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Introduction to Text Analysis

MLA Annual Convention
Getting Started in the Digital Humanities
January 9, 2014
Lauren F. Klein
Georgia Institute of Technology
lauren.klein@lmc.gatech.edu
@laurenfklein
Introduction to Text Analysis
• What is text analysis?
Introduction to Text Analysis
• What is text analysis?
• Why should you use it?
Introduction to Text Analysis
• What is text analysis?
• Why should you use it?
• How do you use it?
– Examples
– Tools
What is Text Analysis?
What is Text Analysis?
According to Geoffrey Rockwell:

•

“Text analysis systems can search large texts quickly. They do this by preparing
electronic indexes to the text so that the computer does not have to read through
the entire text. When finding words can be done so quickly that it is "interactive",
it changes how you can work with the text - you can serendipitously explore
without being frustrated by the slowness of the search process.

•

“Text analysis systems can conduct complex searches. Text analysis systems will
often allow you to search for lists of words or for complex patterns of words. For
example you can search for the co-occurrence of two words.

•

“Text analysis systems can present the results in ways that suit the study of
texts. Text analysis systems can display the results in a number of ways; for
example, a Keyword In Context display shows you all the occurrences of the found
word with one line of context.”

http://tada.mcmaster.ca/Main/WhatTA
http://www.wordle.net
http://www.wordle.net
Why Use Text Analysis?
Why Use Text Analysis?
Geoff Rockwell, again:

•
•
•

“Text analysis tools aide the interpreter asking questions of electronic texts.”
“Text analysis practices encourage reflection on the questions asked and
formalization of queries.”
“Text analysis is a way of targeting rereading that tests intuitions.”
Why Use Text Analysis?
Geoff Rockwell, again:

•
•
•

“Text analysis tools aide the interpreter asking questions of electronic texts.”
“Text analysis practices encourage reflection on the questions asked and
formalization of queries.”
“Text analysis is a way of targeting rereading that tests intuitions.”
Why Use Text Analysis?
Geoff Rockwell, again:

•
•
•

“Text analysis tools aide the interpreter asking questions of electronic texts.”
“Text analysis practices encourage reflection on the questions asked and
formalization of queries.”
“Text analysis is a way of targeting rereading that tests intuitions.”

Ted Underwood:
• “Proving a literary thesis with statistical analysis is often like cracking a nut with a
jackhammer. You can do it: but the results are not necessarily better than you
would get by hand.”
Why Use Text Analysis?
Geoff Rockwell, again:

•
•
•

“Text analysis tools aide the interpreter asking questions of electronic texts.”
“Text analysis practices encourage reflection on the questions asked and
formalization of queries.”
“Text analysis is a way of targeting rereading that tests intuitions.”

Ted Underwood:
• “Proving a literary thesis with statistical analysis is often like cracking a nut with a
jackhammer. You can do it: but the results are not necessarily better than you
would get by hand.”

What I think (in the spirit of Movable Type):
• Text analysis as “a way to tell a new story.”
How to Use Text Analysis?
Ben Blatt,
http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2013/11/hunger_games_catching_fire_a_text
Sarah Lohman,
http://www.fourpoundsflour.com/the-gallery-data-visualization-of-a-timeline-of-taste/
Daniel, http://lkleincourses.lmc.gatech.edu/dh12/2012/02/22/the-role-of-senses-in-a-studyin-scarlet/
Ted Underwood and Jordan Sellers, http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-2/theemergence-of-literary-diction-by-ted-underwood-and-jordan-sellers/
Rob Nelson, http://dsl.richmond.edu/dispatch/
Matt Jockers, http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/data-mining-classics-makes-beautifulscience-954577
Matt Jockers, from Macroanalysis (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2013)
Lauren Klein, from “The Image of Absence” (American Literature 85.4)
Tools for Text Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Wordle
Google Ngram Viewer
IBM Many Eyes
Voyant
MONK (requires institutional access)
MALLET
Stanford’s Natural Language Processing Toolkit
R
Google Ngram Viewer

Google Ngram Viewer
https://books.google.com/ngrams
IBM Many Eyes

Many Eyes
http://www-958.ibm.com/software/analytics/manyeyes/
Voyant Tools

Voyant Tools
http://voyant-tools.org/
MALLET

MALLET
http://mallet.cs.umass.edu/
Stanford NLP Toolkit

Stanford NLP Toolkit
http://nlp.stanford.edu/downloads/
R Programming Language

R (programming language)
http://www.r-project.org/
TAPoR

TAPoR (Text Analysis PoRtal)
http://tapor.ca/
More Lists of Tools
• http://toolingup.stanford.edu/?page_id=367
• http://guides.library.upenn.edu/dhtextanalysi
s
• http://dirt.projectbamboo.org/categories/text
-mining
Many Eyes Demo

http://lkle.in/1bTr2eT
Voyant Tools Demo

http://lkle.in/1e186zN

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Introduction to Text Analysis