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Innovating in
                                                     Education,
                                                  Educating for
                                                    Innovation
OCTOBER 15, 2009
The European School 2.0 – The seventh
EDEN Open Classroom Conference
EDEN – European Distance and E-Leaning Network
How can we incubate creativity?
How can we develop in our children
      the capacity for innovation?
After more than 25 years of experience
in the use of technologies in education
      why have we progressed so little
           in developing creativity and
            innovation in our schools?
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION
              4. A SOLUTION
            5. CONCLUSIONS
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION
              4. A SOLUTION
            5. CONCLUSIONS
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION



    Two radically different
      types of innovation:

 incremental innovation
   disruptive innovation

        If we mix them up,
innovation doesn’t happen
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION

          INCREMENTAL INNOVATION

       Incremental innovations build on
existing thinking, products, processes,
        organizations, or social systems
     They can be routine improvements
or they can be dramatic breakthroughs
                                     but
            they address the very core
                 of what already exists
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION

        INCREMENTAL INNOVATION
Examples of incremental innovations:
          •  Airplanes that fly farther
         •  Batteries that last longer
   •  Televisions with clearer images
   •  Computers that process faster
    •  Schools where students learn
    better by regularly using the Net
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION

                   DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION

      Disruptive innovations are addressed to
       people who do not have any solutions

       They take root in simple, undemanding
        applications that are not breakthrough
People are happy to use them, in spite of their
  limitations, because no other solutions exist
           They do not compete with anything
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION

     DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION

But as they gain strength in the
      realm of non-competition

           they evolve very fast

          and end up replacing
        the traditional solutions
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION

                                     DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION
                           An example of disruptive innovation:
The personal computer is an example of a disruptive innovation
  In the 1970s the professional computer market was occupied
              by 100,000 € minicomputers produced by Digital
          Equipment Corporation (DEC), Data General and HP.
               The first personal computers (like the Spectrum
                     and the Apple II) were ridiculously limited,
                             and completely out of that market.
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION

                             DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION
                They were supposed to be used mainly
                  as toys by children and their parents.
    But they quickly grew up, in this unexplored market
   Ten years later, in the 1980s, they were much more
powerful, and starting to erode the minicomputer market
     Twenty years later, in the 1990s, the minicomputer
          market collapsed in favour of the PC market
           DEC and Data General don’t exist any more
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION
              4. A SOLUTION
            5. CONCLUSIONS
3. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION



     From the point of view of
   the sociology of innovation

         educational systems
       are networks of actors

     that reinforce each other
    into stable configurations

  These stable configurations
      tend to prevent change
3. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION

Some experts in innovation claim that
  in such conservative echo-systems

           it is impossible to produce
       innovations with lasting effects
      the inertia of the system dilutes
            or distorts the innovations
                    and converts them
             to the reigning uniformity
    It is like pouring water in the desert
2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION

                                                I don’t share this radical view
                                                    Incremental innovation in
                                                     educational systems has
                                                            a high failure rate
                                                        but it can be explored
                                                if sound innovation strategies
                                                     are crafted and managed
                                        relying on dependable social theories,
                                                such as Actor-Network-Theory
Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005
2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION

                              The promising path to innovation
                                 in the educational systems is
                                 through disruptive innovation

                              that quietly grows in the margins
                                   of the system, unobtrusively

                                        until it starts changing
                                                   it, irreversibly
                                 Clayton M. Christensen is an
                                 inspiring author on this topic
McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION

Examples of disruptive innovations in the school systems:
                 •  Courses provided on-line to a region
                            or a whole country, namely:
                               •  courses for gifted students
                                   •  enrichment classes for
                                      special-needs children
                        •  optional courses in the languages,
                                 arts, humanities, economics
                            •  distant support to homebound
                                and home-schooled students
                                           •  private tutoring
2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION



                 •  Pilot schools trying out
                        new school models
    •  Special schools for students wishing
           to follow project-based learning

•  Experimental schools aimed at changing
     transformationally the degraded social
         communities to which they belong
2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION

     These are examples of opportunities for
disruptive innovation that don’t clash against
   the mainstream educational echo-system

                   In this way, innovation can
                     incubate at leisure until it
                 matures up to a level where
                  it can be transposed to the
                           mainstream system
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION
              4. A SOLUTION
            5. CONCLUSIONS
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION

  Educating a creative and innovative
  generation requires other concerns
             besides those related to
        language, maths and science
Ten years ago, in the early days of the
  Blair government, a commission led
        by Sir Ken Robinson produced
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION

                     Educating a creative and innovative
                     generation requires other concerns
                                besides those related to
                           language, maths and science
                   Ten years ago, in the early days of the
                     Blair government, a commission led
                           by Sir Ken Robinson produced
                      a 240-page report on how to make
                     progress in the creative and cultural
                           development of young people
NACCCE, UK, 1999
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION


                                                      Unfortunately, the report
                                                            has been ignored
                                               Last May, the BBC celebrated
                                            the 10th anniversary of its neglect
                                           Studies and research reports keep
                                            being produced all over the world
                                                 insisting, for instance, on the
                                          importance of the epistemologies of
                                                Design and of the Visual Arts
Arts Council England, UK, December 2008
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION

                                           The formative role of the engineering
                                                       paradigms is also critical
                                          The distinct epistemologies of science
                                         and engineering should be understood:
                                                    “science explains what exists”
                                          “engineering creates what never existed”
                                                                    Theodore Von Kármán

                                              Children should learn to “explain
                                         what exists” but they should also learn
                                                 to “create what never existed”

National Academy of Science, USA, 2009
                                                That’s creativity and innovation!
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION



                                   Very innovative experiments,
                                         engaging thousands of
                                       teachers, are under way

                                    such as those conducted by
                                      Kieran Egan’s Imaginative
                              Education Research Group (IERG)

                                               But they all have
                                          one thing in common:
Yale University Press, 2008
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION


   If they remain at the margins of the
conventional educational echo-system
            following a disruptive path
              or if they are based on
          very cautious, strategically
     managed, incremental innovation
                         they succeed
           and produce lasting effects
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION


                     Otherwise
            and that’s what we
       witness most of the time
                        they fail
    and leave no lasting effects

     HOW CAN WE IMPROVE
          THIS SCENARIO?
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION
              4. A SOLUTION
            5. CONCLUSIONS
4. A SOLUTION


       STILL ONE PROBLEM:
In a world that keeps changing,
  who knows how to progress?
           Who teaches who?
How can we set up an organic,
  reflective follow-up process,
     that analyses difficulties,
 assesses consequences, and
    clarifies how to progress?
4. A SOLUTION


                              MY ANSWER:
By establishing lasting partnerships between
     research units and school communities
around action-research and design-research
      projects conducted by mixed teams of
 academic researchers and school teachers

             in a reflection about how school
         curricula and pedagogical practices
           can evolve in this changing world
4. A SOLUTION



    These projects should be financially
   supported and assessed on the basis
       of their contribution to sustained:
•  system innovation and cultural change
•  enhancement of didactical approaches
 •  improvement of educational practices
4. A SOLUTION


The national and international publication
  and presentation of the results of these
projects, by members of the mixed teams
       and the dialogue and mutual help:
         •  face-to-face (at conferences)
     •  at a distance (in social networks)
strengthens sustained reflective practices
        and further mobilizes all the parts
4. A SOLUTION


These projects also provide:
  •  contextual alternatives
         to teacher training
  •  opportunities for MScs
     and PhDs “in the field”
 •  “authentic” opportunities
     for teacher assessment
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION
              4. A SOLUTION
            5. CONCLUSIONS
6. CONCLUSIONS


     If we want lasting innovation in the educational systems


1 
          and our children to be more creative and innovative
                          we need to reinforce our emphasis
                            on disruptive innovation projects

                       These should be action-research and


2 
                            design-based research projects
                        conducted by mixed teams of school
                         teachers and academic researchers
THE END
The slides will be available at:
                                  Innovating in
                                     Education,
                                  Educating for
                                    Innovation
http://www.slideshare.net/adfigueiredo

OCTOBER 15, 2009
The European School 2.0 – The seventh
                                                  My Webpage:
EDEN Open Classroom Conference
EDEN – European Distance and E-Leaning Network
   adfig.com

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Innovating in Education, Educating for Innovation

  • 1. Innovating in Education, Educating for Innovation OCTOBER 15, 2009 The European School 2.0 – The seventh EDEN Open Classroom Conference EDEN – European Distance and E-Leaning Network
  • 2. How can we incubate creativity? How can we develop in our children the capacity for innovation?
  • 3. After more than 25 years of experience in the use of technologies in education why have we progressed so little in developing creativity and innovation in our schools?
  • 4. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION 4. A SOLUTION 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 5. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION 4. A SOLUTION 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 6. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION Two radically different types of innovation: incremental innovation disruptive innovation If we mix them up, innovation doesn’t happen
  • 7. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION INCREMENTAL INNOVATION Incremental innovations build on existing thinking, products, processes, organizations, or social systems They can be routine improvements or they can be dramatic breakthroughs but they address the very core of what already exists
  • 8. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION INCREMENTAL INNOVATION Examples of incremental innovations: •  Airplanes that fly farther •  Batteries that last longer •  Televisions with clearer images •  Computers that process faster •  Schools where students learn better by regularly using the Net
  • 9. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION Disruptive innovations are addressed to people who do not have any solutions They take root in simple, undemanding applications that are not breakthrough People are happy to use them, in spite of their limitations, because no other solutions exist They do not compete with anything
  • 10. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION But as they gain strength in the realm of non-competition they evolve very fast and end up replacing the traditional solutions
  • 11. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION An example of disruptive innovation: The personal computer is an example of a disruptive innovation In the 1970s the professional computer market was occupied by 100,000 € minicomputers produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Data General and HP. The first personal computers (like the Spectrum and the Apple II) were ridiculously limited, and completely out of that market.
  • 12. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION They were supposed to be used mainly as toys by children and their parents. But they quickly grew up, in this unexplored market Ten years later, in the 1980s, they were much more powerful, and starting to erode the minicomputer market Twenty years later, in the 1990s, the minicomputer market collapsed in favour of the PC market DEC and Data General don’t exist any more
  • 13. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION 4. A SOLUTION 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 14. 3. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION From the point of view of the sociology of innovation educational systems are networks of actors that reinforce each other into stable configurations These stable configurations tend to prevent change
  • 15. 3. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION
  • 16. 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION Some experts in innovation claim that in such conservative echo-systems it is impossible to produce innovations with lasting effects the inertia of the system dilutes or distorts the innovations and converts them to the reigning uniformity It is like pouring water in the desert
  • 17. 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION I don’t share this radical view Incremental innovation in educational systems has a high failure rate but it can be explored if sound innovation strategies are crafted and managed relying on dependable social theories, such as Actor-Network-Theory Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005
  • 18. 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION The promising path to innovation in the educational systems is through disruptive innovation that quietly grows in the margins of the system, unobtrusively until it starts changing it, irreversibly Clayton M. Christensen is an inspiring author on this topic McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
  • 19. 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION Examples of disruptive innovations in the school systems: •  Courses provided on-line to a region or a whole country, namely: •  courses for gifted students •  enrichment classes for special-needs children •  optional courses in the languages, arts, humanities, economics •  distant support to homebound and home-schooled students •  private tutoring
  • 20. 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION •  Pilot schools trying out new school models •  Special schools for students wishing to follow project-based learning •  Experimental schools aimed at changing transformationally the degraded social communities to which they belong
  • 21. 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION These are examples of opportunities for disruptive innovation that don’t clash against the mainstream educational echo-system In this way, innovation can incubate at leisure until it matures up to a level where it can be transposed to the mainstream system
  • 22. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION 4. A SOLUTION 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 23. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION Educating a creative and innovative generation requires other concerns besides those related to language, maths and science Ten years ago, in the early days of the Blair government, a commission led by Sir Ken Robinson produced
  • 24. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION Educating a creative and innovative generation requires other concerns besides those related to language, maths and science Ten years ago, in the early days of the Blair government, a commission led by Sir Ken Robinson produced a 240-page report on how to make progress in the creative and cultural development of young people NACCCE, UK, 1999
  • 25. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION Unfortunately, the report has been ignored Last May, the BBC celebrated the 10th anniversary of its neglect Studies and research reports keep being produced all over the world insisting, for instance, on the importance of the epistemologies of Design and of the Visual Arts Arts Council England, UK, December 2008
  • 26. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION The formative role of the engineering paradigms is also critical The distinct epistemologies of science and engineering should be understood: “science explains what exists” “engineering creates what never existed” Theodore Von Kármán Children should learn to “explain what exists” but they should also learn to “create what never existed” National Academy of Science, USA, 2009 That’s creativity and innovation!
  • 27. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION Very innovative experiments, engaging thousands of teachers, are under way such as those conducted by Kieran Egan’s Imaginative Education Research Group (IERG) But they all have one thing in common: Yale University Press, 2008
  • 28. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION If they remain at the margins of the conventional educational echo-system following a disruptive path or if they are based on very cautious, strategically managed, incremental innovation they succeed and produce lasting effects
  • 29. 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION Otherwise and that’s what we witness most of the time they fail and leave no lasting effects HOW CAN WE IMPROVE THIS SCENARIO?
  • 30. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION 4. A SOLUTION 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 31. 4. A SOLUTION STILL ONE PROBLEM: In a world that keeps changing, who knows how to progress? Who teaches who? How can we set up an organic, reflective follow-up process, that analyses difficulties, assesses consequences, and clarifies how to progress?
  • 32. 4. A SOLUTION MY ANSWER: By establishing lasting partnerships between research units and school communities around action-research and design-research projects conducted by mixed teams of academic researchers and school teachers in a reflection about how school curricula and pedagogical practices can evolve in this changing world
  • 33. 4. A SOLUTION These projects should be financially supported and assessed on the basis of their contribution to sustained: •  system innovation and cultural change •  enhancement of didactical approaches •  improvement of educational practices
  • 34. 4. A SOLUTION The national and international publication and presentation of the results of these projects, by members of the mixed teams and the dialogue and mutual help: •  face-to-face (at conferences) •  at a distance (in social networks) strengthens sustained reflective practices and further mobilizes all the parts
  • 35. 4. A SOLUTION These projects also provide: •  contextual alternatives to teacher training •  opportunities for MScs and PhDs “in the field” •  “authentic” opportunities for teacher assessment
  • 36. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. INNOVATING IN EDUCATION 3. EDUCATING FOR INNOVATION 4. A SOLUTION 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 37. 6. CONCLUSIONS If we want lasting innovation in the educational systems 1  and our children to be more creative and innovative we need to reinforce our emphasis on disruptive innovation projects These should be action-research and 2  design-based research projects conducted by mixed teams of school teachers and academic researchers
  • 38. THE END The slides will be available at: Innovating in Education, Educating for Innovation http://www.slideshare.net/adfigueiredo OCTOBER 15, 2009 The European School 2.0 – The seventh My Webpage: EDEN Open Classroom Conference EDEN – European Distance and E-Leaning Network adfig.com