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Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 1
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 2
What is Human intelligence?
•  It’s	a	composi?on	of	abili?es	like	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	
3	
Learning
Understanding of
Language
PerceivingReasoning
Feeling
What is intelligence?	
	•  The	ability	to	learn	or	understand	from	experience	
•  The	ability	to	acquire	and	retain	knowledge	
•  The	ability	to	respond	quickly	and	successfully	to	a	
new	situa?on	
•  The	ability	to	use	reason	to	solve	problems	
	
	
	
	
If	 intelligence	 is	 learning,	 understanding,	 retaining,	
responding,	and	using	reason	then	what	is	AI?	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 4
Quick Answer from Academia
q 		Modeling	human	cogni8on	using	computers.	
q 		Study	of	making	computers	do	things	which	at	the	moment	people		
							are	beNer	at..	
q 		Making	computers	do	things	which	require	intelligence.	
	
	
	
	
	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 5
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 6	
More Formal Definition of AI
q AI	is	a	branch	of	computer	science	which	is	concerned	with	the	study	
and	crea?on	of	computer	systems	that	exhibit	
								Some	form	of	intelligence.	
								Or	
								Those	characteris?cs	which	we	associate	with	intelligence	in	
								human	behavior.	
	
q It	is	the	science	and	engineering	of	making	intelligent	machines,	
especially	intelligent	computer	programs.
What’s Involved in Intelligence? 	
q 		Ability	to	interact	with	the	real	world		
Ø 					To	perceive,	understand,	and	act		
•  		e.g.,	speech	recogni?on	and	understanding		
q 		Searching	the	best	solu?on	-	medical	
q 		Reasoning	and	Planning	
Ø 						Modeling	the	external	world	–	delivery	robot	
Ø 						Solving	new	problems,	planning,	and	making	decisions		
Ø 						Ability	to	deal	with	unexpected	problems,	uncertain?es		
q 		Learning	and	Adapta?on	
Ø 								We	are	con?nuously	learning	and	adap?ng		
Ø 							our	internal	models	are	always	being	“updated”	
•  				e.g.,	a	baby	learning	to	categorize	and	recognize	animals		
	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 7
John McCarthy
•  (September	4,	1927	–	October	24,	2011)	was	an	American	
Computer	Scien?st	And	Cogni?ve	Scien?st.		
•  McCarthy	was	one	of	the	founders	of	the	discipline	of	
Ar?ficial	Intelligence.	
•  He	coined	the	term	"Ar?ficial	Intelligence"	(AI)	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 8
Two	dimensions	
•  Thinking/Reasoning	vs.	Behavior/Ac?on.	
•  Success	according	to	human	standards	vs.	success	according	to	an	ideal	concept	of	intelligence	(	ra?onality	):	
Four	Categories.	
ü  Systems	that	think	like	humans	(focus	on	reasoning	and	human	framework).	
ü  Systems	that	think	ra?onally	(focus	on	reasoning	and	a	general	concept	of	intelligence).	
ü  Systems	that	act	like	humans	(focus	on	behavior	and	human	framework).	
ü  Systems	that	act	ra?onally	(focus	on	behavior	and	a	general	concept	of	intelligence).	
Views of AI fall into four categories in Two
dimensions:
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 9
Definition of AI
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 10	
Systems that Think like Humans
“The exciting new effort to make computers
think…. Machine with minds,….” (Haugeland,
1985)
“[The automation of] activities that we
associated human thinking, activities such as
decision –making, problem solving,
learning…”(Bellman,1978)	
Systems that Think Rationally
“The study of mental faculties through the use
of computational models” (Charnaik and
McDermott,1985)
“The study of the computations that make it
possible to perceive, reason and act” (Wintson,
1992)
	
Systems that Act like Humans
“The art of creating machines that perform
functions that require intelligence when
performed by people” (Kurzwell, 1990)
“The study of how to make computers do things
at which, at the moment, people are
better” (Rich and Knight,1991)	
	
Systems that Act Rationally
“A field of study that seeks to explain and
emulate intelligent behavior in terms of
computational processes” (Schalkoff,1990)
“The branch of computer science that is
concerned with the automation of intelligent
behavior” (Luger and Stubble field)
Acting Humanly : Turing Test
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 11	
Alan	Turing	
Born:	23	JUN	1912,	London	
Died:	17	JUN	1954	
computer	scien?st,	mathema?cian,	
logician,	cryptanalyst	and	theore?cal	
biologist.		
	
	
¨ “Can	Machine	think?”	->	“Can	Machines	behave	
intelligently”	
	
¨ Opera?onal	test	for	intelligent	behavior:	the	Imita?on	
Game.	
¨ The	computer	would	need	to	possess	the	following	
capabili?es:	
•  Natural	Language	Processing		
•  Knowledge	Representa<on	
•  Automated	Reasoning		
•  Machine	Learning
Place both a human and a machine mimicking human
responses outside the field of direct observation and use an
unbiased interface to interrogate them. If the responses are
distinguishable, the machine is not displaying intelligence.
	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 12
Thinking Humanly
q Cogni?ve	Science	approach	
-  Try	to	get	“inside”	our	minds-	Introspec?on-	trying	to	catch	our	own	
thoughts	as	they	go	by	and	through	psychological	experiments.	
-  E.g..	Conduct	experiments	with	people	to	try	to	“reverse-engineer”	
how	we	reason,	learning,	remember,	predict.	
q Problems	
-	Humans	don’t	behave	ra?onally.	
-  The	reverse	engineering	is	very	hard	to	do.	
-  The	brain’s	hardware	is	very	different	to	a	computer	program.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 13
Thinking Rationally: The “laws of thought”
approach
q The	Greek	philosopher	Aristotle	was	one	of	the	first	to	aNempt	to	codify	``right		
					thinking,''	that	is,	irrefutable	reasoning	processes.		
	
q He	gave	Syllogisms	that	always	yielded	correct	conclusion	when	correct	premises	are	given.	
	
q These	laws	of	thought	were	supposed	to	govern	the	opera?on	of	the	mind,	and	ini?ated	the	field	
				of	logic.	
	
q The	logicist	tradi?on	in	AI	hopes	to	create	intelligent	systems	using	logic	programming.	
	
q However	there	are	two	obstacles	to	this	approach.		
Ø First,	It	is	not	easy	to	take	informal	knowledge	and	state	in	the	formal	terms	required	by	logical	
				nota?on,	par?cularly	when	knowledge	is	not	100%	certain.		
Ø Second,	solving	problem	principally	is	different	from	doing	it	in	prac?ce.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 14
Acting Rationally: The rational agent approach
q What	means	“behave	ra<onally”	for	a	person/system:	
Ø Take	the	right/	best	ac?on	to	achieve	the	goals,		based	on	his/its	knowledge	
and	belief	
	
q Example.	Assume	I	don’t	like	to	get	wet	(my	goal),	so	I	bring	an	umbrella	(my	
ac?on).	Do	I	behave	ra?onally?	
Ø The	answer	is	dependent	on	my	knowledge	and	belief	
Ø If	I’ve	heard	the	forecast	for	rain	and	I	believe	it,		then	bringing	the	umbrella	is	
ra?onal.	
Ø If	I’ve	not	heard	the	forecast	for	rain	and	I	do	not	believe	that	it	is	going	to	rain,	then	
bringing	the	umbrella	is	not	ra?onal.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 15
The rational agent approach
q An	agent	is	en?ty	that	perceives	its	environment	
and	is	able	to	execute	ac?ons	to	change	it.	
q Agents	have	inherent	goals	that	they	want	to	
achieve.	
q A	Ra?onal	agent	acts	in	a	way	to	maximize	the	
achievement	of	its	goals	
q True	maximiza?ons	of	goals	requires	omniscience	
and	unlimited	computa?onal	abili?es		
q Limited	ra?onality	involves	maximizing	goals	within	
the	computa?onal	and	other	resources	available.	
	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,	CSE,BMSIT	 16
History
1943 			Mc	Culloch	&	PiNs:	Boolean	circuit	model	of	brain	
1950 			Turing’s	“Compu?ng	Machinery	and	Intelligence”	
1950s	 	Early	AI	programs,	including	Samuel’s	checkers	program,	Newell	&	Simon’s					
Logic	Theorist,	Gelernter’s	Geometry	Engine.	
1956	Dartmouth	mee?ng	:	“Ar?ficial	Intelligence”	adopted	
1965	Robinson’s	complete	algorithm	for	logical	reasoning	
1966-73	AI	discovers	computa?onal	complexity		
Neural	network	research	almost	disappears	
1969-79	Early	development	of	knowledge-based	systems	
1980 AI	becomes	an	industry	
1986	Neural	networks	return	to	popularity	
1987	AI	becomes	a	science	
1995	The	emergence	of	intelligent	agents	
	
	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 17
Applications of AI:
q Natural	Language	Understanding	
q Expert	Systems	
q Planning	and	Robo?cs	
q Machine	Learning	
q Game	Playing	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 18
Natural Language Processing
q To	design	and	build	soqware	that	will	analyze	understand	and	
generate	languages	that	human	use	naturally.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 19
Modes of communication
q Text	based.		
q Dialogue	based.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 20
Speech Recognition
q Process	of	conver?ng	sound	signal	captured	by	microphone	or	
mobile/telephone	to	a	set	of	words.	
q 70-100	words	/	min	with	accuracy	of	90%	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 21
Computer Vision
q Ability	of	a	machine	to	extract	informa?on	from	an	image	that	is	
necessary		to	solve	a	task	
—  Image	Acquisi?on		
—  Image	Processing	
—  Image	Analysis	
—  Image	understanding	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 22
Intelligent Robot
q Tend	to	mimic	human	sensing	and	decision	
making	 abili?es	 so	 that	 they	 can	 adopt	
themselves	 to	 certain	 condi?ons	 and	
modify	their	ac?ons.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 23
Expert Systems
q These	are	Soqwares	used	for	decision	making	.	
q Automated	Reasoning	and	Theorem	Proving.	
q Troubleshoo?ng	Expert	Systems.	
q Stock	Market	Expert	System.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 24
Fields of AI
q Computer	science:	
—  Graphical	User	Interface	
—  Automa?c	Storage	
management	
—  Object	Oriented	Programming	
—  Data	miming	
—  computer	gaming	
q Telecommunica?on:	
•  Automated	Online	Assistants	
•  Voice	dialing	
•  Speech	Recogni?on	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 25
Fields of AI
Avia?on	&	Automa?on:																																																																																									
•  NASA's	fight	research	center.	
•  Voice	recogni?on	in	fighter	jets.	
•  Direc?ons	to	A.I	pilots	through	air	traffic	
controllers.	
•  Automa?c	Gearing	System	in	Cars.	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 26
Fields of AI
Robo?cs:	
•  Assembling	Robots	
•  Welding	Robots	
•  Behavior	based	robo?cs	
•  Dancing	Robots	
•  Robot	naviga?on	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 27
Daily life applications
•  Home	Security	
•  Bank	
•  Post	office	
•  Websites	
•  Digital	cameras	
•  	News	and	publishing	
•  Financial	trades	
•  Health	and	medicine	
•  Games	and	toys	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 28
How AI is different????????
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 29	
Ar?ficial	Intelligence	
Non	Crea?ve	
Precise	
Consistency	
Mul?tasking	
Natural	Intelligence	
Crea?ve	
May	Contain	Error	
Non	Consistent	
Can’t	Handle
Drawbacks of A.I
•  Limited	Ability	
•  Slow	Real	Time	Response	
•  Can’t	Handle	Emergency	Situa?on	
•  Difficult	code	
•  High	Cost	
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 30
Ravi	Kumar	B	N,	Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT	 31	
Many	Hollywood	movies	come	with	the	future	technology,	that	technology	we	can	see	in	our	future.	Have	a	look	
some	of	them….	
In this movie
people to
purchase
remote
controlled
humanoid
robots
through which
they interact
with society.
These fit, attractive, remotely controlled robots
ultimately assume their life roles, enabling
people to experience life vicariously from the
comfort and safety of their own homes.
Alex (Robocop) at first
rejects his current
condition upon seeing
that his original body
now consists of only
lungs, throat, head and
right hand when the
armor and
Cybernetic components
are fully removed, but
he is convinced by
Norton to be strong for
his wife and son.
He had loose his body parts in a car bomb blast.
Alex has him outfitted with the cybernetic body and
software.

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