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I.M.PEI
CONTENTS
Quick Facts
Synopsis
Early Life
Design Philosophy
Works
Recent Projects
Awards
Bibliography
QUICK FACTS
BIRTH DATE: April 26, 1917 (age
97)
EDUCATION: Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Harvard
University
PLACE OF BIRTH: Canton,
Guangzhou, China
FULL NAME: Ieoh Ming Pei
Synopsis
I. M. Pei was born in China on April 26,
1917.
In 1935 he began studying architecture
in the United States and eventually
earned his B.A. from MIT and his M.A.
from Harvard.
After starting his own architectural firm
in 1955, Pei went on to design such
well-known structures as the Kennedy
library, the glass pyramid at the Louvre
and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Now in his nineties, Pei continues to
design innovative structures throughout
the world and has countless honors for
his work within the field of architecture.
Early Life
When he was 17 years old, he traveled to the United States, initially
attending the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia before
transferring to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he
earned a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1940.
Pei soon continued his studies at Harvard University's Graduate
School of Design, where he had the opportunity to study with
German architect and founder of the Bauhaus design movement
Walter Gropius. During World War II, Pei took a break from his
education to work for the National Defense Research Committee. In
1944, he returned to Harvard and earned his master's degree in
architecture two years later. Around this time, Pei also worked an
assistant professor at the university.
Due to his reliance on abstract form and materials such as stone,
concrete, glass, and steel, Pei has been considered a disciple of
Walter Gropius.
However, Pei shows little concern with theory. He does
not believe that architecture must find forms to express
the times or that it should remain isolated from
commercial forces.
Pei generally designs sophisticated glass clad buildings
loosely related to the high-tech movement.
However, many of his designs result from original design
concepts. He frequently works on a large scale and is
renowned for his sharp, geometric designs.
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
NUMBER OF COMPLETE PROJECTS
North America : 48 Europe : 4
Middle East : 1 Asia : 11
WORKS
In 1948, Pei joined New York-based
architectural firm Webb & Knapp,
Inc., as its director of architecture. In
1955 he left to start his own firm, I.
M. Pei & Associates (now known as
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners). One of
his first major projects was the Mile
High Center in Denver, Colorado.
Pei also devised several urban
renewal plans for areas of
Washington, D.C., Boston and
Philadelphia around this time. Pei
met Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, on
the designs for presidential library.
JOHN F. KENNEDY
LIBRARY
The project, built in Dorchester,
Massachusetts, met several
challenges over the years,
including a change in location.
Completed in 1979, the library is a
nine-story modern structure that
features glass and concrete. Pei
also designed a later addition to
the site.
“I believe that architecture is a
pragmatic art. To become art it
must be built on a foundation
of necessity.”
—I.M. Pei
In 1983, he was awarded
the Pritzker Architecture
Prize for his contributions
to his field. In their official
announcement, the
committee recognized his
ability to "draw together
disparate people and
disciplines to create an
harmonious environment."
Pei used his prize money to
create a scholarship for
Chinese students to study
architecture in the United
States.
During this time, Pei also began work on revitalizing Paris's Louvre
museum. The new, and controversial, entrance he created for the
structure has since become one of the most iconic representations of
his work. Pei had visitors descend into the museum through a large
glass pyramid, which took them to a new level below the existing
courtyard.
Pei continued to design
impressive buildings
during the 1990s,
including the United
States Holocaust
Memorial Museum in
Washington, D.C., and
the Rock and Roll Hall
of Fame in Cleveland,
Ohio.
Pei designed several low cost modernistic houses that were
intended to be built of prefabricated plywood panels and ”plug in”
room modules.
Several of these designs were awarded recognition in Arts and
Architecture magazine and thus served to give Pei his first National
Exposure.
Pei experimented with towers of pre-cast concrete window frames
laid on one another like blocks. This system proved to be quick to
construct and required no added fireproof lining or exterior
sheathing, making it relatively inexpensive. The concrete frames
also had the asthetic advantage of looking “muscular” and
permanent.
Soon Pei acquired a reputation as a pragmatic, cost-concious
architect who understood the needs of developers and had the
ability to produce solid-looking buildings.
Pei showed concern that his buildings were “contextual”, that they
fit into their pre-existing architectural environments.
I.M.Pei is known for using large, abstract forms and designs. His
glass-clad structures seem to spring from the high tech modernist
movement.
Pei is popularly known for designing the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
in Ohio .However, Pei is more concerned with function than theory.
His works often incorporate traditional Chinese symbols and
building traditions.
Recent Projects
For more than 60 years, Pei has been one
of the world's most sought-after architects
and has handled a wide range of
commercial, government and cultural
projects. He created Chicago's Hyatt
Center, completed in 2005, and the Musée
d'Art Moderne in Kirchberg, Luxembourg,
completed in 2006.
Now in his 90s, Pei still maintains an active
work schedule. In India, he has several
designs in process, including Mumbai's
Lodha Place. He is also working on Los
Angeles's Century Plaza, Fordham
University's Lincoln Center
Fragrant Hill Hotel
Beijing, China
Completed 1982
Lead Designers:
I. M. Pei
C.C. Pei
Gross Floor Area
36,900 m²
Client
First Service Bureau, Beijing
Site
A 30,000 m² site in the
former Imperial Hunting
Grounds, 32 km from
downtown
Deluxe hotel in the former Imperial Hunting Grounds outside Beijing
This hotel stands in a public park within the former Imperial Hunting
Grounds outside Beijing, not far from the Summer Palace and other
key historic sites. Balancing symmetry and asymmetry, the 325 guest
rooms zigzag out from a central skylit space to preserve the site's
ancient trees. Each guest room opens onto a courtyard through a
shaped "window picture" that frames the landscape and brings the
outdoors inside. Building and gardens merge inseparably in an
intimate reciprocal relationship.
Underlying the design is a strategy to provide a "Third Way" wherein
advanced Western technology is grafted onto the essence of Chinese
vernacular architecture without literal imitation. The skylight was the
only major imported component; everything else was constructed by
local craftsmen using age-old techniques and materials. Fragrant Hill
thus draws from the living roots of tradition to sow the seed of a
new, distinctly Chinese form of modern architecture that can be
adapted, not merely adopted, for diverse building types.
Although a high-rise hotel in central Beijing was originally requested,
the architect declined in order to preserve the Forbidden City from
skyscraper intrusion. Shortly after Fragrant Hill was commissioned,
Beijing's unique legacy was acknowledged as strict height regulations
were established for new buildings within critical distances and sight
lines of the ancient precinct.
Major Components :
325 guest rooms, 750m2 atrium, ballroom, conference rooms,
restaurants, services, retail, athletic club and pools, 2,800 m2 outdoor
terrace / plaza, 11,000 m2 landscaped Chinese gardens with
reconstructed ancient water maze
Awards:
1984 American Institute of Architects:
National Honor Award
I. M. Pei & Partners services:
Site Planning; Architectural Design; Graphics
Mechanical / Electrical:
J. Roger Preston, Hong Kong
Interiors:
Dale Keller & Associates, Hong Kong
WORLD ONE
Located in Upper
Worli, Mumbai;
The World Towers
is nestled in South
Mumbai’s most
bustling address.
Home to top
industrialists,
sportspersons
and celebrities,
it’s woven into a
rich social &
cultural fabric.
Truly, the ultimate
destination for
the global elite.
Composed of 3 towers, uniquely
curvilinear in shape, The World Towers
form a stunning sculpture in glass and
steel, soaring into the Mumbai sky.
World One, the world’s tallest
residential tower, World View and
World Crest, stand as a powerful
symbol of Mumbai’s unfettered
aspirations and unstoppable drive.
At 730 ft and over 225m, World Crest is the fastest constructed
residential high-rise structure in India. The World Towers employs
the most cutting-edge and efficient construction technology in
creation of the iconic edifice. A project of astounding proportions,
matched in its magnificence only by the marvel of engineering and
construction that has gone into its development.
SITE LAYOUT
PLANS OF EAST WING AND WEAT WING
(9th to 18th floor and 19th floor onwards)
PLANS OF EAST WING AND WEST WING
Architect: I.M. Pei
Location: Hong Kong,
China
Project Year: 1985-1990
References: Pei Cobb
Freed & Partners
BANK OF CHINA
When commissioned to design the Bank of China
Tower on an intricate inland site, I.M. Pei was
requested to create an unavoidably tall unique
headquarters in a typhoon-prone region that would
represent the aspirations of the Chinese people yet
also symbolize good will toward the British Colony.
The solution assimilates architecture and
engineering simultaneously, involving an
asymmetrical tower that informs both skyline and
street.
The Bank of China Tower stands 70 stories tall,
reaching a height of 1,209 feet. At the time of its
opening in May 1990, it was the tallest building in
Asia and still remains one of the tallest in Hong
Kong.
Comprised of four vertical shafts, the tower emerges from a 52-meter
cube and reduces its mass, quadrant by quadrant, until a single
triangular prism resides.
The faceted prism is clad in reflective glass that mirrors the changing
sky, anchoring the expansive business district and providing a
characteristic vertical axis to Hong Kong’s towering skyline.
The four shafts that from the building produce a modern composite
structural system that not only resists high-velocity winds, but
eliminates the need for many internal vertical supports.
As a result, the Bank of China uses less steel than typical for a building
its size.
A key issue for I.M. Pei was the symbolism of the structure for the
Chinese people and the British Colony. Original plans included an x-
shaped cross-brace. However, in China the “X” shape is seen as a symbol
of death.
As an alternative, Pei chose to use less menacing diamond forms. The
bamboo plant was also a significant inspiration for this unique building.
The trunk of this massive structure is representative of the growth
patterns of bamboo, the symbol of hope and revitalization in the
Chinese culture.
At ground level, the tower is pulled back from the street to create an
amicable pedestrian atmosphere that is fully accessible and sheltered
from the urban bedlam. It is surrounded by a broad promenade, and
flanked by cooling water gardens that muffle the activity and noise of
surrounding traffic.
Awards
A few of the many honors I. M. Pei has received throughout his illustrious
career:
2006 Erwin Wickert Foundation, Orient and Occident Prize
2003 National Building Museum, Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in
Construction Technology
2003 Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution
National Design Award, Lifetime
Achievement Award
2001 The American Philosophical Society, the Thomas Jeff erson Medal
for distinguished achievement in the
arts, humanities, or social sciences
1999 Historic Landmarks Preservation Center, New York Cultural Laureate
1998 The MacDowell Colony, Edward MacDowell Medal
1997 Brown University, Independent Award
1996 Municipal Art Society, New York City, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Medal
1994 New York State, Governor’s Arts Award
1994 National Endowment for the Arts, Medal of Arts/Ambassador for
the Arts Award
1994 Architectural Society of China (Beijing), Gold Medal for
Outstanding Achievement in Architecture
1994 The Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design of Jerusalem, Jerusalem
Prize for Arts and Letters
1993 United States, Medal of Freedom
1993 France, Offi cer of the Legion of Honor
1991 Colbert Foundation, First Award for Excellence
1990 University of California at Los Angeles, UCLA Gold Medal
1989 Japan, Praemium Imperiale for lifetime achievement in
architecture
1988 United States, National Medal of Arts
1986 United States, the Medal of Liberty
1983 Hyatt Foundation, the Pritzker Architecture Prize
1981 National Arts Club, Gold Medal of Honor
1981 City of New York, Mayor’s Award of Honor for Art and Culture
1981 France, Grand Medal of the Academy of Architecture
1979 Rhode Island School of Design, President’s Fellow
1979 American Academy of Arts and Letters, Gold Medal for
Architecture
1979 The American Institute of Architects, the Gold Medal
1978 American Society of Interior Designers, Elsie de Wolfe Award
1976 The Thomas Jeff erson Memorial, Medal for Architecture
1973 The City Club of New York, for New York Award
1970 International Institute of Boston, Golden Door Award
1963 New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, Medal of
Honor
1961 National Institute of Arts and Letters, Arnold Brunner Award
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Blake, Peter. No Place Like Utopia: Modern Architecture and the
Company We Kept. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1993.
Boehm, Gero Von. Conversations with I. M. Pei: Light Is the Key. New
York: Prestel, 2000.
Cannell, Michael. I. M. Pei: Mandarin of Modernism. New York: Carol
Southern Books, 1995.
Englar, Mary. I. M. Pei. Chicago: Heinemann Raintree, 2005.
Gutman, Robert. Architectural Practice: A Critical View. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton Architectural Press, 1988.
I. M. Pei & Partners. I. M. Pei & Partners Drawings for the East Building,
National Gallery of Art: Its Evolution in
Sketches, Renderings, and Models, 1968-1978: an exhibition.
Developed by Adams Davidson Galleries with the
cooperation of the National Gallery of Art and the American Institute of
Architects Foundation. Washington D.C.,
1978.
Jencks, Charles. The New Paradigm in Architecture: The Language of
Post-Modern Architecture. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 2002.
Jodidio, Philip, and Janet Adams Strong. I. M. Pei: Complete Works. New
York: Rizzoli, 2008.
Jones, E. Michael. Living Machines: Bauhaus Architecture as Sexual
Ideology. San Francisco: Ignatius Press,
1995.
Levy, Matthys, and Mario Salvadori. Why Buildings Fall Down: How
Structures Fail. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 2002.
Lukinson, Sara. First Person Singular, I. M. Pei (video recording).
Produced and directed by Peter Rosen for Lives
and Legacy Films. PBS Home Video. Alexandria, VA, 1997.
Lukinson, Sara. I. M. Pei; The Museum on the Mountain Miho Museum,
Shiga, Japan (video recording). Produced
by Peter Rosen and Tim Culbert. Directed by Peter Rosen. Home Vision
Entertainment. United States, 2003.
Miller, Naomi and Keith Morgan. Boston Architecture: 1975-1990. New
York: Prestel, 1990.
Plunz, Richard. A History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type
and Social Change in the American
Metropolis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Rauterburg, Hanno. Talking Architecture: Interviews with Architects.
New York: Prestel, 2008.
Reid, Aileen. I. M. Pei. Avenel, New Jersey: Crescent Books, 1995.
Wells, Matthew. 30 Bridges. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications,
2002.
Wiseman, Carter. I. M. Pei: A Profi le in American Architecture. New
York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001.
Zeckendorf, William, and Edward McCreary. The Autobiography of
William Zeckendorf. New York: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1970.
THANK YOU
By-
Zindagi M. Mavani

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I.M. Pei's Iconic Architectural Works and Design Philosophy

  • 2. CONTENTS Quick Facts Synopsis Early Life Design Philosophy Works Recent Projects Awards Bibliography
  • 3. QUICK FACTS BIRTH DATE: April 26, 1917 (age 97) EDUCATION: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University PLACE OF BIRTH: Canton, Guangzhou, China FULL NAME: Ieoh Ming Pei
  • 4. Synopsis I. M. Pei was born in China on April 26, 1917. In 1935 he began studying architecture in the United States and eventually earned his B.A. from MIT and his M.A. from Harvard. After starting his own architectural firm in 1955, Pei went on to design such well-known structures as the Kennedy library, the glass pyramid at the Louvre and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Now in his nineties, Pei continues to design innovative structures throughout the world and has countless honors for his work within the field of architecture.
  • 5. Early Life When he was 17 years old, he traveled to the United States, initially attending the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia before transferring to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he earned a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1940. Pei soon continued his studies at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design, where he had the opportunity to study with German architect and founder of the Bauhaus design movement Walter Gropius. During World War II, Pei took a break from his education to work for the National Defense Research Committee. In 1944, he returned to Harvard and earned his master's degree in architecture two years later. Around this time, Pei also worked an assistant professor at the university.
  • 6. Due to his reliance on abstract form and materials such as stone, concrete, glass, and steel, Pei has been considered a disciple of Walter Gropius. However, Pei shows little concern with theory. He does not believe that architecture must find forms to express the times or that it should remain isolated from commercial forces. Pei generally designs sophisticated glass clad buildings loosely related to the high-tech movement. However, many of his designs result from original design concepts. He frequently works on a large scale and is renowned for his sharp, geometric designs. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
  • 7. NUMBER OF COMPLETE PROJECTS North America : 48 Europe : 4 Middle East : 1 Asia : 11
  • 8. WORKS In 1948, Pei joined New York-based architectural firm Webb & Knapp, Inc., as its director of architecture. In 1955 he left to start his own firm, I. M. Pei & Associates (now known as Pei Cobb Freed & Partners). One of his first major projects was the Mile High Center in Denver, Colorado. Pei also devised several urban renewal plans for areas of Washington, D.C., Boston and Philadelphia around this time. Pei met Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, on the designs for presidential library. JOHN F. KENNEDY LIBRARY
  • 9. The project, built in Dorchester, Massachusetts, met several challenges over the years, including a change in location. Completed in 1979, the library is a nine-story modern structure that features glass and concrete. Pei also designed a later addition to the site. “I believe that architecture is a pragmatic art. To become art it must be built on a foundation of necessity.” —I.M. Pei
  • 10. In 1983, he was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize for his contributions to his field. In their official announcement, the committee recognized his ability to "draw together disparate people and disciplines to create an harmonious environment." Pei used his prize money to create a scholarship for Chinese students to study architecture in the United States.
  • 11. During this time, Pei also began work on revitalizing Paris's Louvre museum. The new, and controversial, entrance he created for the structure has since become one of the most iconic representations of his work. Pei had visitors descend into the museum through a large glass pyramid, which took them to a new level below the existing courtyard. Pei continued to design impressive buildings during the 1990s, including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 12. Pei designed several low cost modernistic houses that were intended to be built of prefabricated plywood panels and ”plug in” room modules. Several of these designs were awarded recognition in Arts and Architecture magazine and thus served to give Pei his first National Exposure. Pei experimented with towers of pre-cast concrete window frames laid on one another like blocks. This system proved to be quick to construct and required no added fireproof lining or exterior sheathing, making it relatively inexpensive. The concrete frames also had the asthetic advantage of looking “muscular” and permanent. Soon Pei acquired a reputation as a pragmatic, cost-concious architect who understood the needs of developers and had the ability to produce solid-looking buildings.
  • 13. Pei showed concern that his buildings were “contextual”, that they fit into their pre-existing architectural environments. I.M.Pei is known for using large, abstract forms and designs. His glass-clad structures seem to spring from the high tech modernist movement. Pei is popularly known for designing the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Ohio .However, Pei is more concerned with function than theory. His works often incorporate traditional Chinese symbols and building traditions.
  • 14.
  • 15. Recent Projects For more than 60 years, Pei has been one of the world's most sought-after architects and has handled a wide range of commercial, government and cultural projects. He created Chicago's Hyatt Center, completed in 2005, and the Musée d'Art Moderne in Kirchberg, Luxembourg, completed in 2006. Now in his 90s, Pei still maintains an active work schedule. In India, he has several designs in process, including Mumbai's Lodha Place. He is also working on Los Angeles's Century Plaza, Fordham University's Lincoln Center
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  • 19. Fragrant Hill Hotel Beijing, China Completed 1982 Lead Designers: I. M. Pei C.C. Pei Gross Floor Area 36,900 m² Client First Service Bureau, Beijing Site A 30,000 m² site in the former Imperial Hunting Grounds, 32 km from downtown
  • 20. Deluxe hotel in the former Imperial Hunting Grounds outside Beijing This hotel stands in a public park within the former Imperial Hunting Grounds outside Beijing, not far from the Summer Palace and other key historic sites. Balancing symmetry and asymmetry, the 325 guest rooms zigzag out from a central skylit space to preserve the site's ancient trees. Each guest room opens onto a courtyard through a shaped "window picture" that frames the landscape and brings the outdoors inside. Building and gardens merge inseparably in an intimate reciprocal relationship.
  • 21. Underlying the design is a strategy to provide a "Third Way" wherein advanced Western technology is grafted onto the essence of Chinese vernacular architecture without literal imitation. The skylight was the only major imported component; everything else was constructed by local craftsmen using age-old techniques and materials. Fragrant Hill thus draws from the living roots of tradition to sow the seed of a new, distinctly Chinese form of modern architecture that can be adapted, not merely adopted, for diverse building types.
  • 22.
  • 23. Although a high-rise hotel in central Beijing was originally requested, the architect declined in order to preserve the Forbidden City from skyscraper intrusion. Shortly after Fragrant Hill was commissioned, Beijing's unique legacy was acknowledged as strict height regulations were established for new buildings within critical distances and sight lines of the ancient precinct.
  • 24. Major Components : 325 guest rooms, 750m2 atrium, ballroom, conference rooms, restaurants, services, retail, athletic club and pools, 2,800 m2 outdoor terrace / plaza, 11,000 m2 landscaped Chinese gardens with reconstructed ancient water maze Awards: 1984 American Institute of Architects: National Honor Award I. M. Pei & Partners services: Site Planning; Architectural Design; Graphics Mechanical / Electrical: J. Roger Preston, Hong Kong Interiors: Dale Keller & Associates, Hong Kong
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  • 28. Located in Upper Worli, Mumbai; The World Towers is nestled in South Mumbai’s most bustling address. Home to top industrialists, sportspersons and celebrities, it’s woven into a rich social & cultural fabric. Truly, the ultimate destination for the global elite.
  • 29. Composed of 3 towers, uniquely curvilinear in shape, The World Towers form a stunning sculpture in glass and steel, soaring into the Mumbai sky. World One, the world’s tallest residential tower, World View and World Crest, stand as a powerful symbol of Mumbai’s unfettered aspirations and unstoppable drive. At 730 ft and over 225m, World Crest is the fastest constructed residential high-rise structure in India. The World Towers employs the most cutting-edge and efficient construction technology in creation of the iconic edifice. A project of astounding proportions, matched in its magnificence only by the marvel of engineering and construction that has gone into its development.
  • 30.
  • 32. PLANS OF EAST WING AND WEAT WING (9th to 18th floor and 19th floor onwards)
  • 33. PLANS OF EAST WING AND WEST WING
  • 34. Architect: I.M. Pei Location: Hong Kong, China Project Year: 1985-1990 References: Pei Cobb Freed & Partners BANK OF CHINA
  • 35. When commissioned to design the Bank of China Tower on an intricate inland site, I.M. Pei was requested to create an unavoidably tall unique headquarters in a typhoon-prone region that would represent the aspirations of the Chinese people yet also symbolize good will toward the British Colony. The solution assimilates architecture and engineering simultaneously, involving an asymmetrical tower that informs both skyline and street. The Bank of China Tower stands 70 stories tall, reaching a height of 1,209 feet. At the time of its opening in May 1990, it was the tallest building in Asia and still remains one of the tallest in Hong Kong.
  • 36. Comprised of four vertical shafts, the tower emerges from a 52-meter cube and reduces its mass, quadrant by quadrant, until a single triangular prism resides. The faceted prism is clad in reflective glass that mirrors the changing sky, anchoring the expansive business district and providing a characteristic vertical axis to Hong Kong’s towering skyline.
  • 37. The four shafts that from the building produce a modern composite structural system that not only resists high-velocity winds, but eliminates the need for many internal vertical supports. As a result, the Bank of China uses less steel than typical for a building its size. A key issue for I.M. Pei was the symbolism of the structure for the Chinese people and the British Colony. Original plans included an x- shaped cross-brace. However, in China the “X” shape is seen as a symbol of death. As an alternative, Pei chose to use less menacing diamond forms. The bamboo plant was also a significant inspiration for this unique building. The trunk of this massive structure is representative of the growth patterns of bamboo, the symbol of hope and revitalization in the Chinese culture.
  • 38. At ground level, the tower is pulled back from the street to create an amicable pedestrian atmosphere that is fully accessible and sheltered from the urban bedlam. It is surrounded by a broad promenade, and flanked by cooling water gardens that muffle the activity and noise of surrounding traffic.
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  • 42. Awards A few of the many honors I. M. Pei has received throughout his illustrious career: 2006 Erwin Wickert Foundation, Orient and Occident Prize 2003 National Building Museum, Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in Construction Technology 2003 Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution National Design Award, Lifetime Achievement Award 2001 The American Philosophical Society, the Thomas Jeff erson Medal for distinguished achievement in the arts, humanities, or social sciences 1999 Historic Landmarks Preservation Center, New York Cultural Laureate 1998 The MacDowell Colony, Edward MacDowell Medal 1997 Brown University, Independent Award 1996 Municipal Art Society, New York City, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Medal
  • 43. 1994 New York State, Governor’s Arts Award 1994 National Endowment for the Arts, Medal of Arts/Ambassador for the Arts Award 1994 Architectural Society of China (Beijing), Gold Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Architecture 1994 The Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Prize for Arts and Letters 1993 United States, Medal of Freedom 1993 France, Offi cer of the Legion of Honor 1991 Colbert Foundation, First Award for Excellence 1990 University of California at Los Angeles, UCLA Gold Medal 1989 Japan, Praemium Imperiale for lifetime achievement in architecture 1988 United States, National Medal of Arts 1986 United States, the Medal of Liberty 1983 Hyatt Foundation, the Pritzker Architecture Prize 1981 National Arts Club, Gold Medal of Honor
  • 44. 1981 City of New York, Mayor’s Award of Honor for Art and Culture 1981 France, Grand Medal of the Academy of Architecture 1979 Rhode Island School of Design, President’s Fellow 1979 American Academy of Arts and Letters, Gold Medal for Architecture 1979 The American Institute of Architects, the Gold Medal 1978 American Society of Interior Designers, Elsie de Wolfe Award 1976 The Thomas Jeff erson Memorial, Medal for Architecture 1973 The City Club of New York, for New York Award 1970 International Institute of Boston, Golden Door Award 1963 New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, Medal of Honor 1961 National Institute of Arts and Letters, Arnold Brunner Award
  • 45. BIBLIOGRAPHY Blake, Peter. No Place Like Utopia: Modern Architecture and the Company We Kept. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Boehm, Gero Von. Conversations with I. M. Pei: Light Is the Key. New York: Prestel, 2000. Cannell, Michael. I. M. Pei: Mandarin of Modernism. New York: Carol Southern Books, 1995. Englar, Mary. I. M. Pei. Chicago: Heinemann Raintree, 2005. Gutman, Robert. Architectural Practice: A Critical View. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press, 1988. I. M. Pei & Partners. I. M. Pei & Partners Drawings for the East Building, National Gallery of Art: Its Evolution in Sketches, Renderings, and Models, 1968-1978: an exhibition. Developed by Adams Davidson Galleries with the cooperation of the National Gallery of Art and the American Institute of Architects Foundation. Washington D.C., 1978.
  • 46. Jencks, Charles. The New Paradigm in Architecture: The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Jodidio, Philip, and Janet Adams Strong. I. M. Pei: Complete Works. New York: Rizzoli, 2008. Jones, E. Michael. Living Machines: Bauhaus Architecture as Sexual Ideology. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1995. Levy, Matthys, and Mario Salvadori. Why Buildings Fall Down: How Structures Fail. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002. Lukinson, Sara. First Person Singular, I. M. Pei (video recording). Produced and directed by Peter Rosen for Lives and Legacy Films. PBS Home Video. Alexandria, VA, 1997. Lukinson, Sara. I. M. Pei; The Museum on the Mountain Miho Museum, Shiga, Japan (video recording). Produced by Peter Rosen and Tim Culbert. Directed by Peter Rosen. Home Vision Entertainment. United States, 2003.
  • 47. Miller, Naomi and Keith Morgan. Boston Architecture: 1975-1990. New York: Prestel, 1990. Plunz, Richard. A History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type and Social Change in the American Metropolis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. Rauterburg, Hanno. Talking Architecture: Interviews with Architects. New York: Prestel, 2008. Reid, Aileen. I. M. Pei. Avenel, New Jersey: Crescent Books, 1995. Wells, Matthew. 30 Bridges. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2002. Wiseman, Carter. I. M. Pei: A Profi le in American Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001. Zeckendorf, William, and Edward McCreary. The Autobiography of William Zeckendorf. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.