or revoke certificates of registration for discussion, consultation, examination and treatment are the practice of nursing; confidential and should be conducted discreetly. Monitor and enforce quality standards of nursing practice in the Philippines.  The patient has the right to expect that all communication Ensure quality nursing education and records pertaining to his care should be treated as Conduct hearings and investigations to resolve confidential. complaints against nurse practitioners  The patient has the right that within its capacity, a hospital Promulgate a Code of Ethics must make reasonable response to the request of patient for Recognize nursing specialty organizations in services. coordination with the accredited professional  The patient has the right to obtain information as to any organization relationship of the hospital to other health care and to other Prescribe, adopt issue and promulgate guidelines, health care and educational institutions in so far as his care regulations, measures and decisions as may be necessary is concerned. for the improvements of the nursing practice  The patient has the right to refuse or participate in such research projects.  The president may remove or suspend any member of  The patient has the right to expect reasonable continuity of the Board after having been given the opportunity to care. defend himself/herself in a proper administrative  The patient has the right to examine and receive an investigation, on the following grounds: explanation of his bill regardless of source of payment. Continued neglect of duty or incompetence;  The patient has the right to know what hospital rules and Commission or toleration of irregularities in the licensure regulations apply to his conduct as a patient. examination; and Unprofessional immoral or dishonorable conduct. B. Nursing as a Profession Nursing is a profession. A profession possesses the following D. Licensure Examination primary characteristics:  Education, requires an extended education of its  In order to be admitted to the examination for nurses, an members, as well as basic liberal foundation. applicant must, at the time of filing his/her application,  Theory, has a theoretical body of knowledge leading to establish to the satisfaction of the Board that: defined skills, abilities and norms. He/she is a citizen of the Philippines, or a citizen or  Service subject of a country which permits Filipino nurses to practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as  Autonomy the subject or citizen of such country: Provided, That the  Code of ethics requirements for the registration or licensing of nurses in  Caring said country are substantially the same as those prescribed in this Act; C. Organization of the Board of Nursing He/she is of good moral character; and He/she is a holder of a Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from  The Board is composed of a Chairperson and six (6) a college or university that complies with the standards of members nursing education duly recognized by the proper  That the membership to the Board shall represent the government agency. three (3) areas of nursing, namely: nursing education, nursing service and community health nursing.  In order to pass the examination, an examinee must  The Chairperson and Members of the Board shall obtain a general average of at least seventy-five possess the following qualifications: percent (75%) with a rating of not below sixty Be a natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines percent (60%) in any subject. Be a member of good standing of the accredited An examinee who obtains an average rating of seventy- professional organization of nurses; five percent (75%) or higher but gets a rating below sixty POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE *Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
  • 2. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH (PALMER) percent (60%) in any subject must take the examination Possess a degree of Bachelors of Science in Nursing, with again but only in the subject or subjects where he/she is at least nine (9) units in management and administration rated below sixty percent (60%). courses at the graduate level; and In order to pass the succeeding examination, an examinee Be a member of good standing of the accredited must obtain a rating of at least seventy-five percent professional organization of nurses; (75%) in the subject or subjects repeated. Provided, That a person occupying the position of chief nurse or director of nursing service shall, in addition to  A special/temporary permit may be issued by the Board the foregoing qualifications, possess: to the following persons subject to the approval of the At least five (5) years of experience in a supervisory or Commission and upon payment of the prescribed fees: managerial position in nursing; and Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states whose A master's degree major in nursing service are either for a fee or free if they are internationally well-known specialists or outstanding experts in any branch or specialty of nursing; F. Laws Affecting Nursing Profession Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states on medical mission whose services shall be free in a PD 442 Labor Code particular hospital, center or clinic; and PD 651 Birth registration following delivery (all health Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states employed workers shall identify and encourage the by schools/colleges of nursing as exchange professors registration of all births within 30 days in a branch or specialty of nursing; following delivery) PD 825 Anti- improper garbage disposal  The Board shall have the power to revoke or suspend the PD 856 Code of Sanitation certificate of registration/professional license or cancel PD 996 Compulsory immunization for all children the special/temporary permit of a nurse upon any of the below eight (8) years old against six (6) following grounds: immunizable diseases Person convicted by final judgment of any criminal EO 51 Milk Code offense involving moral turpitude or any person guilty of RA. 1136 Tuberculosis Law immoral or dishonorable conduct or any person declared RA. 3573 Reporting communicable Disease by the court to be of unsound mind RA. 4073 Liberalized the treatment of Leprosy For unprofessional and unethical conduct; RA. 6425 Dangerous Drug Act – the sale, administration, For gross incompetence or serious ignorance; delivery, distribution and transportation of For malpractice or negligence in the practice of nursing; prohibited drugs is punished by law. For the use of fraud, deceit, or false statements in RA. 6675 Generics Act of 1988 – this promotes, requires obtaining a certificate of registration/professional license and ensures the production of an adequate or a temporary/special permit; supply, distribution, use an acceptance of For violation of this Act, the rules and regulations, Code of drugs and medicines identified by their generic Ethics for nurses and technical standards for nursing names. practice, policies of the Board and the Commission, or the RA. 7160 Local Government Code conditions and limitations for the issuance of the RA. 7170 Organ Donation Law temporarily/special permit; or RA. 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled persons For practicing his/her profession during his/her RA. 7305 Magna Carta for Public Health workers suspension from such practice; RA. 9257 Expanded Senior Citizen Act of 2003 RA. 7600 Rooming –In and Breast feeding Act E. Nursing Education and Practice RA. 7610 Anti-Child Abuse Law RA. 8172 Asin Law / Iodize Salt Law  A member of the faculty in a college of nursing teaching RA. 8423 Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act RA. 8504 Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act professional courses must: RA. 8976 Food Fortification Act Be a registered nurse in the Philippines; RA. 9173 The Nursing Act of 2002 Have at least one (1) year of clinical practice in a field of specialization; Be a member of good standing in the accredited G. Inform Consent professional organization of nurses; and  Requisites for Validity of Informed Consent Be a holder of a master's degree in nursing, education, or Written permission is best and legally accepted. other allied medical and health sciences conferred by a To ensure that the client understand the nature of the college or university duly recognized by the Government treatment including the potential complications and of the Republic of the Philippines. disfigurement (explained by AMD) In addition to the aforementioned qualifications, the dean Signature is obtained with the client’s complete understanding of a college must have a master's degree in nursing. of what to occur. He/she must have at least five (5) years of experience in - adult sign their own operative permit nursing. - obtained before sedation For minors, parents or someone standing in their behalf,  A person occupying supervisory or managerial positions gives the consent. requiring knowledge of nursing must: Note: for a married emancipated minor parental consent is not needed anymore, spouse is accepted Be a registered nurse in the Philippines; For mentally ill and unconscious patient, consent must be Have at least two (2) years experience in general nursing taken from the parents or legal guardian service administration; POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE *Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
  • 3. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH (PALMER) If the patient is unable to write, an “X” ia accepted if there is  Doctrine of Negligence a witness to his mark 1. RES IPSA LOQUITOR Secured without pressure and threat “the things speak for itself” - the injury is enough proof of A witness is desirable – nurse, physician or authorized negligence persons. 2. RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR When an emergency situation exists, no consent is necessary Let the master answer for the acts of the subordinate because inaction at such time may cause greater injury. The liability is expanded to include the master as well as the (permission via telephone/cellphone is accepted but must be employee signed within 24hrs.) 3. FORCE MAJEURE Irresistible force; unforeseen or inevitable event No person shall be responsible for those events which cannot be H. Living Will foreseen  It is a legal declaration of a person’s intentions upon Ex. Flood, fire, earthquake death.  The nurse should note the soundness of the patient’s J. Malpractice mind and that there was free from fraud or undue  Doing acts or conducts that are not authorized or licensed or competent or skilled to perform, resulting to injuries or influence and that the patient was above 18 years or of non-injurious consequences age.  Stepping beyond one’s authority  The patient should write that the will was signed by the  RN exceeding the scope of nursing practice & does an testator, that the witnesses were all present at the same MD’s job. time and signed the will I the presence of the testator.  Advance Directive K. Torts Signed request to be allowed to die when life can be supported only mechanically or by heroic measures Includes the decision to accept or refuse any treatment,  Assault is a unjustifiable attempt to touch another service or procedure used to diagnose or treat his/her person or even the threat of doing so physical or mental condition and decisions to provide  Battery is the actual carrying out of the threatened physical contact  Health Care Proxy  Defamation of character occurs where a person The patient designates a health care representative, discusses another individual in terms that diminish usually a member of the family, a friend or a family physician to make decisions for him/her when he/she is reputation. Libel is written defamation. Slander is oral unable, due to physical or mental incapacity, accept or Defamation refuse treatment, service or procedure used to diagnose  False Imprisonment it is making someone wrongfully or treat his/her physical or mental condition and feel that he or she cannot leave the place. decisions to provide, withhold or withdraw life sustaining measures L. Restraints  Restraints are protective devices used to limit the physical I. Negligence activity of a client or to immobilize a client or an extremity.  NEGLIGENCE” refers to the commission or omission of R-equires physician’s order; consent an act, pursuant to a duty, that a reasonably prudent E-mergency, get MD’s order ASAP person in the same or similar circumstance would or S-hortest duration, least restrictive type would not to, and acting or the non-acting of which is the T-o protect pt. and others proximate cause of injury to another person to his R-enew order every 24 hours property. A-ssess every 15 to 30 minutes and document I-ndividualized supervision  Elements of Negligence: N-ever used as a punishment Existence of a duty on the part of the person charged T-otal documentation Failure to meet the standard of due care S-eclusion as last step Harm resulting from failure to meet the standard  Specific examples of Negligence: M. Crimes Failure to report observations to attending Physicians  Conspiracy to commit a crime: Failure to exercise the degree of diligence which the Principals- are those who take a direct part in the circumstances of the particular case demands execution of the act, who’s directly force or induce others Mistaken Identity to commit it; or who cooperate in the commission of the Wrong medicine, wrong concentration, wrong route, offense by another act without which it would not have wrong dose been accomplished. Defects in the equipment such as stretchers and Accomplices- are those who, not being principals, wheelchairs may lead to falls thus injuring the patients cooperate in the execution of the offense by previous and Errors due to family assistance simultaneous act. Accessories- are those who, having the knowledge of the commission of the crime. Assisting the offender to profit from the crime either by disposing the body, concealing or assisting in escape of the principal of the crime. POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE *Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
  • 4. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH (PALMER)  Degree of the acts of execution:  Non Experimental, the researcher collects data without Consummated- when all the elements necessary for its introducing any treatment or making any changes. execution and accomplishment are present.  Quasi – Experimental, is like experimental research because it actively introduces some form of treatment or manipulation Frustrated- when the offender performs all the acts or of an independent variable. execution which will produce the felony as a consequence  Quantitative Research, a formal, objective, systematic but which nevertheless, do not produce it by reason of process in which numerical data are used to obtain causes independent of the will of the perpetrator. information about the world. Attempted- when the offender commences the  Qualitative Research, systematic, interactive, subjective commission of the same directly by overt acts, and does approach used to describe life experiences and give them not perform the acts which shall produce the felony. meaning.  Phenomenological Research, begin with accumulation of evidence when little topic is known or when studying new topic it involves gathering of fresh perspective. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT  Grounded Theory Research, the primary purpose of grounded theory research is to develop a theory. The A. Leadership Style concepts and theories discovered through this research approach are derived directly from the data.  Authoritarian leadership style or autocratic leader  Ethnographic Research, a tool for studying cultures  Narrative Research, Focus on story as the object of inquiry, keeps strict, close control over followers by keeping to determine how individuals make sense of events in their close regulation of policy and procedures given to lives. followers.  Democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group B. Differences Between Conceptual and Theoretical members by promoting the interests of the group Model members and by practicing social equality.  Laissez faire style is sometimes described as a "hands off" leadership style because the leader Conceptual Model or Theoretical Model or delegates the tasks to their followers while providing Paradigm Framework little or no direction to the followers It is a pre-theoretical basis It proposes a framework from which substantive derived from theories Transactional Leadership Transformational theories may be derived Leadership It is highly abstract It is less abstract Focuses on management Identify common values Concept are related and Concepts are narrowly task multidimensional bounded, specific and explicitly Caretaker Is committed interrelated. It provides a perspective for It postulates relationship. Uses trade-offs to meet Inspires other with vision science It is descriptive, explanatory or goals predictive. It is derived from systematic It is constructed from available Shared values not identified Has a long term vision observation and intuition. theories and findings of empirical research. Examines causes Looks at effect It is developed through the It is develop through the Uses contingency reward Empowers other process of intuition process of induction and deduction. It must be evaluated through It permits empirical tests. logical grounds and cannot be empirically tested. RESEARCH A. Types of Research C. Variables  Basic / Pure Research, it is done for the intellectual pleasure of learning to search for knowledge for its own sake and  Independent Variables (CAUSE), These are factors eventually filter down the result into real life situation. that are being manipulated by the researcher and the  Applied Research, seeks for practical application of focus of the inquiry. theoretical or abstract knowledge. The truth is adapted to  Dependent Variable (EFFECT), This is the factor or every situation. variable that is affected or influenced by the  Action Research, the process involves the study of certain independent variable. problem and from that experience, decisions, actions and  Intervening Variable (MEDIATOR), This is a factor or conclusion are drawn. variable that exists between the independent and the  Correlational Research, involves the systematic investigation of relationship between or among variables. dependent variable.  Experimental, an objective, systematic, highly controlled  Moderator Variable, This is a variable that affects the investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling strength or direction of the relationship between the phenomena in nursing practice. independent and the dependent variables. POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE *Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE
  • 5. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE THE PNLE JULY 2012 PNLE PEARLS OF SUCCESS PART 4: PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT, LEADERSHIP&MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH (PALMER)  Systematic Sampling – consist of taking every nth Examples person in a school, community telephone directory. IV Independent Variables  Cluster Sampling – small sample is taken from DV Dependent Variable various section of a total population.  Convenience or Accidental Sampling – data is collected from anyone most conveniently available. Self-Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics of Staff  Snowball or Network Sampling – involves subjects Nurses (IV) in Relation to Patient’s Satisfaction Index (DV) suggesting or referring other subjects who meet the Thermoregulation of Infants (DV ) utilizing Mineral Water researcher’s criteria. Container and Droplight (IV)  Judgmental or Purposive Sampling – researcher selects and studies a specific number of a special group that represent the target population with regards to D. Hypothesis certain characteristics such as age, sex or economic  Simple Hypotheses – predicts the relationship status. between one independent variable and one dependent  Cross-cultural Sampling – conducted in a variety of variable. cultural settings. Example: Performance in the College of Nursing is  Longitudinal Sampling – given group of subjects are related to success in the nurse’s licensure exam. studied for an extended period of time  Cross-sectional Sampling – subjects are observed at  Complex Hypotheses – predicts the relationship only one point in time. between two or more independent variables and two  Quota Sampling – identifies the strata of the or more dependent variables. population and determines the proportion of elements. Example: Heredity, home environment and quality of instruction are related to intelligence, motivation and performance of school.  Directional/Predictive Hypotheses – specifies the direction of relationship between the variables being studied. Example: People who smoke are more prone to lung cancer than those who do not smoke.  Non Directional Hypotheses – predicts only that there is a relationship between the variables being studied but does not specify what it is. Example: There is a difference in the level of anxiety of pre-operative patients who receive pre- operative instruction than those who do not receive such instruction.  Statistical / Null Hypotheses – is an assumption that there is no difference between the studied variables. Example: There will be no correlation between liberalization attitudes and completion of a course in human sexuality.  Research Hypotheses – this is also referred to as substantive or declarative hypotheses or statement of expected relationship between variables. Example: There is a significant relationship between maternal heroin addiction and birth weight of infants. E. Sampling Technique  Simple Random Sampling – the selection of sample is done by chance. e.g Lottery draw  Stratified Random Sampling – population is subdivided into areas, section then random sample as are taken from each. POSSIBLE TOPICS ON PALMER FOR THE UPCOMING JULY 2012 PNLE *Patterned on the previous board exams from December 2006 – December 2011… the purpose of this note is to GUIDE students on the possible topics that might be part of the upcoming July 2012 PNLE