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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
A Multihazard View of 
Progressive Collapse Resistance 
for Enhancing Resilience of Society 
Mehrdad Sasani 
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Northeastern University 
Boston, MA, USA
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
A Multihazard View of 
Progressive Collapse Resistance 
for Enhancing Resilience of Society 
Mehrdad Sasani 
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Northeastern University 
Boston, MA, USA
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Engineering Community Resilience 
Resilience is defined as ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover 
from, or adapt to actual or potential adverse events within and across 
built environment, social, economic, and ecological domains (NAS, 
2012) 
We touch on both engineering aspects of resilience and decision 
making approach for achieving community resilience 
• Engineering resilience, as it relates to evaluating performance of 
structures and infrastructures, comprises a subset of issues relevant 
to community resilience 
• Identifying strategies to improve community resilience is largely 
driven by engineering, economic and environmental sciences 
• Social agreement, however, will likely differ for different 
communities and it is important to have an adaptable framework 
for achieving resilient communities
From Performance to Resilience Based Design 
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Time to recovery 
(Consequence in terms of extent of damage and repair costs) 
Hazard 
Years ≡ 
No Collapse 
(Extreme) 
Months 
(High) 
Weeks 
(Medium) 
Days 
(Low) 
Extreme 
High 
Medium 
Low

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6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

hfavulnerabilitydavos
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Why is collapse resistance important? 
• There is a continuing effort to use risk-based (as opposed to 
uniform hazard-based) approaches in building codes (e.g. 
ASCE 7-10, 2010) 
• In seismic design, a uniform risk of collapse is now used as 
basis of new risk-targeted ground motion maps 
• Trauma caused by collapse of buildings is primary cause of 
deaths and injuries in most earthquakes (Coburn and 
Spencer, 2002) 
• Similarly for response to blasts, majority of 168 fatalities 
during 1995 bombing of Murrah Federal building were due to 
partial collapse of structure and not to direct blast effects 
(Unified Facilities Criteria, 2009)
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Multihazard View (e.g. Seismic vs Blast) 
Important structural characteristics for collapse resistance 
• For seismic ground motions, structural deformation capacity 
and ductility are primary characteristics of importance 
(Sozen, 1981) 
• For a structure designed as ductile (special), lateral loads are 
3/8th of those for an ordinary structure 
• In order to resist collapse following loss of columns (say due 
to blasts), however, the strength of the structure to 
redistribute gravity loads can become very important
 
 
m 
F 
m 
F 
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
Gravity Load 
P 
Gravity Load 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
 
 
www.grforum.org 
Multihazard View (e.g. Seismic vs Blast) 
P 
Equivalent SDOF system 
Front view of 3D structure 
Equivalent SDOF system 
Front view of 3D structure 
Sasani, M. and Sagiroglu, S., "Progressive collapse of RC structures: A multihazard perspective," Structural 
Journal, ACI, Vol. 105, No. 1, pp. 96-103, 2008.
Strain Hardening 
Coefficient 
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
40 
30 
20 
10 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Multihazard View (e.g. Seismic vs Blast) 
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 
Yield Force / Column Axial Force 
0 
Displacement Ductility Demand 
=0.03 
=0.05 
=0.1 
=0.2 
=0.4

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Enhancing Resilience 
In order to evaluate current state of resilience and identify 
strategies for improving community resilience there is a need to 
consider: 
a. individual structures and infrastructures 
b. systems , such as transportation, communication, Water 
supply and distribution, health, and financial 
c. System of systems (i.e. community)
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Enhancing Resilience 
For each level of multiple hazards, 
1. Evaluate risks to individual components of each system (for 
instance a bridge within the transportation system or a 
power plant within the electric grid). 
2. Express risks in terms of time to recovery, and percent 
functional, which should be conducted more importantly at 
system level, considering systems interaction 
3. Identify and quantify other resilience metrics such as 
collapse likelihood, cost of repairs, as well as social and 
environmental impacts (as continuous or for simplicity as a 
discrete quantity) 
4. Final and most important step is decision making
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Enhancing Resilience 
• One approach to evaluate resilience is to consolidate its 
metrics so that community resilience can be measured and 
compared quantitatively, even by a single measure, such as 
cost. 
• Another approach is to avoid directly combining resilience 
metrics and instead categorizing and providing data about 
different metrics of resilience (including both quantitative, 
such as economic cost and time to recovery, and qualitative, 
such as social and environmental impacts data) to facilitate 
decision making by communities.
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Enhancing Resilience 
Other Metrics

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

conferencerisk#idrc2014
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Enhancing Resilience 
Other Metrics
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Conclusions 
• Representative engineering aspects of resilience is discussed 
in context of multiple hazards (e.g. seismic vs blast effects) 
• Importance of structural strength to redistribute gravity loads 
and resist collapse following severe hazards is demonstrated 
• While risk assessment based on sound engineering principles 
is required, it is not sufficient for decision making and social 
agreement 
• An approach is presented to help decision making process 
and achieving resilience goals considering communities’ 
resources and priorities
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Relation to Post 2015 Framework for 
Disaster Risk Reduction 
This study can be considered in context of disaster risk reduction at 2 levels: 
1. From specific structural engineering point of view, important structural 
characteristics relevant to resilience under multiple hazards must better 
understood to optimize use of limited resources in enhancing resilience. 
2. From a general point of view, it is an effort to emphasize that resilience 
goals and objectives must be adaptable to societal priorities as opposed to 
being uniquely and strictly defined for all, leaving communities with the sense 
that: “We cannot achieve resilience.” Instead, provide them with an 
adaptable framework and options they can choose from. 
• Needs for Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 
– Research is needed at both levels 
From an engineering point of view structural characteristics in context of 
multiple hazards must identified 
From a general point of view, research is neede3d to make resilience an 
achievable and relative goal
5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 
‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland 
www.grforum.org 
Acknowledgement 
Inputs and comments made by Professor Matthias Ruth is 
greatly appreciated.

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IDRC14-MehrdadSasani

  • 1. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org A Multihazard View of Progressive Collapse Resistance for Enhancing Resilience of Society Mehrdad Sasani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA, USA
  • 2. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org A Multihazard View of Progressive Collapse Resistance for Enhancing Resilience of Society Mehrdad Sasani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA, USA
  • 3. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Engineering Community Resilience Resilience is defined as ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, or adapt to actual or potential adverse events within and across built environment, social, economic, and ecological domains (NAS, 2012) We touch on both engineering aspects of resilience and decision making approach for achieving community resilience • Engineering resilience, as it relates to evaluating performance of structures and infrastructures, comprises a subset of issues relevant to community resilience • Identifying strategies to improve community resilience is largely driven by engineering, economic and environmental sciences • Social agreement, however, will likely differ for different communities and it is important to have an adaptable framework for achieving resilient communities
  • 4. From Performance to Resilience Based Design 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Time to recovery (Consequence in terms of extent of damage and repair costs) Hazard Years ≡ No Collapse (Extreme) Months (High) Weeks (Medium) Days (Low) Extreme High Medium Low
  • 5. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Why is collapse resistance important? • There is a continuing effort to use risk-based (as opposed to uniform hazard-based) approaches in building codes (e.g. ASCE 7-10, 2010) • In seismic design, a uniform risk of collapse is now used as basis of new risk-targeted ground motion maps • Trauma caused by collapse of buildings is primary cause of deaths and injuries in most earthquakes (Coburn and Spencer, 2002) • Similarly for response to blasts, majority of 168 fatalities during 1995 bombing of Murrah Federal building were due to partial collapse of structure and not to direct blast effects (Unified Facilities Criteria, 2009)
  • 6. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Multihazard View (e.g. Seismic vs Blast) Important structural characteristics for collapse resistance • For seismic ground motions, structural deformation capacity and ductility are primary characteristics of importance (Sozen, 1981) • For a structure designed as ductile (special), lateral loads are 3/8th of those for an ordinary structure • In order to resist collapse following loss of columns (say due to blasts), however, the strength of the structure to redistribute gravity loads can become very important
  • 7.   m F m F 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Gravity Load P Gravity Load ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland   www.grforum.org Multihazard View (e.g. Seismic vs Blast) P Equivalent SDOF system Front view of 3D structure Equivalent SDOF system Front view of 3D structure Sasani, M. and Sagiroglu, S., "Progressive collapse of RC structures: A multihazard perspective," Structural Journal, ACI, Vol. 105, No. 1, pp. 96-103, 2008.
  • 8. Strain Hardening Coefficient 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 40 30 20 10 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Multihazard View (e.g. Seismic vs Blast) 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Yield Force / Column Axial Force 0 Displacement Ductility Demand =0.03 =0.05 =0.1 =0.2 =0.4
  • 9. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Enhancing Resilience In order to evaluate current state of resilience and identify strategies for improving community resilience there is a need to consider: a. individual structures and infrastructures b. systems , such as transportation, communication, Water supply and distribution, health, and financial c. System of systems (i.e. community)
  • 10. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Enhancing Resilience For each level of multiple hazards, 1. Evaluate risks to individual components of each system (for instance a bridge within the transportation system or a power plant within the electric grid). 2. Express risks in terms of time to recovery, and percent functional, which should be conducted more importantly at system level, considering systems interaction 3. Identify and quantify other resilience metrics such as collapse likelihood, cost of repairs, as well as social and environmental impacts (as continuous or for simplicity as a discrete quantity) 4. Final and most important step is decision making
  • 11. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Enhancing Resilience • One approach to evaluate resilience is to consolidate its metrics so that community resilience can be measured and compared quantitatively, even by a single measure, such as cost. • Another approach is to avoid directly combining resilience metrics and instead categorizing and providing data about different metrics of resilience (including both quantitative, such as economic cost and time to recovery, and qualitative, such as social and environmental impacts data) to facilitate decision making by communities.
  • 12. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Enhancing Resilience Other Metrics
  • 13. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Enhancing Resilience Other Metrics
  • 14. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Conclusions • Representative engineering aspects of resilience is discussed in context of multiple hazards (e.g. seismic vs blast effects) • Importance of structural strength to redistribute gravity loads and resist collapse following severe hazards is demonstrated • While risk assessment based on sound engineering principles is required, it is not sufficient for decision making and social agreement • An approach is presented to help decision making process and achieving resilience goals considering communities’ resources and priorities
  • 15. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Relation to Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction This study can be considered in context of disaster risk reduction at 2 levels: 1. From specific structural engineering point of view, important structural characteristics relevant to resilience under multiple hazards must better understood to optimize use of limited resources in enhancing resilience. 2. From a general point of view, it is an effort to emphasize that resilience goals and objectives must be adaptable to societal priorities as opposed to being uniquely and strictly defined for all, leaving communities with the sense that: “We cannot achieve resilience.” Instead, provide them with an adaptable framework and options they can choose from. • Needs for Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction – Research is needed at both levels From an engineering point of view structural characteristics in context of multiple hazards must identified From a general point of view, research is neede3d to make resilience an achievable and relative goal
  • 16. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Acknowledgement Inputs and comments made by Professor Matthias Ruth is greatly appreciated.