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Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Shrimp Feed Management
Practical steps for managing nutrition in aquaculture
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
- Executive Supervisor for Applied Research for Inland Aquaculture Development, at
Al Mobdioon Center for Studies, Consultancy and Training, King Abdul-Aziz
University – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
- Associate professor at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+966508024423 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com | WhatsApp: +201009016959
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
30
70
70 % of our World is water…
Land Water
98
2
…but only 2% of the food production comes from there…
Land Water
Role of Aquaculture
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Human Resources
Healthy Fry
Good Water Quality and
Land
High quality Feed
The Elements of Aquaculture
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
SPECIES DIVERSITY IN EGYPT 1051444
67.34 %
242071
15.50 %
180900
11.59 %
6836
0.44 %
24714
1.60 %
29994
1.92 %
25130
1.61 %
155
-- %
67%
16%
12%, 12%
0%, 0%
2%, 2%
2%, 2%
2%, 2%
0%, 0%
PRODUCTION IN EGYPT
Tilapia Mullet Carp Catfish
5
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Fish species
Feeding habits and behavior
• The behavior and feeding habits of fish refer to the processes of searching
for, eating or eating food, as well as the factors that motivate the fish to
eat food.
• Fish are divided according to the type of food and the food items they eat
in nature into: -
- Vegetarian fish feeding herbivores
- Animal-feeding fish (predatory) Carnivores
- Mixed-feeding fish Omnivores
- Fish feeding on phytoplankton (planktivores)
- Detritivores fish
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Nutrition Requirements
Requirements Solutions
Feed formulation is the process of
quantifying the amounts/ combination of
feed ingredients needed to form a single
uniform mixture (diet) that meets a set of
nutritional specifications.
This mixture should cover the nutritional
needs of the specific fish species
7
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
The ideal composition of the feed
The composition of the feed should be similar to the natural fish feed
Conditions for selecting fish feed:
1- It should be palatable to fish and of an appropriate
size.
2- That it covers the nutritional needs of fish and is
nutritionally balanced.
3- Free from contaminants and pathogens.
4- Its price is economical and available materials.
5- To be coherent and not dissolve in water.
8
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Feed Nutrition and their balance
•
Protein:
•
It builds muscle and may be used as an energy source
(5.65 Kcal GE)
•
High cost and less means weak growth
•
Fats:
•
Energy source (9.45 Kcal GE)
•
It gives good taste and good feedability
•
Sources of fats is important for fish health
•
Carbohydrates: (4.12 Kcal GE)
•
Do not get digested by predatory fish
•
Vitamins and minerals:
•
They are added in small quantities to improve growth
and raise immunity
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Because protein is the most expensive
component of fish feed, it is important to
accurately determine the protein
requirements for each species and life
stage cultured. Proteins are formed by
linkages of individual amino acids.
Although more than 200 amino acids
occur in nature, only about 20 amino
acids are common. Of these, 10 are
essential (indispensable) amino acids that
cannot be synthesized by fish. The 10
essential amino acids that must be
supplied by the diet are methionine,
arginine, threonine, tryptophan, histidine,
isoleucine, lysine, leucine, valine, and
phenylalanine. Of these, lysine and
methionine are often the first limiting
amino acids.
Protein:
50%
Carbon
6.5%
Hydrogen
16%
Nitrogen
21.5%
Oxygen
6% Other
Elements
65%
lost
Ammonia
NH3
10%
Solid
wastes
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
• Traditional Essential Nutrients:
• Same for all species:
• 10 Essential amino acids
– Fat and water soluble vitamins
– Vitamin-like compounds (choline,
myo-inositol)
– Minerals (macro and micro
– Essential fatty acids ω-3, ω-6
Protein:
• Nutrients for which are conditionally essential or
whose essentiality is species and stagespecific:
• Taurine
• Phospholipids (a very wide class of
chemicals)
• Cholesterol ?
• Nucleotides ?
• Other compounds?
Source : Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, National Research Council
50%
Carbon
6.5%
Hydrogen
16%
Nitrogen
21.5%
Oxygen
6% Other
Elements
65%
lost
Ammonia
NH3
10%
Solid
wastes
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Lipids (fats) are high-energy nutrients that can be
utilized to partially spare (substitute for) protein in
aquaculture feeds. Lipids have about twice the
energy density of proteins and carbohydrates.
Lipids typically make up about 7-15 percent of fish
diets, supply essential fatty acids, and serve as
transporters for fatsoluble vitamins.
Lipids:
Simple lipids include fatty acids and triacylglycerols. Fish
typically require fatty acids of the omega-3 and -6 (n-3 and
n-6) families. Fatty acids can be (a) saturated fatty acids (no
double bonds), (b) polyunsaturated fatty acids (>2 double
bonds), or (c) highly unsaturated fatty acids (>4 double
bonds). Marine fish and algal oils are naturally high in
omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (>30 percent) and
are excellent sources of lipids for the manufacture of fish
diets. Lipids from these sources can be deposited into fish
muscle. People who then consume these fillets could enjoy
the health benefits of consuming foods rich in omega-3 fatty
acdepression and improved cardiovascular health. ids, such
as reduced symptoms of
A recent trend in fish feeds is to use higher levels
of lipids in the diet. While increasing dietary lipids
can help reduce the high costs of feed by partially
sparing protein in the feed, problems such as
excessive fat deposition in the liver can decrease
fish health, quality, and shelf life of the final
product.
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
• ω3 and ω6 fatty acids are generally
required
• From “structural” and “metabolic”
perspectives a few fatty
acids are known to be truly essential.
– DHA (22:6 n-3) = major component of neural
tissues (all species) and cell
membranes of all tissues in cold water
species, precursor of lipid mediators
(e.g. resolvins)
– ARA (20:4 n-6) = Precursor of eicosanoids
and other lipid mediators
– EPA (20:5 n-3) =Precursor of eicosanoids
and other lipid mediators
– 18:2 n-6 important part of some structural
lipids
Lipids:
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates (starches and sugars) are the least expensive
sources of energy for fish diets. Although not essential,
carbohydrates are included in aquaculture diets to reduce feed
costs and for their binding activity during feed manufacturing.
Dietary starches are useful in the extrusion manufacture of
floating feeds. Cooking starch during the extrusion process
makes it more biologically available to fish.
In fish, carbohydrates are stored as glycogen that can be
mobilized to satisfy energy demands. They are a major energy
source for mammals but are not used efficiently by fish. For
example, mammals can extract about 4 calories of energy from
1 gram of carbohydrate, whereas fish can only extract about
1.6 calories from the same amount of carbohydrate.
Fish can use up to about 20 percent of dietary carbohydrates
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Vitamin and Minerals Requirement
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Bonding materials
Antifungals
Some colors
Appetite attractants
Antioxidants
Other feed additives
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
• Ca, Na, Mg – Almost entirely acquired from water
– No need for dietary supplementation unless water concentrations are very low
• Phosphorus – Almost entirely acquired from diet
– Often a critical nutrient
• Requirement quite high, especially at early life stages
• Relatively costly
• Digestibility is highly variable across sources and species
Macro-Mineral Specifications
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Mineral Requirements
Source : Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, National Research Council
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Energy and Protein
Dietary nutrients are essential for the construction
of living tissues. They also are a source of stored
energy for fish digestion, absorption, growth,
reproduction, and other life processes. The
nutritional value of a dietary ingredient is in part
dependent on its ability to supply energy.
Physiological fuel values are used to calculate and
balance available energy values in prepared diets.
They typically average 4, 4, and 9 calories per gram
for protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively.
To create an optimum diet, the ratio of protein to energy must be
determined independently for each fish species. Excess energy
relative to protein content in the diet can result in high lipid
deposition. Because fish feed in order to meet their energy
requirements, diets with excessive energy levels may result in
decreased feed intake and reduced weight gain.
Similarly, a diet with inadequate energy content can result in
reduced weight gain because the fish cannot eat enough feed to
satisfy their energy requirements for growth. Properly
formulated prepared feeds have a well-balanced energy-to-
protein ratio.
19
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
• 5000 fish/ pond
• 200 g Average weight
• 26 o C Water Temperature
• 14.200 Kg = feed 1.45% body weight/day
• 4 g/day = estimated growth.
Energy and feed quantity
1 Kg fish = 4080 kcal DE Feed
Feed
Kg
Gain
Kg
FCR
(4080/DE)
DE
Kcal/Kg
24.4
20
1.27
3200
27.2
20
1.36
3000
29.2
20
1.46
2800
31.4
20
1.57
2600
34
20
1.70
2400
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
• • Data available
• How the requirement is assessed mathematically and biologically
• Weight of the animals
• Composition of the diet
• Environmental conditions, etc.
Factors Affecting Requirement
25%
44%
36%
32%
30%
27%
21
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Feeding Behaviour
Detecting the feed:
• Shrimp’s vision is rudimentary
• Feed is detected by Chemosensory structure:
Setea (antennae, antennule, maxilipeds)
• Detection of soluble organic compounds (Proteins,
AA, HUFA,.....)
Eating:
• Probe the feed with pereopods
• Shrimp’s digestive system is primitive.
22
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Shrimp Requirements
The requirements is:
Therefore, shrimp the following is required in feed:
- High content of digestible and absorbable protein
and increase metabolism.
- content of High Unsaturated fatty acids.
- Balance in amino acids according to the nutritional
requirements of shrimp.
- Feed size available to shrimp size in a crumbly and
granular.
- It does not dissolve in water and stable for a long
time, not less than two hours.
- It has an aroma or flavours that attracts shrimp.
- Feed additives to enhance immunity.
23
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Attractive Flavours in feed
Attractive flavours in feed
Feed is detected by Chemosensory structure: Setea (antennae, antennule, maxilipeds)
24
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Best Feed Size
The ideal granule size must be taken into your mind depends on the sizes of Shrimp
25
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth
The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and
absorption
26
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth
The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and
absorption
Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and
absorb it faster
27
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth
The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and
absorption
Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and
absorb it faster
28
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth
The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and
absorption
Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and
absorb it faster
29
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth
The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and
absorption
Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and
absorb it faster
30
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth
Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and
absorb it faster
The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and
absorption
31
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
immune system is challenged
High organic matter ammonia level
growth performance
oxygen level
stress
32
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
immune system is challenged
High organic matter ammonia level
antigens - bacteria, viruses, parasites - attack
growth performance
oxygen level
stress
33
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
organic acids
Feed
Hepatopancreas Performance
34
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Feed
• improved product stability (antioxidant/low pH)
• antimicrobial effect
• nutritive value of organic acids (energy)
35
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Hepatopancreas
• reduction of pH
• efficient pathogen reduction
• activation of digestion
• antimicrobial effects
• stimulation of enzyme secretion
• better Ca and P digestion
36
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Performance
• reduced stress level
• increased gut and animal health
• faster fish growth
37
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Calculating the daily feeding ration
•
- Daily feeding ration is calculated according the biomass and the
average weight of the crop.
•
- A theortical feeding table is used to calculated this amount of feed.
•
- Feed amount is adjusted according to rearing parameters.
•
- Shrimps are continuous intermittent feeders and hence should be
fed several times throughout the day.
•
- Shrimps need about 3 -4 hours to digest, therefore, ideally,
feeding should be done every 3 - 4 hours.
•
-Frequent feeding of smaller rations also provides better efficiency
in nutrient assimilation and reduces losses due to leaching.
•
- During the first month: 2 feeding per day (dawn and dusk)
•
After the first month: 4-8 feedings per day
FEED WHEN
FEED %
- 1St = 30%
- 2nd = 26%
- 3th = 26%
- 4th = 18%
38
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Calculating the daily feeding ration
• Blind Feeding.
39
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
FEED WHEN
FEED %
- 1St = 30%
- 2nd = 26%
- 3th = 26%
- 4th = 18%
•
‫التغذية‬ ‫اوعلب‬ ‫صواني‬
:
•
‫أدنى‬ ‫كحد‬ ‫تركيب‬ ‫يتم‬
2
‫الحوض‬ ‫في‬ ‫تغذية‬ ‫صواني‬
(
‫فدان‬
.)
•
‫وضع‬
1
‫التغذية‬ ‫أطباق‬ ‫في‬ ‫المغذاه‬ ‫األعالف‬ ‫إجمالي‬ ‫من‬ ٪
.
•
‫بعد‬ ‫طعام‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ترك‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫كان‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ما‬ ‫تحقق‬
1
‫ساعة‬
.
•
‫ن‬ ‫في‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫في‬ ‫وتعطى‬ ،‫األعالف‬ ‫كمية‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التكيف‬
‫فس‬
‫للتغذية‬ ‫المعد‬ ‫للجدول‬ ‫وفقا‬ ،‫التغذية‬ ‫وقت‬
.
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫زيادة‬
50
-
400
‫جرام‬
/
1000000
‫جمبرى‬
‫مضبوطة‬ ‫الكمية‬
‫تقليل‬
50
-
400
‫جرام‬
/
1000000
‫جمبرى‬
‫النصف‬ ‫من‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫شئ‬ ‫ال‬ 50
% 100
%
‫زيادة‬
50
، ‫جرام‬
100
، ‫جرام‬
200
، ‫جرام‬
.........
‫بزيادة‬ ‫قمت‬ ‫اذا‬
50
‫الي‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫االعالف‬ ‫جميع‬ ‫استهالك‬ ‫تم‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫وفي‬ ‫جرام‬
100
‫ثم‬ ‫جرام‬
‫زيادة‬
150
‫ثم‬ ‫جرام‬
200
‫وهكذا‬ ‫جرام‬
.........
‫مثال‬
:
‫اعطاء‬ ‫تم‬ ً‫ا‬‫صباح‬ ‫السادسة‬ ‫الساعة‬ ‫في‬
10
‫التغذية‬ ‫من‬ ‫كجم‬
(
1
%
‫من‬
10
‫كجم‬
=
100
‫المستهلكة‬ ‫التغذية‬ ‫علبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫جرام‬
)
‫استهالك‬ ‫ويتم‬
‫اطعام‬ ‫سيتم‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫وفي‬ ‫العلف‬
10
‫كجم‬
+
50
‫جرام‬
.
‫التغذية‬ ‫صوانى‬
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫التغذية‬ ‫حسابات‬
‫مثال‬
:
‫اليومية‬ ‫التغذية‬ ‫حساب‬ ‫جدول‬ ‫حسب‬
:
‫بالحوض‬ ‫الجمبرى‬ ‫عدد‬
300000
‫جمبرى‬
‫حوالى‬ ‫الجمبرى‬ ‫وزن‬
8
‫جرام‬
‫التغذية‬ ‫كمية‬
18
‫لكل‬ ‫كجم‬
100000
‫جمبرى‬
18
‫كجم‬
/
100000
×
300000
=
18
×
3
=
54
‫يوميا‬ ‫كجم‬
54
‫يوميا‬ ‫وجبات‬ ‫خمس‬ ‫على‬ ‫تقسيمهم‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫كجم‬
54
/
5
=
10.8
‫الوجبة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫كجم‬
1
%
‫من‬
10.8
=
108
‫التغذية‬ ‫صينية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫توضع‬ ‫جم‬
42
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Sampling to calculate growth and feeding rate:
• To calculate the quantities of feed required per day for any farmed aquatic animal, there must be data
on the average weight as well as survival rates during a certain period of time, as the previous data
can be collected by taking samples from the animals farmed in ponds.
• - Sampling Must be done 1 hour before feeding or 2 hours after feeding.
• - Throw the castnet at 3 to 4 different places.
• - Period of the day with a high light intensity mus be avoided.
• - Sampling operator should always be the same each 10 days.
• - For shrimps below 5 gr, castnets is not efficient. Use feeder trays. Therefore shrimp have to be
taken from the feed trays 2-3 hours after feeding at a cool time.
• - Sampling must be done early in the morning.
• - Dry the shrimp and weigh them
43
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
What can I see in the sampile?
 Heterogeneity of the crop (class of size)
 Average weight (g)
 % of soft, hard and molting shrimps
 Dead shrimps?
 Shrimp health status (necrosis, uropods, gut content, fouling)
 Presence of Fish
44
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Feeding vs Parameters
• Moulting
• Dissolved oxygen
• Temperature
• Any other stress factors (H2S, diseases,
Ammoniac,...........)
45
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Feeding and Moulting
• Shrimp moulting is synchronized to
some extent with the spring tide
during the new moon
• Moulting cyle is separated in 4
phases: PostMolt, Intermolt, Premolt,
Molt.
• Shrimps can not feed during the late
Premolt, Molt and the Post molt.
Adjust the feeding ration according to
the % of shrimps moulting and soft
shell in ponds.
46
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Effect of DO on feeding behaviour
• DO < 3,5 ppm is considered as stressful for shrimps
• At DO levels of 1,2 ppm shrimps show signs of hyper
activity (swimming near the surface, jumps).
• At DO levels of 0,9 ppm shrimps show signs of
lethargy (Mackay, 1974)..
• Shrimps avoid places where there is hypoxic condition
(DO< 2 ppm) and move toward better conditions (up
stream, close to the inlet for example)
47
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
Effect of DO on feeding behaviour
48
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫العمل‬ ‫برنامج‬
:
•
‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬‫ي‬
‫بر‬
‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫مل‬ ‫لأل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ن‬
‫ب‬‫ص‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫سل‬ ً‫أيض‬ ‫ي‬‫ر‬‫شه‬ ‫ع‬ ‫السب‬
‫ب‬
‫ض‬ ‫ألح‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬
.
‫يومية‬
‫أسبوعية‬
‫شهرية‬
‫سنوية‬
49
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫أ‬
-
‫اليومية‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫جدول‬
•
1
-
‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫جردة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ألح‬ ‫فحص‬
‫ه‬
.
•
2
-
‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫أل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫تغذ‬
(
‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬
)
‫أل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بتج‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ف‬‫عر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫بص‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ف‬ ‫بف‬‫ب‬‫ث‬
‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬
‫كله‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ذى‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ ً‫أيض‬ ‫لتغذي‬
.
•
3
-
‫ء‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫لتلف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ة‬
‫ر‬‫حر‬ ‫درج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬
.
•
4
-
‫كله‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫لل‬ ‫آخر‬ ‫فحص‬
.
•
5
-
‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫أل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫تغذ‬
(
‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬
)
‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ف‬ ‫بت‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫بل‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ف‬‫ن‬ ‫ء‬‫بر‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬
(
‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬
‫أل‬
)
‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ص‬ ‫فح‬ ‫كذ‬
.
•
6
-
‫المل‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ك‬ ‫هل‬ ‫نت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫فحص‬
.
•
7
-
‫لن‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫فحص‬
(
‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫جب‬
)
‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ ‫كل‬
.
•
8
-
‫بطح‬‫س‬ ‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ب‬‫ه‬‫تتج‬ ‫بف‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫ك‬ ‫سل‬ ‫لالحظ‬ ‫يج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خال‬
‫ء‬ ‫ب‬
‫ط‬ ‫الحت‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫جه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تشغ‬ ‫يج‬
.
50
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫ب‬
-
‫ع‬ ‫السب‬ ‫أل‬ ‫ج‬
:
•
1
-
‫وغيرها‬ ‫المشي‬ ‫ممرات‬ ‫وتطهير‬ ‫تنظيف‬
.
•
2
-
‫مد‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ملت‬ ‫كل‬ ‫والد‬ ‫والماكينلات‬ ‫المحركلات‬ ‫كل‬ ‫فحص‬
‫ها‬
‫مملوءة‬ ‫انها‬ ‫مت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خزانات‬ ‫ومت‬
.
•
4
-
‫الغذاء‬ ‫مسدودعات‬
–
‫لدغ‬ ‫كافيل‬ ‫انهلا‬ ‫ملت‬ ‫كل‬ ‫الد‬ ‫يجل‬
‫ذيل‬
‫لل‬ ‫الا‬ ‫للمزيل‬ ‫للل‬ ‫وعمل‬ ‫المقب‬ ‫بوع‬ ‫اال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ماك‬ ‫األ‬
‫زم‬
‫للحاج‬ ‫وفقا‬
.
51
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫ج‬
-
‫الشهرية‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫جدول‬
:
•
-
‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫بص‬‫ح‬‫ف‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ف‬ ‫له‬ ‫تل‬ ‫نه‬‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫تح‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫لن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خذ‬
‫بن‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ك‬‫تأ‬
‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ن‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بجالت‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫بتا‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫يح‬‫ر‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ش‬‫ت‬ ‫بم‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ط‬ ‫بن‬‫ب‬ ‫ض‬‫بر‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ال‬ ‫بن‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ه‬ ‫خل‬
‫بن‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ع‬‫دف‬ ‫ل‬
‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ ‫ء‬‫جر‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬
:
•
-
‫ت‬ ‫ف‬ ‫نسب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬
.
•
-
‫ا‬
‫شهر‬ ‫ن‬‫م‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ي‬‫م‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬
•
-
‫ي‬‫ر‬‫شه‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬
.
•
-
‫ستهلك‬ ‫ء‬ ‫لغذ‬ ‫لسب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬
(
‫شهر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫تح‬ ‫نسب‬
. )
•
-
‫شهر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫كل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬
.
•
-
‫دم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لشهر‬ ‫المل‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫تر‬ ‫تل‬
.
•
2
-
‫اللر‬ ‫ج‬ ‫حت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫نته‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ساللته‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتأك‬ ‫جردة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ك‬ ‫شب‬ ‫فحص‬
.
•
3
-
‫قت‬ ‫أا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لع‬ ‫ته‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتأك‬ ‫ط‬ ‫الحت‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫جه‬ ‫فحص‬
.
52
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
‫د‬
-
‫السنوية‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫جدول‬
:
.1
‫تلزم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ستب‬ ‫ك‬ ‫شب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫فحص‬
.
.2
‫م‬ ‫خال‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ح‬ ‫كل‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتج‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬
.
.3
‫ساللته‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتأك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫ختب‬ ‫ء‬‫جر‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ع‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ص‬
.
Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby
Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt
+201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com
T
h
a
n
k
y
ou
‫ش‬
‫ك‬
‫ر‬
‫ا‬
‫ل‬
‫ك‬
‫م‬
Shrimp and Ice cream

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feed managment edit.pdf

  • 1. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Shrimp Feed Management Practical steps for managing nutrition in aquaculture Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby - Executive Supervisor for Applied Research for Inland Aquaculture Development, at Al Mobdioon Center for Studies, Consultancy and Training, King Abdul-Aziz University – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Associate professor at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +966508024423 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com | WhatsApp: +201009016959
  • 2. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com 30 70 70 % of our World is water… Land Water 98 2 …but only 2% of the food production comes from there… Land Water Role of Aquaculture
  • 3. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Human Resources Healthy Fry Good Water Quality and Land High quality Feed The Elements of Aquaculture
  • 4. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com SPECIES DIVERSITY IN EGYPT 1051444 67.34 % 242071 15.50 % 180900 11.59 % 6836 0.44 % 24714 1.60 % 29994 1.92 % 25130 1.61 % 155 -- % 67% 16% 12%, 12% 0%, 0% 2%, 2% 2%, 2% 2%, 2% 0%, 0% PRODUCTION IN EGYPT Tilapia Mullet Carp Catfish
  • 5. 5 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Fish species Feeding habits and behavior • The behavior and feeding habits of fish refer to the processes of searching for, eating or eating food, as well as the factors that motivate the fish to eat food. • Fish are divided according to the type of food and the food items they eat in nature into: - - Vegetarian fish feeding herbivores - Animal-feeding fish (predatory) Carnivores - Mixed-feeding fish Omnivores - Fish feeding on phytoplankton (planktivores) - Detritivores fish
  • 6. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Nutrition Requirements Requirements Solutions Feed formulation is the process of quantifying the amounts/ combination of feed ingredients needed to form a single uniform mixture (diet) that meets a set of nutritional specifications. This mixture should cover the nutritional needs of the specific fish species
  • 7. 7 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com The ideal composition of the feed The composition of the feed should be similar to the natural fish feed Conditions for selecting fish feed: 1- It should be palatable to fish and of an appropriate size. 2- That it covers the nutritional needs of fish and is nutritionally balanced. 3- Free from contaminants and pathogens. 4- Its price is economical and available materials. 5- To be coherent and not dissolve in water.
  • 8. 8 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Feed Nutrition and their balance • Protein: • It builds muscle and may be used as an energy source (5.65 Kcal GE) • High cost and less means weak growth • Fats: • Energy source (9.45 Kcal GE) • It gives good taste and good feedability • Sources of fats is important for fish health • Carbohydrates: (4.12 Kcal GE) • Do not get digested by predatory fish • Vitamins and minerals: • They are added in small quantities to improve growth and raise immunity
  • 9. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Because protein is the most expensive component of fish feed, it is important to accurately determine the protein requirements for each species and life stage cultured. Proteins are formed by linkages of individual amino acids. Although more than 200 amino acids occur in nature, only about 20 amino acids are common. Of these, 10 are essential (indispensable) amino acids that cannot be synthesized by fish. The 10 essential amino acids that must be supplied by the diet are methionine, arginine, threonine, tryptophan, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine, valine, and phenylalanine. Of these, lysine and methionine are often the first limiting amino acids. Protein: 50% Carbon 6.5% Hydrogen 16% Nitrogen 21.5% Oxygen 6% Other Elements 65% lost Ammonia NH3 10% Solid wastes
  • 10. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com • Traditional Essential Nutrients: • Same for all species: • 10 Essential amino acids – Fat and water soluble vitamins – Vitamin-like compounds (choline, myo-inositol) – Minerals (macro and micro – Essential fatty acids ω-3, ω-6 Protein: • Nutrients for which are conditionally essential or whose essentiality is species and stagespecific: • Taurine • Phospholipids (a very wide class of chemicals) • Cholesterol ? • Nucleotides ? • Other compounds? Source : Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, National Research Council 50% Carbon 6.5% Hydrogen 16% Nitrogen 21.5% Oxygen 6% Other Elements 65% lost Ammonia NH3 10% Solid wastes
  • 11. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Lipids (fats) are high-energy nutrients that can be utilized to partially spare (substitute for) protein in aquaculture feeds. Lipids have about twice the energy density of proteins and carbohydrates. Lipids typically make up about 7-15 percent of fish diets, supply essential fatty acids, and serve as transporters for fatsoluble vitamins. Lipids: Simple lipids include fatty acids and triacylglycerols. Fish typically require fatty acids of the omega-3 and -6 (n-3 and n-6) families. Fatty acids can be (a) saturated fatty acids (no double bonds), (b) polyunsaturated fatty acids (>2 double bonds), or (c) highly unsaturated fatty acids (>4 double bonds). Marine fish and algal oils are naturally high in omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (>30 percent) and are excellent sources of lipids for the manufacture of fish diets. Lipids from these sources can be deposited into fish muscle. People who then consume these fillets could enjoy the health benefits of consuming foods rich in omega-3 fatty acdepression and improved cardiovascular health. ids, such as reduced symptoms of A recent trend in fish feeds is to use higher levels of lipids in the diet. While increasing dietary lipids can help reduce the high costs of feed by partially sparing protein in the feed, problems such as excessive fat deposition in the liver can decrease fish health, quality, and shelf life of the final product.
  • 12. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com • ω3 and ω6 fatty acids are generally required • From “structural” and “metabolic” perspectives a few fatty acids are known to be truly essential. – DHA (22:6 n-3) = major component of neural tissues (all species) and cell membranes of all tissues in cold water species, precursor of lipid mediators (e.g. resolvins) – ARA (20:4 n-6) = Precursor of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators – EPA (20:5 n-3) =Precursor of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators – 18:2 n-6 important part of some structural lipids Lipids:
  • 13. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates (starches and sugars) are the least expensive sources of energy for fish diets. Although not essential, carbohydrates are included in aquaculture diets to reduce feed costs and for their binding activity during feed manufacturing. Dietary starches are useful in the extrusion manufacture of floating feeds. Cooking starch during the extrusion process makes it more biologically available to fish. In fish, carbohydrates are stored as glycogen that can be mobilized to satisfy energy demands. They are a major energy source for mammals but are not used efficiently by fish. For example, mammals can extract about 4 calories of energy from 1 gram of carbohydrate, whereas fish can only extract about 1.6 calories from the same amount of carbohydrate. Fish can use up to about 20 percent of dietary carbohydrates
  • 14. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Vitamin and Minerals Requirement
  • 15. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Bonding materials Antifungals Some colors Appetite attractants Antioxidants Other feed additives
  • 16. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com • Ca, Na, Mg – Almost entirely acquired from water – No need for dietary supplementation unless water concentrations are very low • Phosphorus – Almost entirely acquired from diet – Often a critical nutrient • Requirement quite high, especially at early life stages • Relatively costly • Digestibility is highly variable across sources and species Macro-Mineral Specifications
  • 17. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Mineral Requirements Source : Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, National Research Council
  • 18. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Energy and Protein Dietary nutrients are essential for the construction of living tissues. They also are a source of stored energy for fish digestion, absorption, growth, reproduction, and other life processes. The nutritional value of a dietary ingredient is in part dependent on its ability to supply energy. Physiological fuel values are used to calculate and balance available energy values in prepared diets. They typically average 4, 4, and 9 calories per gram for protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively. To create an optimum diet, the ratio of protein to energy must be determined independently for each fish species. Excess energy relative to protein content in the diet can result in high lipid deposition. Because fish feed in order to meet their energy requirements, diets with excessive energy levels may result in decreased feed intake and reduced weight gain. Similarly, a diet with inadequate energy content can result in reduced weight gain because the fish cannot eat enough feed to satisfy their energy requirements for growth. Properly formulated prepared feeds have a well-balanced energy-to- protein ratio.
  • 19. 19 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com • 5000 fish/ pond • 200 g Average weight • 26 o C Water Temperature • 14.200 Kg = feed 1.45% body weight/day • 4 g/day = estimated growth. Energy and feed quantity 1 Kg fish = 4080 kcal DE Feed Feed Kg Gain Kg FCR (4080/DE) DE Kcal/Kg 24.4 20 1.27 3200 27.2 20 1.36 3000 29.2 20 1.46 2800 31.4 20 1.57 2600 34 20 1.70 2400
  • 20. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com • • Data available • How the requirement is assessed mathematically and biologically • Weight of the animals • Composition of the diet • Environmental conditions, etc. Factors Affecting Requirement 25% 44% 36% 32% 30% 27%
  • 21. 21 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Feeding Behaviour Detecting the feed: • Shrimp’s vision is rudimentary • Feed is detected by Chemosensory structure: Setea (antennae, antennule, maxilipeds) • Detection of soluble organic compounds (Proteins, AA, HUFA,.....) Eating: • Probe the feed with pereopods • Shrimp’s digestive system is primitive.
  • 22. 22 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Shrimp Requirements The requirements is: Therefore, shrimp the following is required in feed: - High content of digestible and absorbable protein and increase metabolism. - content of High Unsaturated fatty acids. - Balance in amino acids according to the nutritional requirements of shrimp. - Feed size available to shrimp size in a crumbly and granular. - It does not dissolve in water and stable for a long time, not less than two hours. - It has an aroma or flavours that attracts shrimp. - Feed additives to enhance immunity.
  • 23. 23 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Attractive Flavours in feed Attractive flavours in feed Feed is detected by Chemosensory structure: Setea (antennae, antennule, maxilipeds)
  • 24. 24 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Best Feed Size The ideal granule size must be taken into your mind depends on the sizes of Shrimp
  • 25. 25 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and absorption
  • 26. 26 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and absorption Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and absorb it faster
  • 27. 27 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and absorption Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and absorb it faster
  • 28. 28 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and absorption Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and absorb it faster
  • 29. 29 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and absorption Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and absorb it faster
  • 30. 30 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Rapid digestion and absorption rates mean rapid growth Digestive enzymes affect the better feed and digest and absorb it faster The form of the feed and the method of its manufacture affect the rates of digestion and absorption
  • 31. 31 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com immune system is challenged High organic matter ammonia level growth performance oxygen level stress
  • 32. 32 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com immune system is challenged High organic matter ammonia level antigens - bacteria, viruses, parasites - attack growth performance oxygen level stress
  • 33. 33 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com organic acids Feed Hepatopancreas Performance
  • 34. 34 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Feed • improved product stability (antioxidant/low pH) • antimicrobial effect • nutritive value of organic acids (energy)
  • 35. 35 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Hepatopancreas • reduction of pH • efficient pathogen reduction • activation of digestion • antimicrobial effects • stimulation of enzyme secretion • better Ca and P digestion
  • 36. 36 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Performance • reduced stress level • increased gut and animal health • faster fish growth
  • 37. 37 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Calculating the daily feeding ration • - Daily feeding ration is calculated according the biomass and the average weight of the crop. • - A theortical feeding table is used to calculated this amount of feed. • - Feed amount is adjusted according to rearing parameters. • - Shrimps are continuous intermittent feeders and hence should be fed several times throughout the day. • - Shrimps need about 3 -4 hours to digest, therefore, ideally, feeding should be done every 3 - 4 hours. • -Frequent feeding of smaller rations also provides better efficiency in nutrient assimilation and reduces losses due to leaching. • - During the first month: 2 feeding per day (dawn and dusk) • After the first month: 4-8 feedings per day FEED WHEN FEED % - 1St = 30% - 2nd = 26% - 3th = 26% - 4th = 18%
  • 38. 38 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Calculating the daily feeding ration • Blind Feeding.
  • 39. 39 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com FEED WHEN FEED % - 1St = 30% - 2nd = 26% - 3th = 26% - 4th = 18% • ‫التغذية‬ ‫اوعلب‬ ‫صواني‬ : • ‫أدنى‬ ‫كحد‬ ‫تركيب‬ ‫يتم‬ 2 ‫الحوض‬ ‫في‬ ‫تغذية‬ ‫صواني‬ ( ‫فدان‬ .) • ‫وضع‬ 1 ‫التغذية‬ ‫أطباق‬ ‫في‬ ‫المغذاه‬ ‫األعالف‬ ‫إجمالي‬ ‫من‬ ٪ . • ‫بعد‬ ‫طعام‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ترك‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫كان‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ما‬ ‫تحقق‬ 1 ‫ساعة‬ . • ‫ن‬ ‫في‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫في‬ ‫وتعطى‬ ،‫األعالف‬ ‫كمية‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التكيف‬ ‫فس‬ ‫للتغذية‬ ‫المعد‬ ‫للجدول‬ ‫وفقا‬ ،‫التغذية‬ ‫وقت‬ .
  • 40. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫زيادة‬ 50 - 400 ‫جرام‬ / 1000000 ‫جمبرى‬ ‫مضبوطة‬ ‫الكمية‬ ‫تقليل‬ 50 - 400 ‫جرام‬ / 1000000 ‫جمبرى‬ ‫النصف‬ ‫من‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫شئ‬ ‫ال‬ 50 % 100 % ‫زيادة‬ 50 ، ‫جرام‬ 100 ، ‫جرام‬ 200 ، ‫جرام‬ ......... ‫بزيادة‬ ‫قمت‬ ‫اذا‬ 50 ‫الي‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫االعالف‬ ‫جميع‬ ‫استهالك‬ ‫تم‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫وفي‬ ‫جرام‬ 100 ‫ثم‬ ‫جرام‬ ‫زيادة‬ 150 ‫ثم‬ ‫جرام‬ 200 ‫وهكذا‬ ‫جرام‬ ......... ‫مثال‬ : ‫اعطاء‬ ‫تم‬ ً‫ا‬‫صباح‬ ‫السادسة‬ ‫الساعة‬ ‫في‬ 10 ‫التغذية‬ ‫من‬ ‫كجم‬ ( 1 % ‫من‬ 10 ‫كجم‬ = 100 ‫المستهلكة‬ ‫التغذية‬ ‫علبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫جرام‬ ) ‫استهالك‬ ‫ويتم‬ ‫اطعام‬ ‫سيتم‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫وفي‬ ‫العلف‬ 10 ‫كجم‬ + 50 ‫جرام‬ . ‫التغذية‬ ‫صوانى‬
  • 41. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫التغذية‬ ‫حسابات‬ ‫مثال‬ : ‫اليومية‬ ‫التغذية‬ ‫حساب‬ ‫جدول‬ ‫حسب‬ : ‫بالحوض‬ ‫الجمبرى‬ ‫عدد‬ 300000 ‫جمبرى‬ ‫حوالى‬ ‫الجمبرى‬ ‫وزن‬ 8 ‫جرام‬ ‫التغذية‬ ‫كمية‬ 18 ‫لكل‬ ‫كجم‬ 100000 ‫جمبرى‬ 18 ‫كجم‬ / 100000 × 300000 = 18 × 3 = 54 ‫يوميا‬ ‫كجم‬ 54 ‫يوميا‬ ‫وجبات‬ ‫خمس‬ ‫على‬ ‫تقسيمهم‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫كجم‬ 54 / 5 = 10.8 ‫الوجبة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫كجم‬ 1 % ‫من‬ 10.8 = 108 ‫التغذية‬ ‫صينية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫توضع‬ ‫جم‬
  • 42. 42 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Sampling to calculate growth and feeding rate: • To calculate the quantities of feed required per day for any farmed aquatic animal, there must be data on the average weight as well as survival rates during a certain period of time, as the previous data can be collected by taking samples from the animals farmed in ponds. • - Sampling Must be done 1 hour before feeding or 2 hours after feeding. • - Throw the castnet at 3 to 4 different places. • - Period of the day with a high light intensity mus be avoided. • - Sampling operator should always be the same each 10 days. • - For shrimps below 5 gr, castnets is not efficient. Use feeder trays. Therefore shrimp have to be taken from the feed trays 2-3 hours after feeding at a cool time. • - Sampling must be done early in the morning. • - Dry the shrimp and weigh them
  • 43. 43 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com What can I see in the sampile?  Heterogeneity of the crop (class of size)  Average weight (g)  % of soft, hard and molting shrimps  Dead shrimps?  Shrimp health status (necrosis, uropods, gut content, fouling)  Presence of Fish
  • 44. 44 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Feeding vs Parameters • Moulting • Dissolved oxygen • Temperature • Any other stress factors (H2S, diseases, Ammoniac,...........)
  • 45. 45 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Feeding and Moulting • Shrimp moulting is synchronized to some extent with the spring tide during the new moon • Moulting cyle is separated in 4 phases: PostMolt, Intermolt, Premolt, Molt. • Shrimps can not feed during the late Premolt, Molt and the Post molt. Adjust the feeding ration according to the % of shrimps moulting and soft shell in ponds.
  • 46. 46 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Effect of DO on feeding behaviour • DO < 3,5 ppm is considered as stressful for shrimps • At DO levels of 1,2 ppm shrimps show signs of hyper activity (swimming near the surface, jumps). • At DO levels of 0,9 ppm shrimps show signs of lethargy (Mackay, 1974).. • Shrimps avoid places where there is hypoxic condition (DO< 2 ppm) and move toward better conditions (up stream, close to the inlet for example)
  • 47. 47 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com Effect of DO on feeding behaviour
  • 48. 48 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫العمل‬ ‫برنامج‬ : • ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬‫ي‬ ‫بر‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫مل‬ ‫لأل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ن‬ ‫ب‬‫ص‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫سل‬ ً‫أيض‬ ‫ي‬‫ر‬‫شه‬ ‫ع‬ ‫السب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ألح‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ . ‫يومية‬ ‫أسبوعية‬ ‫شهرية‬ ‫سنوية‬
  • 49. 49 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫أ‬ - ‫اليومية‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫جدول‬ • 1 - ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫جردة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ألح‬ ‫فحص‬ ‫ه‬ . • 2 - ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫أل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫تغذ‬ ( ‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ) ‫أل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بتج‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ف‬‫عر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫بص‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ف‬ ‫بف‬‫ب‬‫ث‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫كله‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ذى‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ ً‫أيض‬ ‫لتغذي‬ . • 3 - ‫ء‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫لتلف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬‫حر‬ ‫درج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ . • 4 - ‫كله‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫لل‬ ‫آخر‬ ‫فحص‬ . • 5 - ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫أل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫تغذ‬ ( ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ) ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ف‬ ‫بت‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫بل‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ف‬‫ن‬ ‫ء‬‫بر‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ( ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ‫أل‬ ) ‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تسج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ص‬ ‫فح‬ ‫كذ‬ . • 6 - ‫المل‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ك‬ ‫هل‬ ‫نت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫فحص‬ . • 7 - ‫لن‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫فحص‬ ( ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫جب‬ ) ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ ‫كل‬ . • 8 - ‫بطح‬‫س‬ ‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ب‬‫ه‬‫تتج‬ ‫بف‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫ك‬ ‫سل‬ ‫لالحظ‬ ‫يج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خال‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ط‬ ‫الحت‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫جه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تشغ‬ ‫يج‬ .
  • 50. 50 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫ب‬ - ‫ع‬ ‫السب‬ ‫أل‬ ‫ج‬ : • 1 - ‫وغيرها‬ ‫المشي‬ ‫ممرات‬ ‫وتطهير‬ ‫تنظيف‬ . • 2 - ‫مد‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ملت‬ ‫كل‬ ‫والد‬ ‫والماكينلات‬ ‫المحركلات‬ ‫كل‬ ‫فحص‬ ‫ها‬ ‫مملوءة‬ ‫انها‬ ‫مت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خزانات‬ ‫ومت‬ . • 4 - ‫الغذاء‬ ‫مسدودعات‬ – ‫لدغ‬ ‫كافيل‬ ‫انهلا‬ ‫ملت‬ ‫كل‬ ‫الد‬ ‫يجل‬ ‫ذيل‬ ‫لل‬ ‫الا‬ ‫للمزيل‬ ‫للل‬ ‫وعمل‬ ‫المقب‬ ‫بوع‬ ‫اال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ماك‬ ‫األ‬ ‫زم‬ ‫للحاج‬ ‫وفقا‬ .
  • 51. 51 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫ج‬ - ‫الشهرية‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫جدول‬ : • - ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫بص‬‫ح‬‫ف‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ف‬ ‫له‬ ‫تل‬ ‫نه‬‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫تح‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫لن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خذ‬ ‫بن‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ك‬‫تأ‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ك‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ن‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بجالت‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫بتا‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وت‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫يح‬‫ر‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ش‬‫ت‬ ‫بم‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ط‬ ‫بن‬‫ب‬ ‫ض‬‫بر‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ال‬ ‫بن‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ه‬ ‫خل‬ ‫بن‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ع‬‫دف‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ ‫ء‬‫جر‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ : • - ‫ت‬ ‫ف‬ ‫نسب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ . • - ‫ا‬ ‫شهر‬ ‫ن‬‫م‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ي‬‫م‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ • - ‫ي‬‫ر‬‫شه‬ ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ . • - ‫ستهلك‬ ‫ء‬ ‫لغذ‬ ‫لسب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ ( ‫شهر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫تح‬ ‫نسب‬ . ) • - ‫شهر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫كل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ . • - ‫دم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لشهر‬ ‫المل‬ ‫ء‬ ‫غذ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫تر‬ ‫تل‬ . • 2 - ‫اللر‬ ‫ج‬ ‫حت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫نته‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ساللته‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتأك‬ ‫جردة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ك‬ ‫شب‬ ‫فحص‬ . • 3 - ‫قت‬ ‫أا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لع‬ ‫ته‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتأك‬ ‫ط‬ ‫الحت‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫جه‬ ‫فحص‬ .
  • 52. 52 Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com ‫د‬ - ‫السنوية‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫جدول‬ : .1 ‫تلزم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ستب‬ ‫ك‬ ‫شب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫فحص‬ . .2 ‫م‬ ‫خال‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ح‬ ‫كل‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتج‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ألس‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ‫حس‬ . .3 ‫ساللته‬ ‫لن‬ ‫لتأك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫ختب‬ ‫ء‬‫جر‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ع‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ص‬ .
  • 53. Dr. Abd El Rahman Khattaby Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | a.a.khattaby@gmail.com T h a n k y ou ‫ش‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ Shrimp and Ice cream