Hi- tech Architecture and its pioneering architects, Norman Foster , Richard Rogers , Renzo Piano.
(Also known as Late Modernism or Structural Expression)
(Started in 1970’s)
Name – Rohit Arora
•Display of building’s structural, functional and technical
•Buildings were made by orderly arrangement of pre-fabricated
materials, such as glass panels etc.
•Glass walls and steel frames were immensely popular.
•The idea of ‘revealed’ structure came into consideration.
•Hi-technology was used to minimize the energy consumption
and make the building more eco-friendly.
Main pioneers of hi-tech architecture – Sir Norman Foster , Sir Richard Rogers
Sir Michael Hopkins , Renzo Piano
• The structural members of building are not hidden from the
• Every part is visible.
• Steel frames are used not only as structural members but also
as aesthetic members .
Examples of hi-tech building – Pompiduo Centre , HSBC bank HQ , Lloyd’s
Building , World Trade Centre etc.
• Norman Foster was born in Manchester, England in 1935.
• He went to private school and grammar school but
left early to earn a living.
• After leaving school he worked for two years in the city
treasurer’s office, studied commercial law.
• He entered Manchester University School of Architecture
and City Planning when he was 21 (1956) and graduated in 1961.
• Master’s Degree in Architecture from Yale University
• Foster Associates (now known as Foster and Partners) was
founded in 1967 and now has offices in London, Berlin, and
Singapore, with over 500 employees worldwide.
• Foster and Partners has received over 190 awards and has
won over 50 national and international competitions.
• In 1999 he was was awarded the 21st Pritzker Architecture
•The structure that holds it up;
•The services that allow it to work;
• The ecology of the building –
-Naturally ventilated, whether you can open the windows,
the quality of light;
•The materials used, their mass or their lightness;
•The character of the spaces;
•The relationship of the buildings to the skyline or streetscape;
•The way in which the building signals its presence in the city or the countryside.
•Sir Norman Foster’s buildings have dynamic appearance and
yet very environmentally aware.
•Designs are environmentally friendly.
His design process includes ways to reduce elements that are harmful
to the environment such as carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse gases
and fuel consumption.
• Each detail is carefully planned ,space is always taken into consideration.
• Foster’s designs have many bold shapes and
• uses colour to enhance and emphasize his work includes –
- everything from door handles and tables to airports, bridges,
and office buildings.
•He doesn’t limit himself in the design world to just one field,
• Works on small as well as big projects and the big projects become famous .
• Foster’s advances in the design has allowed him to alter many architectural
Hong kong and Shanghai bank-
•He wanted to create a
building that was not solely a bank
• Wanted change in current trend of building skyscrapers.
• Hated the idea of a central service core, pushing
service areas to the edge of the building in his design.
•Structural steel frames supported the floors.
• Positioning of elevators, banking halls and atrium done in
accordance with feng-shui .
• The atrium pulls light into the heart of the building and
pushes it through
the building, penetrating all spaces.
•Foster pushed the elevators to the very edge of the
building, thus opening
interior space and allowing more flexibility.
Glass and steel appearance from interior and exterior.
the symbolic import of unification,
ecological function by collecting and conserving solar energy and also handling
•Obsession with light
•This dome funnels light into the building during the daytime.
•Dome is completely transparent ,suggesting that democracy should be transparent and
•Use of high-technology, all of the elements in
the building were computer tested and even the dome was subjected to computer wind
simulations in order to maximize space and minimize excess.
• Its power station also burns a special linseed fuel mixture, based on corn oil, not fossil fuels,
minimizing energy consumption.
•At night the mirrors,
which bring daylight into the chamber work in reverse by acting as a signal on the
skyline to show that Parliament was in session.
Commerz bank , Frankfurt ,Germany
The tallest building in Europe, demonstrates that sustainable energy
conscious design is possible at the scale of the skyscraper.
Development of plan -
•The plan of the tower is triangular, giving the form of three
“petals” with a central “stem.”
•central atrium space.
•layout includes a core area for
circulation, mechanical, and other basic building needs.
•core functions were pushed to the
outer corners of the building to make way
for the atrium space.
•brings light directly to the
interior offices and
the heart of the structure.
London City Hall
•The distinctive outer shell and unique
•10 storey building.
•Oval form enables the building to perform
consuming only the minimum amount of
•Use of steel formwork for the slab results in a
reduction of costs in construction waste.
•The inclined steel column system
•Circular steel columns 508 mm in diameter
are lined up on top of each other connection
from floor to floor and are angled to line up
with the floor plate
•The roof of City Hall is provided with a
completed installation of photovoltaic solar
• Running along the interior atrium is a
stepped ramp which continues spiraling up
above the debating chamber.
•Through harnessing and collection of light, individuals feel close to nature.
•Consideration of light and its effects on the
•His commercial buildings have a central
atrium that draws light to the core of the building.
•Believes light has a healing function,
-one that keeps individuals sane in a busy modern world.
•In Reichstag, Foster uses light to remind German citizens
that building serves as their democratic center.
•The Willis-Faber & Dumas building’s walls of glass
become transparent at night, allowing outsiders to see inside.
• Foster likes to play with different layers sending
•The Reichstag has public viewing areas
above political buildings to send the message that-politics
should work to support the citizen.
•Reichstag also layers the idea of old and new,
using high-tech equipment and
pushing the edge of structural engineering, he is
able to push the edge of architectural designing.
High-tech buildings are more flexible, and thus
A high-tech building, is also energy efficient
•Environmentally aware in designs and creates ecologically
•He uses lines to form organic shapes.
skeleton of the outside of the building is visible to the
eyerather than hiding it .
• Many spaces inside are enclosed in glass and almost cause
you to feel as though you are outside.
•Puts a lot of thought into-how his designs will make us feel
once you’re interacting with them through the use of
different materials and thespace of an area
•He has designed structures in
Tokyo, Hong Kong, London, Barcelona.
Many of his designs have been named as a“landmark”
Richard George Rogers, born on July 23rd 1933 in Florence, is
an Italian born British architect known for his modernist and
Rogers attended the Architectural Association School of
Architecture in London, before graduating with a master's
degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962.
He had a very environmental conception of designs.
The notion of social integration is one of the other most
important points of the Richard Rogers’ architectural concept.
According to him social problems can find solutions in the
construction of “compact cities with multiple centers”.
Richard Rogers’ architectural philosophy’s topics are legible,
transparent, lightweight, systems, urban, public and green.
Pompidou Centre, Paris.
Lloyds building and Millennium dome, London
European courts of Human Rights Building, Strasbourg
The Lloyd’s Building(referred to as the
inside–out building) is the home of the
insurance institution Lloyd’s of London,
and is located at 1, Lime street, in the
City of London.
The building was designed
by architect Richard Rogers and built
between 1978 and 1986.
It is a leading example of
radical Bowellism architecture in which
the services for the building, such as
ducts and lifts, are located on the
exterior to maximize space in the
The building was innovative in having its services such as staircases, lifts,
electrical power conduits and water pipes on the outside, leaving an uncluttered
The building consists of three main towers and three service towers around a
central, rectangular space. Its core is the large Underwriting Room on the ground
floor, which houses the famous Lutine Bell.
The Underwriting Room (often simply known as "the Room") is overlooked by
galleries, forming a 60 meters (197 ft) high atrium lit naturally through a huge barrel-vaulted
glass roof. The first four galleries open onto the atrium space, and are
connected by escalators through the middle of the structure. The higher floors are
glassed in, and can only be reached via the outside lifts.
The 11th floor houses the Committee Room, an 18th century dining room
designed for the 2nd Earl of Shelburne by Robert Adam in 1763; it was transferred
piece by piece from the previous (1958) Lloyd's building across the road.
The Lloyd's building is 88 metres (289 ft) to the roof, with 14 floors. On top of each
service core stand the cleaning cranes, increasing the overall height to 95.10 metres
(312 ft). Modular in plan, each floor can be altered by addition or removal of
partitions and walls.
The building was designed in 1989 by the Richard
Rogers Partnership Ltd (London) and Claude Bucher
They intended to create a "symbolic landmark but not a
They also, due to the nature of the court, wanted to make it
more welcoming and open rather than fortress-like.
The building relies on natural light and ventilation, except
the light entrance hall which is air conditioned in an energy
The two main organs of the court, the court and
commission, occupy two large circular chambers each side
and offices are located in a "tail" stretching behind the
ARCHITECT: RENZO PIANO
Renzo Piano was born on September 14,
1937 in Genoa (Italy), in the bosom of a
wealthy family of construction companies.
also played a strong teaching and taught
at his alma mater, the Milan Polytechnic
and at the Architectural Association
School in London. After a few early
projects that failed to the drawing board in
1971 won a contest that would change
their lives: the construction of the Centre
Georges Pompidou in Paris. The building,
as was the case in the past with another
famous landmark, the Eiffel Tower was
controversial from the start.
Renzo performs in its early designs
that break traditional paradigms in
architecture such as authorship, the
durability or the same spatial rigidity,
projects what he called "adaptable
Recognized as an
creator and visionary
Its architecture is defined as solid
construction made by excellent
also to the
characterized by using
Renzo Piano designed a
building capable of
integrating with nature, in
tribute to one of the most
prolific and profound
artists of modern times.
"Architecture is a service."
"Architecture is an artistic craft, but at the same time it
is also a scientific profession, it is precisely its
distinctiveness" - Renzo Piano
"When style gets to become a brand, a personal seal,
this becomes a cage"
"The architect is first and foremost a builder, but also
should be a poet, and above all a humanist''
RENZO PIANO: ECOLOGICAL Innovator
For the great Italian architect Renzo Piano, the
protection of the environment, far from being a
limitation, it has become a "source of
inspiration" for the development of major
projects being undertaken in many countries.
Piano The guiding idea was to create
something more than a museum.
Renzo Piano was the lightness of the
artist's sense of belonging and light. It
was therefore decided to create a place,
raise the land, making land available for a
work of art itself. As if it were more of a
survey done by a knowledgeable farmer,
rather than the result of an architectural
So he designed three hills. Three waves
that rise and from the ground. With
different dimensions, the three waves
traverse the ground like a sculpture or the
result of the same nature.
Each has a different function undulations therein.
The first and larger, a 400-seat auditorium, and art workshops for
In the second wave, the middle, smaller than the first, is the
permanent collection of Paul Klee, and temporary exhibition
spaces dedicated to
In the third one, the least of all, lies the research and
•The design of the Zentrum Paul Klee is characterized by the
structure of corrugated steel deck. These beams have the
complex curves neither is equal to the other, since the wave
form extends from the front to the back where it is lost
together with the ground, and each "wave" has different
•Each of the curved steel beams with different weights, has
been constructed individually.
•After reviewing alternative materials such as aluminum,
copper and titanium, it was decided to use a hardened cover.
The ecological criteria, economic and technical were decisive
for this choice.
BUILT IN: 1991-1998
LOCATION: Noumea, New Caledonia
Its architecture evokes
the vernacular Kanak
huts of New Caledonia
and still has a very
modern feel. It is a
community center, and in
turn educational museum.
•The project design is intended to take advantage of
natural winds coming from the Pacific Ocean. The
exterior is made of wood, wind filter a second layer of
glass shutters that open and close natural ventilation.
•The complex is built entirely of iroko wood very resistant
to moisture and insects. This wood was imported from
•Iroko structure provides a comb-shaped. Evocative of
the cabins and craftsmanship Kanak, the slender ribs of
the structure and the slats that are joined seamlessly
integrated both in the lush landscape and the culture of
• The wood siding and stainless steel, is based on the
form of regional huts Kanakas. These structures
resemble traditional structural elements such as
herringbone struts that prevent buckling of long beams.
• The Academy of Sciences in California is the most current museum
by Renzo Piano, which delivers an enlightened and sustainable
solution to a building designed in the year 1934 with an avant-garde
• The museum consists of very unique areas such as an aquarium, a
planetarium and a reserve green on the inside, in addition to the
various exhibition galleries, which, unlike traditional galleries, were
designed for receiving large amount of natural light.
•Heat by radiant slab reduces the need for energy by
•The architect implemented heat recovery systems.
•The green roof creates thermal insulation, which
makes it unnecessary to resort to air conditioning
•High-efficiency glass was used throughout the
•To keep the museum pieces in the moisture content
required, it uses a system of moisture by reverse
•Recycled building material is used.
•90% of the spaces have natural light and outdoor
•The undulating line of sky allows ventilation to the
central square, which disperses the cool air into the
•The skylights are placed strategically so as to
illuminate the forest reserve and the aquarium.
•Absorption and reusing rainwater make the building extremely efficient.
•To operate the sanitary equipment, reclaimed water from the city of
San Francisco is used.
•The saltwater for the aquarium will be carried from the Pacific Ocean.