Chapter 13 Architecture Great Pyramids at Giza, Egypt, c. 2570-2500 BCE Fortress walls, Machu Picchu, Peru, Incan c. 1490-1530
Post and lintel <ul><li>M ost common structure - vertical posts or columns support horizontal beams and carry the weight of the entire structure to the ground </li></ul>Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens
Several forms of a round arch <ul><li>Vault – semicircular, curving ceiling or roof structure made of bricks or stone tightly fitted together to form a shell </li></ul><ul><li>Groin vault </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel vault </li></ul><ul><li>Keystone </li></ul><ul><li>Arcade </li></ul>Saarinen, St. Louis Gateway Arch,
Keystone and Arcade The arch, developed by the Romans, is more versatile and sound than the post-and-lintel system. Arches are semicircular in shape, and the compression that is required for structural stability is perfect for the use of stone as its building material. Arches are built over a wooden scaffolding, or centering, system, which is then taken down once the center stone, the keystone, is locked into place. The Romans used the arch extensively in their architecture. The height of an arch is determined by the radius of the semicircle between the posts. Keystone – the final stone set in the top of the arch. Arcade – a series of arches supported by columns
Barrel and Groin Vaults Groin vault – formed by two intersecting barrel vaults creating 4 openings Barrel vault – is a round arch extended to create a tunnel like structure If the arch is extended, a barrel or tunnel vault is formed. If two barrel vaults intersect perpendicularly, a groin or cross vault is formed.
Dome – arch rotated 180 degrees Taj Mahal above, Geodesic Dome top right, A dome is an arch rotated 360 degrees on its axis. Structurally, a dome is similar to the arch but is even more stable due to compression from all sides. The dome can be seen in the architecture of the Romans such as the Pantheon, the churches of the Renaissance, and in state capitol buildings in the U.S. today.
<ul><li>Gothic Arch - Medieval architecture, more specifically Gothic architecture, uses the pointed arch instead so the arch’s height is not limited, and buttressing counteracts the lateral pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>pointed arch – allowed buildings to be wider and taller with larger windows. </li></ul><ul><li>buttresses – outer walls built at right angles to the gothic arch support weight </li></ul><ul><li>flying buttresses – stone half arch on the outside of the building </li></ul>
Wood Trusses – triangular wood framework use to span, reinforce, or for support, can span large distances Balloon framing – American construction, mass produced, product of the Industrial Revolution
Suspension Bridges Originally made with rope, suspension bridges and roads in contemporary society use structurally sound, strong steel cables. The Golden Gate Bridge had the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed in 1937 and has become an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and the United States. In the 71 years since completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, CA 4,200 feet long
Steel and reinforced concrete between 1890 and 1910 development of high strength structural steel made way for skyscrapers
Best known for his public buildings in late 19th century Chicago, Louis Sullivan had a major influence on the early development of America’s most original contribution to architecture – the skyscraper. There were many opportunities for building in Chicago after the big fire of 1871. Sullivan, Auditorium Building, Chicago, 1893 Louis Sullivan
With the invention of the elevator and the development of steel used for structural skeletons, the first skyscraper was built by Sullivan in 1890 in St. Louis MO. It was the Wainwright Building (right). The exterior reflects the internal steel frame emphasizing the height of the building. Sullivan use the traditional elements by dividing the buildings façade into 3 layers – base, shaft and capital reminiscent of Greek columns. These areas also represent the buildings function with shops at the base, offices in the center and utility rooms at the top.
Sullivan, Schlesinger Meyer Department Store, Chicago, 1890-1895
Le Corbusier <ul><li>A French architect – </li></ul><ul><li>he designed the Domino construction system in 1914 - 1915. It was a steel column and reinforced concrete slab construction. The floors and roof are supported on interior load bearing columns instead of walls, making it possible to vary the placement of interior walls. He was inspired by the importance of natural light </li></ul>Espace, France
Le Corbusier – Sainte Pierre Church, Firminy, France. With load bearing columns in the interior of a building any space could be conceived.
Walter Gropius <ul><li>Used the International Style for the BAUHAUS art school in Germany. Because the walls were not load bearing they could be made from glass called curtain walls. As war became eminent, Gropius left the Bauhaus and resumed private practice in Berlin. Eventually, he was forced to leave Germany for the United States, where he became a professor at Harvard University. From 1938 to 1941, he worked on a series of houses with Marchel Breuer and in 1945 he founded "The Architect's Collaborative", a design team that embodied his belief in the value of teamwork. </li></ul>Gropius, Fagus Works, Germany, 1911-1913
Gropius created innovative designs that borrowed materials and methods of construction from modern technology. This advocacy of industrialized building carried with it a belief in team work and an acceptance of standardization and prefabrication. Using technology as a basis, he transformed building into a science of precise mathematical calculations. Gropius, Harvard Graduate Center, Massachusetts, 1950
<ul><li>Bauhaus style </li></ul><ul><li>“ House of Building" or "Building School" </li></ul><ul><li>is the common term for Bauhaus, a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts. It operated from 1919 to 1933. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius. In spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department for the first several years of its existence. Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography. The Bauhaus was an art school in Germany founded in 1919 and was shut down by the Nazis in 1933. A lot of architecture came out of the Bauhaus. </li></ul>
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe <ul><li>Famous for his dictum 'Less is More', van der Rohe attempted to create contemplative, neutral spaces through an architecture based on material honesty and structural integrity. </li></ul>Mies van der Rohe Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago, c. 1950
Van der Rohe, Seagram Building, New York, NY 1954-1958 The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New Your City. It was designed by the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, in collaboration with the American Philip Johnson and was completed in 1958. It is 515 feet tall with 38 stories. It stands as one of the finest examples of functional aesthetic and a masterpiece of corporate modernism. It was a steel frame construction with non load bearing walls leaving large public areas open at the base.
International Style <ul><li>Broke way from decorative ornamentation, and the idea of a building as a mass expressing the function of each building, its underlying structure and asymmetrical plan. International Style relates to modern architecture that resulted from the end of WWI and focused on improving society. </li></ul>
Frank Lloyd Wright <ul><li>Influenced by Japanese architecture, he was the first to use open floor plans. Wright created natural spaces flowing into the outdoors making use of the cantilever. He has several homes in Grand Rapids. </li></ul>Ward-Willits home, Illinois, 1902 Talliesin, Wright’s Home, Wisconsin, 1911 2 nd Talliesin in Arizona
Falling Water by Frank Lloyd Wright One of his most well known homes is Falling Water. Cantilever – when a beam or slab is extended a substantial distance beyond a supporting column, the overhanging part is the cantilever
New Visions in Architecture “ If you think it, we can build it.” philosophy of architects uses high-tech methods and metals and unorthodox materials to create one-of-a-kind buildings. Frank Gehry His deconstructed architectural style began to emerge in the late 1970s when Gehry, directed by a personal vision of architecture created collage-like compositions out of found materials. Instead of creating buildings, Gehry creates ad-hoc pieces of functional sculpture. Gehry's architecture has undergone a marked evolution from the plywood and corrugated-metal vernacular of his early works to the distorted but pristine concrete of his later works. However, the works retain a deconstructed aesthetic that fits well with the increasingly disjointed culture to which they belong. Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles CA,1989 - 2004
Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao Spain, 1997
Shigeru Ban, Japan Pavilion, Hanover Expo, 2000 See the photographs at http://www.ashesandsnow.org Shigeru Ban, Nomadic Museum, 2005, traveling museum for Gary Colbert’s traveling photograph installation