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Dr Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com | WhatsApp: +201009016959
Aquaculture continues to significantly expand its production, making it
the fastest-growing food production sector globally.
However, the sustainability of the sector is at stake due to the predicted
effects of climate change that are not only a future but also a present
reality.
In this Lecture, we review the potential effects of climate change on
aquaculture production and its implications on the sector’s sustainability.
Various elements of a changing climate, such as rising temperatures, sea-
level rise, diseases and harmful algal blooms, changes in rainfall
patterns, the uncertainty of external inputs supplies, changes in sea
surface salinity, and severe climatic events have been discussed.
Furthermore, several adaptation options have been presented as well as
some gaps in existing knowledge that require further investigations.
Climate changes are a result of
the various burning processes of
oil, gas, wood and coal.
It is accompanied by huge
amounts of toxic chemical
compounds to the atmosphere, the
most important of which are
carbon oxides, sulfur and
nitrogen,.
and these gases are considered as a heavy gases that
remain in the lower range of the Earth and prevent the
spread of heat as they absorb infrared radiation, which
leads to an increase in temperature in a called "global
warming", Climate change are dangerous due to pollution
of air, water and soil, and the destroy ecosystems
CO
2
CO
2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO
Egypt is considered one of
the top five countries that are
expected to be vulnerable to
the effects of sea level rise, as
most of the fish farms in
Egypt are located in the Nile
Delta region and are mainly
concentrated in the northern
lakes (Mariout, Idku,
Burullus and Manzala). As a
result of global sea level rise,
large areas of the Nile Delta
coastal region are expected to
be subject to flooding.
Why is the climate
changing?
Adapted
from
https://thewellesleynews.com/
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
The release of carbon dioxide
and other greenhouse gases
traps the sun's heat in Earth's
atmosphere
©FAO/Abhichon
Rattanabhayon
©Hazel
Oxenford
©FAO/Graeme
Maclean
*Climate change affects rainfall patterns and
melting snow and ice, and affects water
resources in terms of quantity and quality
*Rainfall pattern mean several changes ranging
from drought and shortages to floods and poor
water quality.
*The salinization of groundwater and its
movement in the direction of the upper rivers
due to the rise in sea level will threaten the
aquatic life in the inland fresh water.
* Higher temperatures will reduce dissolved
oxygen levels and increase fish metabolic
rates, leading to increased fish mortality, while
increasing the spread of diseases.
* The warming of the
atmosphere and oceans is due to
the increase in the
concentration of carbon dioxide
and greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere.
* The warming of the oceans,
especially in the tropics,
subtropics.
* An increase in the water
temperature of surface fresh
water.
What are the main
pressures of climate
change?
tornados
powerful
Ocean acidification
changes in ocean
currents
Severe weather
❑Dissolved oxygen is an important component of
aquatic systems and change in its concentration has
significant effects on carbon and nitrogen.
❑CO2 concentrations increased by 40% of fuel
emissions.
❑Dissolved oxygen levels decrease with increasing
temperature in both coastal and marine areas.
❑Decreased oxygen in the water column reduces vertical
migration depths for some species (ex. tuna and fish)
and diminishes the distribution of fisheries species.
What does lower oxygen
level in water mean?
• death of fish
• Expansion of the "dead
zones"
• slower growth
d
r
o
f
e
n
x
O
el
az
H
©FAO/Carla
Daniel
• Less living space for pelagic
fish species such as tuna
©adapted
by
CERMES
❑ The rise in temperature led to the melting of part of the ice
in the Arctic by about one million square kilometres,
which led to a rise in sea and ocean levels, which in turn
caused the flooding of most of the islands, river deltas and
coastal areas, which include agricultural lands and areas
full of people.
❑ Melting snow and snow cover and reducing mountain
glaciers contribute to rising water levels and flows into
aquatic systems.
❑ Sea level rise is a direct result of melting ice, while
reducing mountain glaciers will have an impact on river
flow and lake levels.
❑ The sea level is rising at an average rate of 3.1
mm/year as a result of climatic and non-climatic
factors.
❑ Sea level has already risen by a global average of 0.19
meters over the period from 1901 to 2010.
❑ It is estimated that between 2000 and 2100, the
projected average sea level rise will be between 0.5-
1.2 metres.
❑ The sea level is expected to rise 95% of the ocean area
level.
What happens when
sea ​​level rises?
• coastal erosion
and More flooding with huge storms
• Damage to critical fish habitats
(mangroves)
• Destruction of coastal areas and
aquaculture ponds
©Shelly-Ann
Cox
©Hazel
Oxenford
©Hazel
Oxenford
Harmful algal blooms
Increased frequency of warmer waters and higher food
loads mean:
Harmful algal blooms
Oysters and fish deaths
Danger to human health
©NRDC
Ocean
acidification
2
<1 1 >3
3
1850-1860
Corals
need this
Decade of:
1850 - 1860
2090-2100
What to expect
….lower carbonate
saturation state
Decade of:
2090 - 2100
❑ The ocean absorbed 93% of the heat and sequestered 30% of the
carbon dioxide during the period from 1901 to 2010, which will
affect the regularity of the Earth's climate.
❑ Ocean circulation redistributes heat and fresh water around the
world which affecting local climates.
❑ It is also expected that global ocean surface temperature increase
will increase thermal stratification, which may limit the depth at
which water escapes, and thus the amount of nutrients brought to
the near surface.
❑ The ocean's absorption of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide
from human activities is acidifying the water, which can have
adverse effects on aquatic life.
❑ Water acidity has increased by 26% since the industrial revolution
and this will continue It is expected that primary production in the
oceans will decline by 3% to 9% by the year 2100.
What does increased ocean
acidity mean?
1 cm
©Hazel
Oxenford
©Hazel
Oxenford
©Hazel
Oxenford
©Hazel
Oxenford
* Fewer carbonate ions, more
hydrogen ions:
* Increased difficulty of building shells
*The frame of the reef may be eroded
* Nerve damage to fish larvae
* Low density fish replacement
High coral death rate
Loss of integrity of coral
reefs
• Less living space for reef
fish and lobsters
. loss of coastal protection
coral death
©Hazel
Oxenford
Coral bleaching.... ©Hazel
Oxenford
Includes
Coral bleaching
* Changing the temperature will affect the various vital
processes in it, such as mating behavior, reproduction, egg
laying and growth, increased susceptibility to diseases,
increased exposure to toxins and heavy elements, increased
food consumption, increased organic waste
* The lack of dissolved oxygen will lead to the migration of
fish, the transmission of some diseases and pathogens, the
occurrence of genetic changes and the occurrence of
competition for food and the space available between the
different species that are naturally present in the place and the
species arriving on them.
❑ It is expected that the production of fish will decrease,
which will affect the available quantity of fish meal and
oils, which are mainly included as one of the main
components of fish feed.
❑ Increasing the susceptibility of fish to diseases and the
speed of their spread, especially bacterial and viral ones.
❑ The rise in temperature increases the metabolic rate, and
thus increases the intake of toxins and heavy metals
surrounding the aquatic organism.
Fish Spoilage
Warmer temperatures:
Increases the possibility
of spoilage of fish
Increased incidence of
ciguatera poisoning
Marketing and Human
Health Effects
©Annabel
Cox
©Th.
Petit
le
Brun
* The need for research to develop strains that tolerate lower
water quality and higher levels of brackish water could play
an important role in the sustainable development of desert
aquaculture.
* Finding cost-effective technological solutions related to the
extraction and exploitation of brackish groundwater
* One of the most promising aquaculture technology is the
Recycling Aquaculture System (RAS), which requires about
20% of what is required by conventional open pond culture.
* Bio floc technology is a technology to improve water
quality by adding more carbon to an aquaculture system.
Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf
❖ Potential impacts on the delta may include increased coastal erosion,
bypassing coastal defenses and increasing flooding, damage to urban
centers, receding sand dunes, reduced soil moisture, increased salinity
of soil and water in the lake, and decreased productivity of agriculture
and fisheries.
❖ Sea level rise leads to loss of land due to flooding, reduced area
available for aquaculture, loss of freshwater fisheries and aquaculture
due to reduced availability of fresh water, and changes in estuarine
systems.
❖ Integration Aquaculture offers opportunities to adapt to climate change
by integrating aquaculture and agriculture (farming fish in a controlled
environment) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil, providing
nutrients to plants mixed with plant-fed water) called Aquaponics is a
way forward for land use and water efficiently available, a sustainable
food production system that combines traditional aquaculture and
hydroponics in a symbiotic environment
Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf
Integrated aquaculture systems are the most cost-effective for
several reasons:
❑ It allows the farm to store water because it can take time to
request water from the irrigation area..
❑ Help in irrigation with pressurized systems such as drip or
sprinkler systems..
❑ Provides fish waste to fertilize crops..
❑ Farmers have used the effluents for many crops, from
vegetables and fruits to wheat..
❑ Productivity can be increased by using the same amount of
water for two, or three crops (fish, plant and animal products).
❑ The development of commercial aqua-feeds or whole foods diets is
usually based on the use of fishmeal as the main source of dietary
protein..
❑ The nutritional properties of fishmeal protein are quite close to the
nutritional requirements of farmed fish..
❑ Plant proteins may be an alternative because they are widely
available, available and affordable. .
❑ There is an ongoing interest in identifying and developing
ingredients as cost-effective alternatives to feed high for fish meal.
❑ There are potential strategies to reduce feed production during the
year. One option is to store finished feed in temperature-controlled
stores for sale in the high season.
* Climate change is expected to have impacts on ocean productivity and
fish migration and employment, so more efforts must be made to
increase hatchery production..
* Other adaptation advantages can include research and genetic
selection of fry that is best adapted to new environmental condition.
* The expansion of the aquaculture industry in Egypt has coincided
with the development of a large number of tilapia hatcheries, all of
which produce monosexual fry and fingerlings. .
* A major challenge is that temperatures in summer are very suitable for
the growth and reproduction of the species and in winter they drop
below optimum levels for growth and reproduction (25-30°C).
* Hatchery larvae can also contribute to the conservation and
improvement of endangered species, and can provide restocking to
enhance fisheries.
Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf
❑ Marine aquaculture, aquaculture and integrated agriculture must be
developed through the use of groundwater and effluent discharge in
order to overcome the current and projected future constraints of
freshwater and brackish water..
❑ Water and land resources will be a limiting factor for aquaculture
development, and the intensification of the current production system
must meet the limitation of resources.
❑ An increase in the efficient use of land, water, food, seed and energy
through intensification (recycling and bio floc systems), which uses less
land and fresh water, but has higher energy and feed requirements, could
result in the use of alternative renewable energy systems and feed (non-
marine) sources To greatly improve the sustainability of reuse.
❑ Finding alternatives to fishmeal in the diet as a source of protein, and
reducing the amount of fishmeal and imported feed ingredients through
the use of local species.
❑ Increased fry production in hatcheries, genetic selection of fry that are
better adapted to new environmental conditions, and conservation and
improvement of endangered species.
❑ The trend to expand marine hatcheries.
❑ Reducing energy use and proper energy management in feed
manufacturing, using possible renewable energy approaches in the
aquaculture industry.
❑ Awareness and capacity building by providing education on climate
change and creating greater awareness among all stakeholders.
❑ Aquaculture may provide opportunities to reduce and mitigate
greenhouse gas production and carbon sequestration through good
aquaculture production practices.
❑ There are opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in
aquaculture, by improved technologies for increased efficiency, use of
renewable energy sources, and improved feed conversion rates.
❑ Improving farm management and selection of cultured species.
❑ Improving the selection of the appropriate site for farms, taking in the
mind the risks related to the climate.
❑ Improving environmental monitoring that includes users.
❑ Improving local, national and international coordination of prevention and
mitigation actions.
❑ The tendency to acclimatize saltwater fish to low or medium salinity.
❑ Research to develop new strains of aquaculture species that tolerate lower
water quality and higher levels of salinity.
❑ Reducing the discharge of various pollutants into lakes.
❑ Making mathematical models of the relationship between air and water
temperature in farm ponds and water depth.
❑ Fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions should be important considerations
when developing fisheries management strategies and other relevant
management controls.
❑ Conducting research related to knowing the rate of increase in the
salinity of the ground water of the delta and the salinity of waste
water.
❑ Reducing the gases resulting from industrial activities and not
burning agricultural residues, and disposing of them in a healthy and
safe manner.
❑ Controlling pathogens and their spread through strict health control
of imported biological species, and following the bio-safety system
for fish farms and hatcheries.
❑ Increasing the use of water and improving breeding methods,
monitoring the water quality of the resulting products and its impact
on human health, and integrating aquaculture and agriculture as
aquaponics system, to conserve water and increase the productivity
of fish and vegetable crops.
It is worth noting that not all future climate changes will be
negative, but rather positive
Example: Egypt is one of the countries located in the semi-
tropical areas and its delta is prone to drowning, but the rise in
the water level and the increase in sea water will increase the
production of marine fish of high economic value as well as
raising the water temperature that makes us able to cultivate
good species with a change in the social activity of the
inhabitants of the delta so that they tend to cultivate many
types, which brings them good profits and leads to raising the
standard of living.
Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf
Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf
Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf

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Impact of Climate change on fish Production.pdf

  • 1. Dr Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com | WhatsApp: +201009016959
  • 2. Aquaculture continues to significantly expand its production, making it the fastest-growing food production sector globally. However, the sustainability of the sector is at stake due to the predicted effects of climate change that are not only a future but also a present reality. In this Lecture, we review the potential effects of climate change on aquaculture production and its implications on the sector’s sustainability. Various elements of a changing climate, such as rising temperatures, sea- level rise, diseases and harmful algal blooms, changes in rainfall patterns, the uncertainty of external inputs supplies, changes in sea surface salinity, and severe climatic events have been discussed. Furthermore, several adaptation options have been presented as well as some gaps in existing knowledge that require further investigations.
  • 3. Climate changes are a result of the various burning processes of oil, gas, wood and coal. It is accompanied by huge amounts of toxic chemical compounds to the atmosphere, the most important of which are carbon oxides, sulfur and nitrogen,.
  • 4. and these gases are considered as a heavy gases that remain in the lower range of the Earth and prevent the spread of heat as they absorb infrared radiation, which leads to an increase in temperature in a called "global warming", Climate change are dangerous due to pollution of air, water and soil, and the destroy ecosystems CO 2 CO 2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO
  • 5. Egypt is considered one of the top five countries that are expected to be vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise, as most of the fish farms in Egypt are located in the Nile Delta region and are mainly concentrated in the northern lakes (Mariout, Idku, Burullus and Manzala). As a result of global sea level rise, large areas of the Nile Delta coastal region are expected to be subject to flooding.
  • 6. Why is the climate changing? Adapted from https://thewellesleynews.com/ CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 The release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases traps the sun's heat in Earth's atmosphere ©FAO/Abhichon Rattanabhayon ©Hazel Oxenford ©FAO/Graeme Maclean
  • 7. *Climate change affects rainfall patterns and melting snow and ice, and affects water resources in terms of quantity and quality *Rainfall pattern mean several changes ranging from drought and shortages to floods and poor water quality. *The salinization of groundwater and its movement in the direction of the upper rivers due to the rise in sea level will threaten the aquatic life in the inland fresh water. * Higher temperatures will reduce dissolved oxygen levels and increase fish metabolic rates, leading to increased fish mortality, while increasing the spread of diseases.
  • 8. * The warming of the atmosphere and oceans is due to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. * The warming of the oceans, especially in the tropics, subtropics. * An increase in the water temperature of surface fresh water. What are the main pressures of climate change? tornados powerful Ocean acidification changes in ocean currents Severe weather
  • 9. ❑Dissolved oxygen is an important component of aquatic systems and change in its concentration has significant effects on carbon and nitrogen. ❑CO2 concentrations increased by 40% of fuel emissions. ❑Dissolved oxygen levels decrease with increasing temperature in both coastal and marine areas. ❑Decreased oxygen in the water column reduces vertical migration depths for some species (ex. tuna and fish) and diminishes the distribution of fisheries species.
  • 10. What does lower oxygen level in water mean? • death of fish • Expansion of the "dead zones" • slower growth d r o f e n x O el az H ©FAO/Carla Daniel • Less living space for pelagic fish species such as tuna ©adapted by CERMES
  • 11. ❑ The rise in temperature led to the melting of part of the ice in the Arctic by about one million square kilometres, which led to a rise in sea and ocean levels, which in turn caused the flooding of most of the islands, river deltas and coastal areas, which include agricultural lands and areas full of people. ❑ Melting snow and snow cover and reducing mountain glaciers contribute to rising water levels and flows into aquatic systems. ❑ Sea level rise is a direct result of melting ice, while reducing mountain glaciers will have an impact on river flow and lake levels.
  • 12. ❑ The sea level is rising at an average rate of 3.1 mm/year as a result of climatic and non-climatic factors. ❑ Sea level has already risen by a global average of 0.19 meters over the period from 1901 to 2010. ❑ It is estimated that between 2000 and 2100, the projected average sea level rise will be between 0.5- 1.2 metres. ❑ The sea level is expected to rise 95% of the ocean area level.
  • 13. What happens when sea ​​level rises? • coastal erosion and More flooding with huge storms • Damage to critical fish habitats (mangroves) • Destruction of coastal areas and aquaculture ponds ©Shelly-Ann Cox ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford
  • 14. Harmful algal blooms Increased frequency of warmer waters and higher food loads mean: Harmful algal blooms Oysters and fish deaths Danger to human health ©NRDC
  • 15. Ocean acidification 2 <1 1 >3 3 1850-1860 Corals need this Decade of: 1850 - 1860 2090-2100 What to expect ….lower carbonate saturation state Decade of: 2090 - 2100
  • 16. ❑ The ocean absorbed 93% of the heat and sequestered 30% of the carbon dioxide during the period from 1901 to 2010, which will affect the regularity of the Earth's climate. ❑ Ocean circulation redistributes heat and fresh water around the world which affecting local climates. ❑ It is also expected that global ocean surface temperature increase will increase thermal stratification, which may limit the depth at which water escapes, and thus the amount of nutrients brought to the near surface. ❑ The ocean's absorption of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide from human activities is acidifying the water, which can have adverse effects on aquatic life. ❑ Water acidity has increased by 26% since the industrial revolution and this will continue It is expected that primary production in the oceans will decline by 3% to 9% by the year 2100.
  • 17. What does increased ocean acidity mean? 1 cm ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford * Fewer carbonate ions, more hydrogen ions: * Increased difficulty of building shells *The frame of the reef may be eroded * Nerve damage to fish larvae * Low density fish replacement
  • 18. High coral death rate Loss of integrity of coral reefs • Less living space for reef fish and lobsters . loss of coastal protection coral death ©Hazel Oxenford Coral bleaching.... ©Hazel Oxenford Includes Coral bleaching
  • 19. * Changing the temperature will affect the various vital processes in it, such as mating behavior, reproduction, egg laying and growth, increased susceptibility to diseases, increased exposure to toxins and heavy elements, increased food consumption, increased organic waste * The lack of dissolved oxygen will lead to the migration of fish, the transmission of some diseases and pathogens, the occurrence of genetic changes and the occurrence of competition for food and the space available between the different species that are naturally present in the place and the species arriving on them.
  • 20. ❑ It is expected that the production of fish will decrease, which will affect the available quantity of fish meal and oils, which are mainly included as one of the main components of fish feed. ❑ Increasing the susceptibility of fish to diseases and the speed of their spread, especially bacterial and viral ones. ❑ The rise in temperature increases the metabolic rate, and thus increases the intake of toxins and heavy metals surrounding the aquatic organism.
  • 21. Fish Spoilage Warmer temperatures: Increases the possibility of spoilage of fish Increased incidence of ciguatera poisoning Marketing and Human Health Effects ©Annabel Cox ©Th. Petit le Brun
  • 22. * The need for research to develop strains that tolerate lower water quality and higher levels of brackish water could play an important role in the sustainable development of desert aquaculture. * Finding cost-effective technological solutions related to the extraction and exploitation of brackish groundwater * One of the most promising aquaculture technology is the Recycling Aquaculture System (RAS), which requires about 20% of what is required by conventional open pond culture. * Bio floc technology is a technology to improve water quality by adding more carbon to an aquaculture system.
  • 24. ❖ Potential impacts on the delta may include increased coastal erosion, bypassing coastal defenses and increasing flooding, damage to urban centers, receding sand dunes, reduced soil moisture, increased salinity of soil and water in the lake, and decreased productivity of agriculture and fisheries. ❖ Sea level rise leads to loss of land due to flooding, reduced area available for aquaculture, loss of freshwater fisheries and aquaculture due to reduced availability of fresh water, and changes in estuarine systems. ❖ Integration Aquaculture offers opportunities to adapt to climate change by integrating aquaculture and agriculture (farming fish in a controlled environment) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil, providing nutrients to plants mixed with plant-fed water) called Aquaponics is a way forward for land use and water efficiently available, a sustainable food production system that combines traditional aquaculture and hydroponics in a symbiotic environment
  • 26. Integrated aquaculture systems are the most cost-effective for several reasons: ❑ It allows the farm to store water because it can take time to request water from the irrigation area.. ❑ Help in irrigation with pressurized systems such as drip or sprinkler systems.. ❑ Provides fish waste to fertilize crops.. ❑ Farmers have used the effluents for many crops, from vegetables and fruits to wheat.. ❑ Productivity can be increased by using the same amount of water for two, or three crops (fish, plant and animal products).
  • 27. ❑ The development of commercial aqua-feeds or whole foods diets is usually based on the use of fishmeal as the main source of dietary protein.. ❑ The nutritional properties of fishmeal protein are quite close to the nutritional requirements of farmed fish.. ❑ Plant proteins may be an alternative because they are widely available, available and affordable. . ❑ There is an ongoing interest in identifying and developing ingredients as cost-effective alternatives to feed high for fish meal. ❑ There are potential strategies to reduce feed production during the year. One option is to store finished feed in temperature-controlled stores for sale in the high season.
  • 28. * Climate change is expected to have impacts on ocean productivity and fish migration and employment, so more efforts must be made to increase hatchery production.. * Other adaptation advantages can include research and genetic selection of fry that is best adapted to new environmental condition. * The expansion of the aquaculture industry in Egypt has coincided with the development of a large number of tilapia hatcheries, all of which produce monosexual fry and fingerlings. . * A major challenge is that temperatures in summer are very suitable for the growth and reproduction of the species and in winter they drop below optimum levels for growth and reproduction (25-30°C). * Hatchery larvae can also contribute to the conservation and improvement of endangered species, and can provide restocking to enhance fisheries.
  • 30. ❑ Marine aquaculture, aquaculture and integrated agriculture must be developed through the use of groundwater and effluent discharge in order to overcome the current and projected future constraints of freshwater and brackish water.. ❑ Water and land resources will be a limiting factor for aquaculture development, and the intensification of the current production system must meet the limitation of resources. ❑ An increase in the efficient use of land, water, food, seed and energy through intensification (recycling and bio floc systems), which uses less land and fresh water, but has higher energy and feed requirements, could result in the use of alternative renewable energy systems and feed (non- marine) sources To greatly improve the sustainability of reuse. ❑ Finding alternatives to fishmeal in the diet as a source of protein, and reducing the amount of fishmeal and imported feed ingredients through the use of local species.
  • 31. ❑ Increased fry production in hatcheries, genetic selection of fry that are better adapted to new environmental conditions, and conservation and improvement of endangered species. ❑ The trend to expand marine hatcheries. ❑ Reducing energy use and proper energy management in feed manufacturing, using possible renewable energy approaches in the aquaculture industry. ❑ Awareness and capacity building by providing education on climate change and creating greater awareness among all stakeholders. ❑ Aquaculture may provide opportunities to reduce and mitigate greenhouse gas production and carbon sequestration through good aquaculture production practices. ❑ There are opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in aquaculture, by improved technologies for increased efficiency, use of renewable energy sources, and improved feed conversion rates.
  • 32. ❑ Improving farm management and selection of cultured species. ❑ Improving the selection of the appropriate site for farms, taking in the mind the risks related to the climate. ❑ Improving environmental monitoring that includes users. ❑ Improving local, national and international coordination of prevention and mitigation actions. ❑ The tendency to acclimatize saltwater fish to low or medium salinity. ❑ Research to develop new strains of aquaculture species that tolerate lower water quality and higher levels of salinity. ❑ Reducing the discharge of various pollutants into lakes. ❑ Making mathematical models of the relationship between air and water temperature in farm ponds and water depth. ❑ Fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions should be important considerations when developing fisheries management strategies and other relevant management controls.
  • 33. ❑ Conducting research related to knowing the rate of increase in the salinity of the ground water of the delta and the salinity of waste water. ❑ Reducing the gases resulting from industrial activities and not burning agricultural residues, and disposing of them in a healthy and safe manner. ❑ Controlling pathogens and their spread through strict health control of imported biological species, and following the bio-safety system for fish farms and hatcheries. ❑ Increasing the use of water and improving breeding methods, monitoring the water quality of the resulting products and its impact on human health, and integrating aquaculture and agriculture as aquaponics system, to conserve water and increase the productivity of fish and vegetable crops.
  • 34. It is worth noting that not all future climate changes will be negative, but rather positive Example: Egypt is one of the countries located in the semi- tropical areas and its delta is prone to drowning, but the rise in the water level and the increase in sea water will increase the production of marine fish of high economic value as well as raising the water temperature that makes us able to cultivate good species with a change in the social activity of the inhabitants of the delta so that they tend to cultivate many types, which brings them good profits and leads to raising the standard of living.