Richard meier and john hejduk


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Richard meier and john hejduk

  2. 2.  Richard Meier was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1934 and graduated from Cornell University in 1957.  Worked for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill briefly in 1959, and then for Marcel Breuer for three years, prior to starting his own practice in New York in 1963.  Much of Meier's work builds on the work of architects of the early to mid-20th century, especially that of Le Corbusier and, in particular, Le Corbusier's early phase. Meier has built more using Corbusier's ideas than anyone, including Le Corbusier himself. Meier expanded many ideas evident in Le Corbusier's work, particularly the Villa Savoye and the Swiss Pavilion.  Explaining his own roots, Meier says, "Le Corbusier was a great influence, but there are many influences and they are constantly changing. Frank Lloyd Wright was a great architect, and I could not have done my parent's house the way that I did, without being overwhelmed by Falling Water." Meier continued, "We are all affected by LeCorbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto, and Mies van der Rohe. But no less than Bramante, Borromini and Bernini. Architecture is a tradition, a long continuum. Whether we break with tradition or enhance it, we are still connected to that past.“ White colour has extensively been used in his buildings, the incisiveness of colourlessness.  In 1984, Meier was awarded the Pritzker Prize. In 2008, he won the gold medal in architecture from the Academy of Arts and Letters and his work Jesolo Lido Village was awarded the Dedalo Minosse International Prize for commissioning a building. Meier is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal in 1997.
  3. 3. SMITH HOUSE    "The house capitalizes on its dramatic 1.5-acre site. Beyond a dense cluster of evergreens, the land clears and rises to the center of the site, then drops sharply to the rugged shoreline and a small, sandy cove. The spatial organization of the house hinges on the programmatic separation between public and private areas. From the front walkway, visitors approach a mostly opaque white wood facade before crossing a ramp and entering on the house’s second level to discover what Meier calls a "180-degree explosion" of light and space. The living room, dining area, and study embrace the waterfront views, pin-wheeling in a threelevel enclosure of glass on three sides. The family’s private quarters, meanwhile, are stacked to hug the street-facing facade of the 2,800-square-foot building. Elements that would become Meier signatures are present as well: the pristine white exterior, expanses of plate glass framed by finely proportioned piers and mullions, and minimal interiors creating intersecting volumes.
  5. 5. DESIGN – PROGRAM AND CONCEPT „Meier‟s hyper-refinement of the modernist imagery has been inspired not by machines but by other architecture that was inspired by machines… honoring his “fathers” and casting them off at the same time.‟ Goldberger (1999)        SITE STRUCTURING The house is developed over three levels. The entrance area and master bedroom are on the middle floor. The lower level is for dining, kitchen, laundry and domestic help. Both the living and dining areas open directly to outdoor terraces. The top floor contains children’s bedrooms, guest-room and library-play. The house is finally topped by an outdoor roof deck. The house itself appears to be a hyphenation of two canonical structures: the Citrohan house and the Domino house (Corbusier and Jeanneret 1937). The Citrohan zone is a series of closed cellular spaces and the Domino zone is leveled as three platforms within a single volume enclosed by a glass skin. Meier investigates a language of oppositions of a denied dialectic between the total transparency of the panoramic façade and the solid compartment of the entrance façade. DOMINO HOUSE CITROHAN HOUSE
  7. 7.    Different interpretations of rectangular prisms as Space volumes, perforated walls, or compositional planar partis The principle applied at the elevations and sections of the house suggests somewhat similar and different interpretations. The most immediate finding is that the same root-2 rectangles that can be found in the plan can also be found in the elevations and the sections. That is not surprising given the abstract modernist vocabulary of the house and its exemplification of the organization of space through the abstract instruments of plan and section. What is more interesting is that the same trivalent condition (Tshape formation) of the intersection of the lines in the plan exist in the façade too but now it is even more celebrated in various ways constructing essentially grids in essential nested ways.
  8. 8. : Rectangular Divisions  Successive applications of such rules produce a modernist arrangement with grids formed by T-Shape intersections. : T-shape intersections found in the façade and the section of the Smith house : A derivation of a typical nested T-shape grid
  9. 9. GETTY CENTRE  Meier has exploited the two naturally-occurring ridges (which diverge at a 22.5 degree angle) by overlaying two grids along these axes. These grids serve to define the space of the campus while dividing the import of the buildings on it. Along one axis lie the galleries and along the other axis lie the administrative buildings. Meier emphasized the two competing grids by constructing strong view lines through the campus  The main axes of the museum grid that is offset by 22.5 degrees begins with the arrival plaza, carries through the edge of the stairs up to the main entrance, aligns with the columns supporting the rotunda as well as the center point of the rotunda, aligns with travertine benches in the courtyard between the pavilions, includes a narrow walkway between the west and south pavilions, a staircase down to the cactus garden and ends in the garden. • The corresponding cross axis starts with the center point of the circle forming the library garden, then passing to the center of the entrance rotunda, and aligning with the south wall of the rotunda building. • The primary grid structure is a 30-inch (760 mm) square; most wall and floor elements are 30-inch (760 mm) squares or some derivative thereof. The buildings at the Getty Center are made from concrete and steel with either travertine or aluminium cladding. Around 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of travertine was used to build the center.
  11. 11. DESIGN –PROGRAM AND STUDY        Since the building program had not been formulated, Meier was also involved in the process, the team travelled around the world, in 1985 , they visited the National Gallery of Art in Washington, Freer Gallery of Art, Yale Univ. Art Gallery and the Mellon Center for British Art. Kurk Foster emphasized the fact that none of art galleries and museum had addressed what Getty had to, Meier and others where looking what should’nt have been done. He also visited the Glyptothek, Alte Pinakothek and Neue Pinakothek. He also studied the Certosa del Galluzzo, as Corbusier had, to understand the organisation of courtyards and the relationship between interior and exterior spaces. He finally visited the Villa d’ Este, Tivoli and Villa Lante to study the spectacular gardens, paying attention to the details, but the Central Garden and the other landscape features were designed by the artist, Robert Irwin, who came with the a sculptural garden, using plants as the medium. The form was never appreciated by the architect but it was approved by the Getty Trust. A walk through the garden is a kinesthetic and sensual experience. The “sculpture” is essentially in three parts: the first is called the stream garden, where a visitor begins walking down a slope to what looks like the terminus of the garden and a sweeping vista of Los Angeles. The stream garden is essentially a canyon of tumbling green chert boulders sliced by running water. Visitors walk in a zigzag pattern down the canyon, on a stone path laid in herringbone design The stream garden spills out to a second overlook, a transition space, or plaza, marked by seating areas with umbrellas of bougainvillea and metal fifteen feet overhead, the bougainvillea tumbling out of bouquets of the unexpected – industrial rebar. Finally the waterbody takes a plunge of 20 ft into a carnelian granite wall lined basin, which has the bowl garden with the azalea maze. Certosa Galluzo
  12. 12. JOHN HEJDUK John Quentin Hejduk (19 July 1929 – 3 July 2000), was an American architect, artist and educator who spent much of his life in New York City, USA. Hejduk is noted for his use of attractive and often difficult-toconstruct objects and shapes; also for a profound interest in the fundamental issues of shape, organization, representation, and reciprocity. Hejduk studied at the Cooper Union School of Art and Architecture, the University of Cincinnati, and the Harvard Graduate School of Design, from which he graduated with a Masters in Architecture in 1953. He worked in several offices in New York including that of I. M. Pei and Partners and the office of A.M. Kinney and Associates. He established his own practice in New York in 1965 Hejduk was Professor of Architecture at The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, School of Architecture from 1964 to 2000 and Dean of the School of Architecture from 1975 to 2000. His arrival including the cooperation of many other influential professors ( including Daniel Shapiro ) His early work and curriculum grew from a set of exercises exploring cubes, grids, and frames, through an examination of square grids placed within diagonal containers set against an occasional curving wall, towards a series of experiments with flat planes and curved masses in various combinations and colors. For research he was awarded a grant from the Graham Foundation in 1967. Eventually, John Hejduk's "hard-line" modernist space-making exercises, heavily influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright and Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, moved away from his interests in favor of free-hand "figure/objects" influenced by mythology and spirituality, clearly expressing the nature of his poetry.
  13. 13. BUILT WORKS -KREUZBERG TOWER    The Kreuzberg Tower was part of the 1987 International BauAufstellung (IBA) Program. The German program continues to support innovative architecture and design through built and unbuilt projects. In 1987 the IBA invited noted architects and designers to envision new low and middle income housing for West Berlin. Hejduk’s project is composed of a 14 story tower with two separate 5 story wings. The neutral colored tower and wings feature green geometric shapes attached to the facades. These extrusions serve as balconies and sun shades for the low income housing units. Proposed refurbishment by the owners had included changes such as removal of the sun shades and expanding the balconies. The negative attention produced by the architecture community halted the changes and encouraged a reconsideration of the importance of the building. Instead of the initial changes, a full renovation is planned for the Kreuzberg Tower, including the surrounding gardens, which were designed but never realized.
  14. 14. WALL HOUSE  With a history unlike any other, Wall House 2 redefines the limits of architectural design as a function of context in both time and culture. 28 years after the completion of the initial designs and one year after the death of Hejduk, construction began in a completely different environment than where it was initially imagined.  The residence was initially designed for a fellow faculty member to be constructed in Ridgefeld, Connecticut. Due to the high estimated costs of construction in the wooded area, the project was put on hold. Passing from potential client to potential client, it was always being dropped before the beginning of construction due to lack of funding. A development company in Groningen, the Netherlands, took special interest in the project and decided to fund the construction at 2,500 square feet.  Wall House 2 is admired for it’s fusion of Surrealist sculpture, Cubist paintings and architecture, which reflect John Hejduk’s identity as an artist, poet, educator and architect. Inspiration for his work often came from Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, where he learned to focus on the more flat dimensions of architectural form as well as the focus on pure volumes. : ORIGINAL DRAWING - HEJDUK
  15. 15.  Organized around a central axis of horizontal and vertical plane, a three-dimensionality allows for experiencing the spaces. Use of light colors encourages visual distinction between volumes, which are accessible by means of a spiral staircase that sits at the backside of the wall. Dividing the space, the wall appears to be freestanding through the careful design of Hejduk, as it is supported with a glass connection to the volumes  “The wall is a neutral condition. That’s why it’s always painted gray. It is a moment of passage. The wall heightens that sense of passage, and by the same token, its thinness heightens the sense of it being just a momentary condition… what I call the moment of the present.”  Entering the house, the visitor encounters a flight of stairs which leads to the study, kitchen and dining room, all biomorphically shaped spaces with much character. The first floor contains a bedroom, and the top floor holds the living room. Each volume appears to be cantilevered, but in actuality the floating masses are supported by a grid of columns. This adds to the dramatic design of Wall House 2, as the large wall becomes symbolic, not structural.
  16. 16. : PLANS : SECTION
  17. 17.      A starting point for discussing the deflection of the vocabulary of Le Corbusier towardsHejduk’s own design intentions can perhaps be provided by the idea of promenade, which was important to Le Corbusier. According to Le Corbusier, movement provides continuously changing visual fields within an architectural visual horizon that is constant over at least part of the trajectory. Thus, variety is set within one or more clearly perceived organizing frameworks. In the Wall House, movement is associated with a visual field that changes only minimally within a given horizon, as in the approach corridor, or with abrupt changes of the horizon of reference, as when the wall is crossed. The interplay between the changing shapes of visual fields according to incremental changes of local position and a relatively constant horizon is negated. One might argue that the landscape outside the house is the horizon of reference from the three living spaces. However, even this horizon is dissociated from the spaces that channel movement. The Wall House can indeed be read as a handling of movement that is equivalent to an anti-promenade. If Le Corbusier’s design invites us to understand how controlled changes of views are produced as local variations of an underlying structure, Hejduk provides an aggregation of segmented views that instead defy synthesis. To achieve the qualities of promenade, Le Corbusier fundamentally works with three-dimensional space. Kenneth Frampton says that Hejduk specializes in frontality.
  18. 18. THEORETICAL AND SCULPTURAL WORKS HOUSE OF SUICIDE AND HOUSE OF MOTHER OF SUICIDE  The Funeral of Jan Palach - David Shapiro “ When I entered the first meditation, I escaped the gravity of the object. I experienced the emptiness, And I have been dead a long time. When I had a voice you could call a voice, My mother wept to me: My son, my beloved son, I never thought this possible, I'll follow you on foot. Halfway in mud and slush the microphones picked up. It was raining on the houses; It was snowing on the police cars. The astronauts were weeping, Going neither up nor out. And my own mother was brave enough she looked And it was all right I was dead. “  “House of the Suicide" and "House of the Mother of the Suicide" were inspired by a David Shapiro poem about Jan Palach, the Czech student who set himself on fire in January 1969 to protest the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia. Each "House" is a metal-clad cubic box of roughly 12 feet topped by 49 uniformly spaced metal "shards," of roughly the same height as the box bases. In the "House of the Suicide" the shards are slightly splayed apart, in the "House of the Mother of the Suicide" they huddle together, rising vertically from the cubic box. The monotone gray of the sealed House of the Suicide is punctuated only by a closed slit, painted red. The black House of the Mother of the Suicide can be entered. Inside one mounts a small platform, "a cross between a gallows and a widow's walk," from which one can look out at the House of the Suicide through a small slit in the elevation, painted blue on the exterior. In 1991 Czech President Vaclav Havel invited Hejduk, who was of Czech descent, to install the two houses temporarily at the Prague Castle.   
  19. 19. Theo Van Doesburg – Counter Compposition V : The Diamond House