SlideShare a Scribd company logo
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                                 72*#86*'#2!*#!*)3!=3/2*'6!?3@




! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39
                                                                                )/$*3
Semantic Web benefits
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                              www.deri.ie



       ! Programs  and sites can            my-site.net   company.com   your-site.org



          exchange information

      ! Search    engines can
          display more relevant
          information in results

      ! Data    mashers can                                +
          combine data from
          different datasets to
          find new and
          astounding things

                                        1
Key (confusing) terms
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie




                     Machine Understandable
                                                         Linked
                                                          Data

       SPARQL                                RDF
                                        Giant        Federated Dataset
                                        Global
                                        Graph


                                                 2
Machine Understandable
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                              www.deri.ie




     linclark.jpg
     is a picture                       The Semantic Web helps
     of a person
        named
                                        machines understand what
       Lin Clark                        the information on a Web
                                        page is...

                                          3
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute           www.deri.ie




                                  R esource
                                  Description
                                  F ramework
                                        4
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                               www.deri.ie




                                     Everything is a resource
                                    A resource is a named thing
                        A resource is a uniquely named thing



     Namespace
     xmlns:lin=”http://lin-clark.com/page.html#                      CURIE    URI


                                                          this
                                        http://lin-clark.com/page.html#this
                                                        lin:this



                                                    5
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




                                        A resource can be a
                                             document




                                                          foaf:Document


                                              dblp:this




                                              6
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




                                        A resource can be a
                                             company




                                                              foaf:Organization


                                                  deri:this




                                              7
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie




                                        A resource can even be a
                                                 person




                                                             foaf:Person


                                                    lin:me




                                                8
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                        www.deri.ie




                                        You can describe properties
                                             of that person...


                                                              foaf:name       Lin Clark
                                                              foaf:mbox       lin.clark@deri.org
                                                              foaf:birthday   07-01




                                                     lin:me




                                                 9
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie




                                  and describe how that person
                                   is related to other resources


                                    foaf:made             swrc:employs



                                                 lin:me




                      dblp:this                                   deri:this




                                                10
Federated Dataset
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




               Because we are using http URIs,
    these resources don’t need to be in the same database

                                    foaf:made             swrc:employs



                                                 lin:me




                      dblp:this                                  deri:this




                                                11
Federated Dataset
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie




            the resources can be distributed across the Web
                       in a federated datagraph




                                        12
Giant Global Graph
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                          www.deri.ie




              And when all resources are described this way,
                 the Web becomes one giant database...




                                        13
SPARQL
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                          www.deri.ie




                Find and retrieve information from the graph
                                using SPARQL




                                        14
The Semantic Web
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




                     Machine Understandable
                                                          Linked
                                                           Data

       SPARQL                                RDF
                                        Giant         Federated Dataset
                                        Global
                                        Graph


                                                 15
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                                                         The Semantic Web




! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
The Web - Initial Proposal (1989)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie




                             http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html

                                              2 of XYZ
The Web - Circa 2010
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




                                          ??




                   ??

                                                   ??




                                        3 of XYZ
The Web – 1994 Vision
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie



       To a computer, the Web is a flat, boring world, devoid of meaning. This
          is a pity, as in fact documents on the Web describe real objects and
          imaginary concepts, and give particular relationships between them.
          For example, a document might describe a person. The title
          document to a house describes a house and also the ownership
          relation with a person. Adding semantics to the Web involves two
          things: allowing documents which have information in machine-
          readable forms, and allowing links to be created with
          relationship values. Only when we have this extra level of
          semantics will we be able to use computer power to help us
          exploit the information to a greater extent than our own reading.

       Tim Berners-Lee, 1st World Wide Web Conference, Geneva, May 1994




                                        4 of XYZ
The Web – 1994 Vision
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                  www.deri.ie




           http://www.slideshare.net/danbri/when-presentation-849447

                                        5 of XYZ
The Semantic Web
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




       !    Bridging the gap from a Web of Documents to a
            Web of Data
                  With typed objects and typed relationships: The Web as a
                   giant decentralized database
       !    Adding machine-readable meta-data to existing
            content
                  So that information can be parsed, queried, reused
       !    Defining shared semantics for this meta-data
                  For interoperability between applications and for advanced
                   purposes, such as reasoning
       !    Enabling machine-readable knowledge at Web scale,
            making information more easy to find and process

                                         6 of XYZ
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
A Bit of History
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie




       !    Memex
                  1945 ! - Vannevar Bush
                  A memex is “a device in which an individual stores
              all his books, records, and communications.”


       !    Augmenting Human Intellect
                  1960 - Douglas Engelbart
                  “By ‘augmenting human intellect’ we mean increasing
              the capability of a man to approach a complex problem
              situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular
              needs, and to derive solutions to problems.”


                                           8 of XYZ
More recently
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie




       !    SHOE
                  http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/
                  “SHOE is a small extension to HTML which allows web page
                   authors to annotate their web documents with machine-
                   readable knowledge. SHOE makes real intelligent agent
                   software on the web possible.“




                                        9 of XYZ
The Semantic Web, right now
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie




       !    Standardisation work in W3C
                  http://w3.org
       !    Semantic Web activity
                  http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/
       !    Incubator Groups, Working Groups, Interest Groups
                  SPARQL - http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/wiki/Main_Page
                  RDB2RDF – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/rdb2rdf
                  RIF - http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/
                  HCLS - http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls/
                  …




                                        10 of XYZ
The Semantic Web stack
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




                                http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png

                                               11 of XYZ
The Semantic Web stack
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




                                http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png

                                               12 of XYZ
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                                                 URIs, RDF(S) and OWL




! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
URIs
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie




       !    A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a compact
            sequence of characters that identifies an abstract or
            physical resource as of RFC3986
       !    URIs are used to identify everything in a unique and
            non-ambiguous way
                  Not only pages (as on the current Web), but any resource
                   (people, documents, books, interests …)
                  A URI for a person is different from a URI for a document
                   about the person, because a person is not a document !
       !    Example
                  http://apassant.net/alex - myself
                  http://apassant.net - my homepage


                                         14
Resource Description Framework
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie




       !    URI represent resources
                  But how define things about these resources ?
                  E.g. “Drupal is a CMS”, “DERI is in Galway”
       !    RDF – Resource Description Framework
                  RDF abstract syntax, a data model: a directed, labeled
                   graph based on URIs
                  RDF is not XML ! RDF/XML is only one of the multiple way
                   to serialize RDF data (N3, RDFa …)
       !    RDF is based on triples
                  subject predicate object .
                  Subjects and predicates are URIs
                  Objects can be either URIs or litterals

                                           15
RDF by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                              www.deri.ie



   @prefix dct: http://purl.org/dc/terms/ . !

   http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/talk/2889#id!
    dct:title “How to build Linked Data sites with Drupal7 and
     RDFa” ; !
    dct:author http://apassant.net/alex ;!
    dct:subject http://dbpedia.org/resource/Drupal .!

    How to build Linked
      Data sites with                   dct:title           http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/talk/2889#id
    Drupal7 and RDFa

                                                    dct:author                     dct:subject


                        http://apassant.net/alex                          http://dbpedia.org/resource/Drupal




                                                      16
RDFa
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                        www.deri.ie




       !    A way of embedding RDF in (X)HTML documents:
                  One page for both humans and machines
                  Don’t need to repeat yourself
                  Introducing new XHTML attributes
                  http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/
       !    Current work is ongoing on RDFa 1.1:
                  For profiles, etc.
RDFa by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
RDFa by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
RDFa and prefixes
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie




       !    http://sdow2009.semanticweb.org
                  Header contains prefixes and links to the GRDDL
                   transformation
Extracting other serialisations
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




       !    http://sdow2009.semanticweb.org
                  Webpage can be translated to native RDF/XML using an
                   RDFa distiller - http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/
Ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie




       !    RDF provides a way to write assertions
                  But what about their semantics
                  E.g. how can one know that
                   http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows identifies an
                   acquaintance relationship ?
       !    Ontologies provide common semantics for
            resources on the Semantic Web
                  “An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.”
       !    Developing ontologies for the Semantic Web
                  Main languages are RDFS (RDF Schema) and OWL (Web
                   Ontology Language)
                  Growing expressivity levels


                                          22 of XYZ
Ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




       !    Classes and properties
                  :Person a rdfs:Class .
                  :father a rdfs:Property .
                  :father rdfs:domain :Person .
                  :father rdfs:range :Person .




                                            23 of XYZ
Metadata and ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
RDFS
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie




       !    RDFS defines classes, properties and subsumption
            relations between classes and properties
                  ex:Person rdfs:subClassOf ex:humanLiving .
                  ex:worksWith rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:knows .
       !    Such relationships are used to infer new statements
                  :alex rdf:type ex:Person .
                  :Alex ex:worksWith :Axel .
                  Is enough to say that Alex is a humanLiving and knows
                   Axel




                                          25 of XYZ
RDFS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute               www.deri.ie




                                        26 of XYZ
OWL
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                            www.deri.ie




       !    OWL goes further than RDFS by introducing new
            axioms
                  Disjunction (e.g. person / document)
                  Transitivity (e.g. ancestor)
                  Symmetry (e.g. sibling)
                  Cardinality constraints (e.g. ancestor  1)
       !    OWL2 introduces a lot of useful features, especially
            for reasoning
                  Property Chains (parent + brother - uncle)




                                             27 of XYZ
OWL by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute               www.deri.ie




                                        28 of XYZ
OWL2 Property chain example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                  www.deri.ie



       ex:uncle rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty .
       ex:parent rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty .
       ex:brother rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty .

       [] rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:uncle;!!
           owl:propertyChain (!
                ex:parent!!
                ex:brother!!
       ).

       :alice ex:parent :bob .
       :bob ex:brother :joe .
       =
       :alice ex:uncle :joe .


                                           29 of XYZ
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                 www.deri.ie




                                                                        Linked Data




! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
Linked Data
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                  www.deri.ie



       !    Building a “Web of Data” to enhance the current
            Web
       !    Exposing, sharing and connecting data about
            things via dereferenceable URIs
       !    The Linking Open Data (LOD) project:
                  http://linkeddata.org/
                  Translating existing datasets into RDF and linking them
                   together, for example DBpedia (Wikipedia) and GeoNames,
                   Freebase, BBC programmes, etc.
                  Governement data also available as Linked Data
The Linked Data principles
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                        www.deri.ie




       !    http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

       !    Use URIs as names for things
       !    Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those
            names
       !    When someone looks up a URI, provide useful
            information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL)
       !    Include links to other URIs. so that they can
            discover more things

       !    E.g. http://dbpedia.org/resource/SPARQL

                                        32
The LOD cloud
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie

             2007




                                        2008
The LOD cloud
Digital Enterprise Research Institute       www.deri.ie


                                   2008




                                          2009
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                      www.deri.ie




                  image from richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-07-14.png
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                     Some Ontologies used in Drupal7




! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
Which ontologies to use ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




       !    SearchMonkey Vocabularies
                  http://developer.yahoo.com/searchmonkey/smguide/
                   profile_vocab.html




                                        37
Which ontologies to use ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                           www.deri.ie




       !    How to Publish Linked Data on the Web
                  http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/
                   LinkedDataTutorial/




                                        38
Extending ontologies ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




       !    What if existing ontologies are not enough for your
            needs ?
                  Create a new ontology
                  … or extend an existing one !
       !    Ontologies can be extended in a decentralized way
                  E.g. Anyone can create a subproperty of foaf:knows,
                   “metInSemtech”, in his own ontology and publish it online
       !    Open.vocab.org
                  A collaborative platform to manage ontologies
                  http://open.vocab.org




                                           39
Drupal7
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




       !    The following models are used in Drupal7
       !    RSS Content module
                  http://web.resource.org/rss/1.0/modules/content/
       !    DublinCore
                  http://dublincore.org/
       !    FOAF
                  http://foaf-project.org
       !    SIOC and its Types module
                  http://sioc-project.org
       !    SKOS
                  http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
RSS Content
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
DublinCore
Digital Enterprise Research Institute          www.deri.ie




       !    DublinCore
                  DCMI Metadata Terms
                  http://purl.org/dc/terms/


       !    Some properties
                  dc:title
                  dc:subject
                  dc:created
                  dc:date
                  dc:modified
DublinCore by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF – Friend Of A Friend
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF – Friend Of A Friend
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie



       !    An ontology for describing people and the
            relationships that exist between them:
                  http://foaf-project.org/
                  Identity, personal profiles and social networks
                  Can be integrated with other SW vocabularies


       !    FOAF on the Web:
                  LiveJournal, MyOpera, identi.ca, MyBlogLog, hi5, Fotothing,
                   Videntity, FriendFeed, Ecademy, Typepad
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF at a glance
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF from Flickr
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF from Twitter
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
Distributed identity with FOAF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
Interlinking identities and networks
Digital Enterprise Research Institute         www.deri.ie
FOAF+SSL: Secured authentication
Digital Enterprise Research Institute     www.deri.ie
SIOC
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie



       !    Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities
                  http://sioc-project.org/
       !    Addressing interoperability issues on the (Social)
            Web
                  To fully describe content / structure of social websites and
                   to create new connections between online discussion posts
                   and items, forums and containers
                  Various domains: Web 2.0, enterprise information
                   integration, HCLS, e-government
                  Widely deployed (SearchMonkey, Talis, etc.)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
The SIOC core ontology
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC Types
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie




       !    Additional information is required for finer-grained
            representation of Web 2.0 content
                  Differentiating a blog post from a wiki page or from a
                   microblogging status update
       !    SIOC Types
                  http://rdfs.org/sioc/types
       !    Use-case in HCLS
                  http://www.w3.org/TR/hcls-sioc/
SIOC Types
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC Types
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC Types by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




       !    SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System
                  http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-
                   reference-20090818/


       !    Thesaurus, subject headings and classifications
                  skos:Concept
                  skos:semanticRelation
                     –  skos:related, skos:narrower, skos:broader
                     –  A different semantics than in RDFS/OWL hierarchies


       !    Used by:
                  NY Times, Library of Congress, DBpedia, etc.
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                            www.deri.ie




                  ex:SPARQL                ex:Semantic_Web              ex:Web




                                             rdf:type

                              rdf:type

                                                             rdf:type
                                         skos:Concept
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                          www.deri.ie




                                         skos:broader                       skos:broader


                  ex:SPARQL                               ex:Semantic_Web                             ex:Web




                                                            rdf:type

                              rdf:type

                                                                                           rdf:type
                                                        skos:Concept
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                            www.deri.ie




                                         skos:broader                         skos:broader


                  ex:SPARQL                                ex:Semantic_Web                              ex:Web



                                         skos:narrower                       skos:narrower
                                                             rdf:type

                              rdf:type

                                                                                             rdf:type
                                                         skos:Concept
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                              www.deri.ie




                                         skos:semanticRelation




                                           skos:broader                         skos:broader


                  ex:SPARQL                                  ex:Semantic_Web                              ex:Web



                                          skos:narrower                        skos:narrower
                                                                 rdf:type

                              rdf:type

                                                                                               rdf:type
                                                          skos:Concept
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                        Querying RDF data with SPARQL




! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
SPARQL
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie




       !    RDF(S)/OWL useful to produce data
                  A need to query it
       !    SPARQL
                  SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language
                  The “SQL” of the Semantic Web
       !    FAQ
                  http://www.thefigtrees.net/lee/sw/sparql-faq
       !    SPARQL Query Recommendation / tutorial
                  http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/
       !    Currently under standardization for SPARQL1.1
                  http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/wiki/Main_Page
How it works ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




       !    Graph Pattern Matching
                  Identifying if a requested graph matches the underlying
                   RDF data
       !    Four different operators
                  SELECT, DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT, ASK
                  Combined with query patterns and optional features
                   (union, filters …)
       !    A Protocol
                  To query RDF data using SPARQL endpoints via HTTP
       !    Most of endpoints are associated with an RDF store
                  A place that stores RDF data and provides open access to
                   it – e.g. http://dbpedia.org/sparql
Example of SELECT queries
Digital Enterprise Research Institute            www.deri.ie




       “select persons older than 30”

       SELECT ?X
       WHERE { ?X a foaf:Person. ?X ex:age ?Y.
                         FILTER (?Y  30) }

                                        74
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




       !    People Born in Galway
                  Simple triple pattern
                  http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthplace


       !    Answer
              SELECT ?who!
              WHERE {!
                        ?who !
              http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthplace :Galway .!
              }!
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie




       !    Japanese name of Galway
       !    Using the FILTER by LANG clause
                  FILTER(lang(?x) = ja)




       !    Answer
              SELECT ?name!
              WHERE {!
                        :Galway rdfs:label ?name .!
                        FILTER (lang(?name) = ja) .!
              }!
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute             www.deri.ie




       !    Irish cities at the east of Galway!
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




       !    FILTER by type and comparison of coordinates

       !    Answer
              PREFIX yago: http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/!
              SELECT DISTINCT ?place ?long WHERE {!
                   :Galway dbpedia2:westCoord ?glong .!
                   ?place rdf:type!
                             yago:CitiesInTheRepublicOfIreland ;!
                                    dbpedia2:westCoord   ?long .!
                   FILTER (?long  ?glong) !
              }!
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                        33345*+4*




                                                                                =)%!.8$/0




! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39
                                                                                   )/$*3
What is Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute       www.deri.ie




                                        2
What IS Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute           www.deri.ie




                    Content Management System
                                        CMS
              Content Management Framework
                                        CMF


                                        3
What IS Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                           www.deri.ie




      CMS
           A package that a non-developer (or non-Web developer)
          can download and install quickly and easily to create a
          complex website
                Runs on many servers, particularly Apache and MySQL which are
                used by many hosting providers
                With Drupal 7, setup should take less than 10 minutes
          A collection of modules that can be plugged into the
          main package to bring advanced functionality to the site
                At last count in Spring of 2009, there were 4400 modules on
                Drupal.org
                Common quote: “There’s a module for that”




                                         4
What IS Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                              www.deri.ie




      CMF
           Gets Web developers up and running with functionality
          quickly, but allows for a very high level of customization
                A number of APIs for things such as form creation and processing
                Hook system allows external modules to act when something
                happens in the main body of code
                All templates can be overridden at a granular level
           Allows Web developers to package up any custom
          functionality or configuration and distribute it widely to
          developers and non-developers alike
                Modules
                Themes
                Installation Profiles and Features


                                           5
What does RDF in Drupal mean?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                           www.deri.ie




      CMS
           Out of the box, content structures are mapped to RDF
           Contributed modules offer advanced functionality without
          having to code anything


      CMF
           RDF Mapping API in Drupal core package
           A collection of RDF functions in a contributed API




                                        15
Why Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                     www.deri.ie




       Similarities
       • Both have structured data
       • Data is structured in a similar way—
         instances of types with properties and relationships




                                        1
Why Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie




       Differences
       • Drupal’s structure stays hidden in the database,
         RDF structure is exposed on the page
       • Drupal’s field names are unique to the site and not
         explicitly defined,
         RDF terms are universally dereferencable and
         explicitly defined




                                        2
Default RDF mappings in core
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                  www.deri.ie




       • Node titles
       • Submission information
       • Comment count and comment relationships
       • Users, names and homepages
       • Taxonomy terms
       • Featured images

       ... And you can define your own mappings for your
       content types or alter mappings for existing ones


                                        5
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                                     www.deri.ie



                                                                                                            sioc:User
                                                                                                            foaf:name
                                                                                               sioc:
                                                                                            has_creator     foaf:homepage


                                                                      sioc:Item,
                                                                      foaf:Document         sioc:topic      skos:Concept
           Produce and Consume
           Linked Data with Drupal                                                                          skos:prefLabel,
                                                                      dc:title
                                                                                                            rdfs:label
           posted on October 22 by Stéphane                           dc:created, dc:date
                                                                                            sioc:reply_of   skos:description
                                                                      content:encoded
           Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! is the
           title of the paper I will be presenting next week at       dc:modified
           the 8th International Semantic Web Conference
           (ISWC 2009) in Washington, DC.                             sioc:num_replies                      sioc:Post,
                                                                                                            sioct:Comment
           Drupal ISWC RDFa
                                                                                                            dc:title
                    Wow, that’s rad!                                                                        dc:created, dc:date
                    posted on October 23 by Lin
                                                                                                            content:encoded
                    Nice work!
                                                                                                            dc:modified




                                                                  7
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                   www.deri.ie




                                                                      posted on
                                                                      span property=dc:date dc:created
                                                                            content=2009-10-22T08:03:26-05:00
           Produce and Consume                                              datatype=xsd:dateTime
           Linked Data with Drupal                                          October 22
           posted on October 22 by Stéphane                           /span
                                                                       by
           Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! is the        span rel=sioc:has_creator
           title of the paper I will be presenting next week at         span about=/user/6
           the 8th International Semantic Web Conference
           (ISWC 2009) in Washington, DC.                                     typeof=sioc:User
                                                                              property=foaf:name
           Drupal ISWC RDFa
                                                                              stephane
                                                                        /span
                    Wow, that’s rad!                                  /span
                    posted on October 23 by Lin
                    Nice work!




                                                                  8
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie




      RDF Mapping User Interface
      User interface for site administrators to define new
      mappings or alter existing mappings.




                                        10
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                www.deri.ie




      RDF SPARQL Endpoint
      A RDF store that makes your site information
      available for SPARQL queries.




                                        11
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




      RDF Proxy
      A way of connecting nodes to RDF sources across
      the Web and automatically syncing your site’s
      information with the external source.




                                        12
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                www.deri.ie




                                        E-Commerce Module
                                          Item for sale
                                                          gr:Offering
                                                          gr:hasPriceSpecification

                                                          gr:hasWarrantyScope

                                                          gr:hasWarrantyPromise




                                         14
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                       5 67(,%$/*8$($*9):*3.-/;$()%*+,;,+*=/,*2?@AB




                       5 @,*-.(()%*9)*C$;,-))
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! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39
                                                                                )/$*3
Site Configuration
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                        www.deri.ie




       • Edit your site information
           admin/config/system/site-information

       • Create a front page
           node/add  admin/config/system/site-information

       • Change your site design and logo
           admin/appearance

       • Install modules
           admin/modules

       • Configure Wysiwyg editor
           admin/config/content/wysiwyg




                                        1
Site Configuration
Digital Enterprise Research Institute              www.deri.ie




       • Create Content Types  Add Fields
           admin/structure/types

       • Manage menus
           admin/structure/menu/manage/main-menu




           Review and find out more at:
           youtube.com/linwclark




                                        2
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                                        )**$GHH*P'**396#BH'34H4*/*84HK--RSSKRK
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How to Build Linked Data Sites with Drupal 7 and RDFa

  • 1. !"#"$%&'()$*+,+"-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$"$2$* 33345*+"4"* =#>!*#!?8'0<!@'2A3<!./*/!B'*34! >'*)!.&8$/0!C!/2<!5.D/ B*E$)/23!"#&0#4F83*G!@'2!"0/&AG!:03H/2<&3!I/44/2*G!:H30!I#003&34 B3JK36)!+,L, B/2!D&/26'46# M823!+N*)G!+,L, ! !"#$%&'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3&$&'43!5343/&6)!724*'*8*39!:00!&'()*4!&343&;3<9
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  • 3. 72$8+%'82$)* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! 72*#86*'#2!*#!B3J/2*'6!/2!843O80!;#6/P80/'34!QLGN!)R ! S3**'2(!4*/*3!'*)!.8$/0!CT!'24*/00/*'#2!/2! 6#2O'(8/*'#2!QLGN!)R U43!6/43 =/24V#2!.3J# ! 5.D!'2!.8$/0!C!QW)R :6)'*36*83 .3O/80*!5.D!J/$$'2(4
  • 4. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 72*#86*'#2!*#!*)3!=3/2*'6!?3@ ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  • 5. Semantic Web benefits Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Programs and sites can my-site.net company.com your-site.org exchange information ! Search engines can display more relevant information in results ! Data mashers can + combine data from different datasets to find new and astounding things 1
  • 6. Key (confusing) terms Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Machine Understandable Linked Data SPARQL RDF Giant Federated Dataset Global Graph 2
  • 7. Machine Understandable Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie linclark.jpg is a picture The Semantic Web helps of a person named machines understand what Lin Clark the information on a Web page is... 3
  • 8. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie R esource Description F ramework 4
  • 9. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Everything is a resource A resource is a named thing A resource is a uniquely named thing Namespace xmlns:lin=”http://lin-clark.com/page.html# CURIE URI this http://lin-clark.com/page.html#this lin:this 5
  • 10. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie A resource can be a document foaf:Document dblp:this 6
  • 11. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie A resource can be a company foaf:Organization deri:this 7
  • 12. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie A resource can even be a person foaf:Person lin:me 8
  • 13. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie You can describe properties of that person... foaf:name Lin Clark foaf:mbox lin.clark@deri.org foaf:birthday 07-01 lin:me 9
  • 14. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie and describe how that person is related to other resources foaf:made swrc:employs lin:me dblp:this deri:this 10
  • 15. Federated Dataset Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Because we are using http URIs, these resources don’t need to be in the same database foaf:made swrc:employs lin:me dblp:this deri:this 11
  • 16. Federated Dataset Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie the resources can be distributed across the Web in a federated datagraph 12
  • 17. Giant Global Graph Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie And when all resources are described this way, the Web becomes one giant database... 13
  • 18. SPARQL Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Find and retrieve information from the graph using SPARQL 14
  • 19. The Semantic Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Machine Understandable Linked Data SPARQL RDF Giant Federated Dataset Global Graph 15
  • 20. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The Semantic Web ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 21. The Web - Initial Proposal (1989) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html 2 of XYZ
  • 22. The Web - Circa 2010 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ?? ?? ?? 3 of XYZ
  • 23. The Web – 1994 Vision Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie To a computer, the Web is a flat, boring world, devoid of meaning. This is a pity, as in fact documents on the Web describe real objects and imaginary concepts, and give particular relationships between them. For example, a document might describe a person. The title document to a house describes a house and also the ownership relation with a person. Adding semantics to the Web involves two things: allowing documents which have information in machine- readable forms, and allowing links to be created with relationship values. Only when we have this extra level of semantics will we be able to use computer power to help us exploit the information to a greater extent than our own reading. Tim Berners-Lee, 1st World Wide Web Conference, Geneva, May 1994 4 of XYZ
  • 24. The Web – 1994 Vision Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.slideshare.net/danbri/when-presentation-849447 5 of XYZ
  • 25. The Semantic Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Bridging the gap from a Web of Documents to a Web of Data   With typed objects and typed relationships: The Web as a giant decentralized database !  Adding machine-readable meta-data to existing content   So that information can be parsed, queried, reused !  Defining shared semantics for this meta-data   For interoperability between applications and for advanced purposes, such as reasoning !  Enabling machine-readable knowledge at Web scale, making information more easy to find and process 6 of XYZ
  • 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 27. A Bit of History Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Memex   1945 ! - Vannevar Bush   A memex is “a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications.” !  Augmenting Human Intellect   1960 - Douglas Engelbart   “By ‘augmenting human intellect’ we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.” 8 of XYZ
  • 28. More recently Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  SHOE   http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/   “SHOE is a small extension to HTML which allows web page authors to annotate their web documents with machine- readable knowledge. SHOE makes real intelligent agent software on the web possible.“ 9 of XYZ
  • 29. The Semantic Web, right now Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Standardisation work in W3C   http://w3.org !  Semantic Web activity   http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/ !  Incubator Groups, Working Groups, Interest Groups   SPARQL - http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/wiki/Main_Page   RDB2RDF – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/rdb2rdf   RIF - http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/   HCLS - http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls/   … 10 of XYZ
  • 30. The Semantic Web stack Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png 11 of XYZ
  • 31. The Semantic Web stack Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png 12 of XYZ
  • 32. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie URIs, RDF(S) and OWL ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 33. URIs Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a compact sequence of characters that identifies an abstract or physical resource as of RFC3986 !  URIs are used to identify everything in a unique and non-ambiguous way   Not only pages (as on the current Web), but any resource (people, documents, books, interests …)   A URI for a person is different from a URI for a document about the person, because a person is not a document ! !  Example   http://apassant.net/alex - myself   http://apassant.net - my homepage 14
  • 34. Resource Description Framework Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  URI represent resources   But how define things about these resources ?   E.g. “Drupal is a CMS”, “DERI is in Galway” !  RDF – Resource Description Framework   RDF abstract syntax, a data model: a directed, labeled graph based on URIs   RDF is not XML ! RDF/XML is only one of the multiple way to serialize RDF data (N3, RDFa …) !  RDF is based on triples   subject predicate object .   Subjects and predicates are URIs   Objects can be either URIs or litterals 15
  • 35. RDF by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie @prefix dct: http://purl.org/dc/terms/ . ! http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/talk/2889#id! dct:title “How to build Linked Data sites with Drupal7 and RDFa” ; ! dct:author http://apassant.net/alex ;! dct:subject http://dbpedia.org/resource/Drupal .! How to build Linked Data sites with dct:title http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/talk/2889#id Drupal7 and RDFa dct:author dct:subject http://apassant.net/alex http://dbpedia.org/resource/Drupal 16
  • 36. RDFa Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  A way of embedding RDF in (X)HTML documents:   One page for both humans and machines   Don’t need to repeat yourself   Introducing new XHTML attributes   http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/ !  Current work is ongoing on RDFa 1.1:   For profiles, etc.
  • 37. RDFa by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 38. RDFa by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 39. RDFa and prefixes Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  http://sdow2009.semanticweb.org   Header contains prefixes and links to the GRDDL transformation
  • 40. Extracting other serialisations Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  http://sdow2009.semanticweb.org   Webpage can be translated to native RDF/XML using an RDFa distiller - http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/
  • 41. Ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  RDF provides a way to write assertions   But what about their semantics   E.g. how can one know that http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows identifies an acquaintance relationship ? !  Ontologies provide common semantics for resources on the Semantic Web   “An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.” !  Developing ontologies for the Semantic Web   Main languages are RDFS (RDF Schema) and OWL (Web Ontology Language)   Growing expressivity levels 22 of XYZ
  • 42. Ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Classes and properties   :Person a rdfs:Class .   :father a rdfs:Property .   :father rdfs:domain :Person .   :father rdfs:range :Person . 23 of XYZ
  • 43. Metadata and ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 44. RDFS Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  RDFS defines classes, properties and subsumption relations between classes and properties   ex:Person rdfs:subClassOf ex:humanLiving .   ex:worksWith rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:knows . !  Such relationships are used to infer new statements   :alex rdf:type ex:Person .   :Alex ex:worksWith :Axel .   Is enough to say that Alex is a humanLiving and knows Axel 25 of XYZ
  • 45. RDFS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 26 of XYZ
  • 46. OWL Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  OWL goes further than RDFS by introducing new axioms   Disjunction (e.g. person / document)   Transitivity (e.g. ancestor)   Symmetry (e.g. sibling)   Cardinality constraints (e.g. ancestor 1) !  OWL2 introduces a lot of useful features, especially for reasoning   Property Chains (parent + brother - uncle) 27 of XYZ
  • 47. OWL by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 28 of XYZ
  • 48. OWL2 Property chain example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ex:uncle rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty . ex:parent rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty . ex:brother rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty . [] rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:uncle;!! owl:propertyChain (! ex:parent!! ex:brother!! ). :alice ex:parent :bob . :bob ex:brother :joe . = :alice ex:uncle :joe . 29 of XYZ
  • 49. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Linked Data ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 50. Linked Data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Building a “Web of Data” to enhance the current Web !  Exposing, sharing and connecting data about things via dereferenceable URIs !  The Linking Open Data (LOD) project:   http://linkeddata.org/   Translating existing datasets into RDF and linking them together, for example DBpedia (Wikipedia) and GeoNames, Freebase, BBC programmes, etc.   Governement data also available as Linked Data
  • 51. The Linked Data principles Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html !  Use URIs as names for things !  Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names !  When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) !  Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things !  E.g. http://dbpedia.org/resource/SPARQL 32
  • 52. The LOD cloud Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2007 2008
  • 53. The LOD cloud Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2008 2009
  • 54. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie image from richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-07-14.png
  • 55. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Some Ontologies used in Drupal7 ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 56. Which ontologies to use ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  SearchMonkey Vocabularies   http://developer.yahoo.com/searchmonkey/smguide/ profile_vocab.html 37
  • 57. Which ontologies to use ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  How to Publish Linked Data on the Web   http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/ LinkedDataTutorial/ 38
  • 58. Extending ontologies ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  What if existing ontologies are not enough for your needs ?   Create a new ontology   … or extend an existing one ! !  Ontologies can be extended in a decentralized way   E.g. Anyone can create a subproperty of foaf:knows, “metInSemtech”, in his own ontology and publish it online !  Open.vocab.org   A collaborative platform to manage ontologies   http://open.vocab.org 39
  • 59. Drupal7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  The following models are used in Drupal7 !  RSS Content module   http://web.resource.org/rss/1.0/modules/content/ !  DublinCore   http://dublincore.org/ !  FOAF   http://foaf-project.org !  SIOC and its Types module   http://sioc-project.org !  SKOS   http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
  • 60. RSS Content Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 61. DublinCore Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  DublinCore   DCMI Metadata Terms   http://purl.org/dc/terms/ !  Some properties   dc:title   dc:subject   dc:created   dc:date   dc:modified
  • 62. DublinCore by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 63. FOAF – Friend Of A Friend Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 64. FOAF – Friend Of A Friend Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  An ontology for describing people and the relationships that exist between them:   http://foaf-project.org/   Identity, personal profiles and social networks   Can be integrated with other SW vocabularies !  FOAF on the Web:   LiveJournal, MyOpera, identi.ca, MyBlogLog, hi5, Fotothing, Videntity, FriendFeed, Ecademy, Typepad
  • 65. FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 66. FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 67. FOAF at a glance Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 68. FOAF from Flickr Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 69. FOAF from Twitter Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 70. Distributed identity with FOAF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 71. Interlinking identities and networks Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 72. FOAF+SSL: Secured authentication Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 73. SIOC Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities   http://sioc-project.org/ !  Addressing interoperability issues on the (Social) Web   To fully describe content / structure of social websites and to create new connections between online discussion posts and items, forums and containers   Various domains: Web 2.0, enterprise information integration, HCLS, e-government   Widely deployed (SearchMonkey, Talis, etc.)
  • 74. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 75. The SIOC core ontology Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 76. SIOC by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 77. SIOC Types Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Additional information is required for finer-grained representation of Web 2.0 content   Differentiating a blog post from a wiki page or from a microblogging status update !  SIOC Types   http://rdfs.org/sioc/types !  Use-case in HCLS   http://www.w3.org/TR/hcls-sioc/
  • 78. SIOC Types Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 79. SIOC Types Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 80. SIOC Types by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 81. SKOS Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System   http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos- reference-20090818/ !  Thesaurus, subject headings and classifications   skos:Concept   skos:semanticRelation –  skos:related, skos:narrower, skos:broader –  A different semantics than in RDFS/OWL hierarchies !  Used by:   NY Times, Library of Congress, DBpedia, etc.
  • 82. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  • 83. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie skos:broader skos:broader ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  • 84. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie skos:broader skos:broader ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web skos:narrower skos:narrower rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  • 85. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie skos:semanticRelation skos:broader skos:broader ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web skos:narrower skos:narrower rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  • 86. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 87. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 88. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 89. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • 90. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Querying RDF data with SPARQL ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 91. SPARQL Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  RDF(S)/OWL useful to produce data   A need to query it !  SPARQL   SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language   The “SQL” of the Semantic Web !  FAQ   http://www.thefigtrees.net/lee/sw/sparql-faq !  SPARQL Query Recommendation / tutorial   http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ !  Currently under standardization for SPARQL1.1   http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/wiki/Main_Page
  • 92. How it works ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Graph Pattern Matching   Identifying if a requested graph matches the underlying RDF data !  Four different operators   SELECT, DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT, ASK   Combined with query patterns and optional features (union, filters …) !  A Protocol   To query RDF data using SPARQL endpoints via HTTP !  Most of endpoints are associated with an RDF store   A place that stores RDF data and provides open access to it – e.g. http://dbpedia.org/sparql
  • 93. Example of SELECT queries Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie “select persons older than 30” SELECT ?X WHERE { ?X a foaf:Person. ?X ex:age ?Y. FILTER (?Y 30) } 74
  • 94. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  People Born in Galway   Simple triple pattern   http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthplace !  Answer SELECT ?who! WHERE {! ?who ! http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthplace :Galway .! }!
  • 95. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Japanese name of Galway !  Using the FILTER by LANG clause   FILTER(lang(?x) = ja) !  Answer SELECT ?name! WHERE {! :Galway rdfs:label ?name .! FILTER (lang(?name) = ja) .! }!
  • 96. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Irish cities at the east of Galway!
  • 97. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  FILTER by type and comparison of coordinates !  Answer PREFIX yago: http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/! SELECT DISTINCT ?place ?long WHERE {! :Galway dbpedia2:westCoord ?glong .! ?place rdf:type! yago:CitiesInTheRepublicOfIreland ;! dbpedia2:westCoord ?long .! FILTER (?long ?glong) ! }!
  • 98. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* =)%!.8$/0 ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  • 99. What is Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2
  • 100. What IS Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Content Management System CMS Content Management Framework CMF 3
  • 101. What IS Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CMS A package that a non-developer (or non-Web developer) can download and install quickly and easily to create a complex website Runs on many servers, particularly Apache and MySQL which are used by many hosting providers With Drupal 7, setup should take less than 10 minutes A collection of modules that can be plugged into the main package to bring advanced functionality to the site At last count in Spring of 2009, there were 4400 modules on Drupal.org Common quote: “There’s a module for that” 4
  • 102. What IS Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CMF Gets Web developers up and running with functionality quickly, but allows for a very high level of customization A number of APIs for things such as form creation and processing Hook system allows external modules to act when something happens in the main body of code All templates can be overridden at a granular level Allows Web developers to package up any custom functionality or configuration and distribute it widely to developers and non-developers alike Modules Themes Installation Profiles and Features 5
  • 103. What does RDF in Drupal mean? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CMS Out of the box, content structures are mapped to RDF Contributed modules offer advanced functionality without having to code anything CMF RDF Mapping API in Drupal core package A collection of RDF functions in a contributed API 15
  • 104. Why Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Similarities • Both have structured data • Data is structured in a similar way— instances of types with properties and relationships 1
  • 105. Why Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Differences • Drupal’s structure stays hidden in the database, RDF structure is exposed on the page • Drupal’s field names are unique to the site and not explicitly defined, RDF terms are universally dereferencable and explicitly defined 2
  • 106. Default RDF mappings in core Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • Node titles • Submission information • Comment count and comment relationships • Users, names and homepages • Taxonomy terms • Featured images ... And you can define your own mappings for your content types or alter mappings for existing ones 5
  • 107. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie sioc:User foaf:name sioc: has_creator foaf:homepage sioc:Item, foaf:Document sioc:topic skos:Concept Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal skos:prefLabel, dc:title rdfs:label posted on October 22 by Stéphane dc:created, dc:date sioc:reply_of skos:description content:encoded Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! is the title of the paper I will be presenting next week at dc:modified the 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2009) in Washington, DC. sioc:num_replies sioc:Post, sioct:Comment Drupal ISWC RDFa dc:title Wow, that’s rad! dc:created, dc:date posted on October 23 by Lin content:encoded Nice work! dc:modified 7
  • 108. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie posted on span property=dc:date dc:created content=2009-10-22T08:03:26-05:00 Produce and Consume datatype=xsd:dateTime Linked Data with Drupal October 22 posted on October 22 by Stéphane /span by Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! is the span rel=sioc:has_creator title of the paper I will be presenting next week at span about=/user/6 the 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2009) in Washington, DC. typeof=sioc:User property=foaf:name Drupal ISWC RDFa stephane /span Wow, that’s rad! /span posted on October 23 by Lin Nice work! 8
  • 109. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF Mapping User Interface User interface for site administrators to define new mappings or alter existing mappings. 10
  • 110. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF SPARQL Endpoint A RDF store that makes your site information available for SPARQL queries. 11
  • 111. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF Proxy A way of connecting nodes to RDF sources across the Web and automatically syncing your site’s information with the external source. 12
  • 112. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie E-Commerce Module Item for sale gr:Offering gr:hasPriceSpecification gr:hasWarrantyScope gr:hasWarrantyPromise 14
  • 113. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* =3**'2(!4*/*3!'*)!.8$/0!? @! A43!6/43 ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  • 116. .2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;) !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! !#$%'$()%*+(,*-./(*0(1*2.3$/4 5 67(,%$/*8$($*9):*3.-/;$()%*+,;,+*=/,*2?@AB 5 @,*-.(()%*9)*C$;,-))
  • 118. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* =3**'2(!4*/*3!'*)!.8$/0!? @! A/24@#2!3B# ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  • 119. Site Configuration Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • Edit your site information admin/config/system/site-information • Create a front page node/add admin/config/system/site-information • Change your site design and logo admin/appearance • Install modules admin/modules • Configure Wysiwyg editor admin/config/content/wysiwyg 1
  • 120. Site Configuration Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • Create Content Types Add Fields admin/structure/types • Manage menus admin/structure/menu/manage/main-menu Review and find out more at: youtube.com/linwclark 2
  • 121. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 5.=!'2!.8$/0! )/$*3 ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39
  • 122. 673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ?@'3#!A#B!*)3!A8*83? .8$/0#2!C#4*#2!+,,D .'34E!F3%2#*3 )**$GHH;'3#9(##(0396#BH;'3#$0/%I#6'JDKD+LL+-MDKK,DM,
  • 123. 673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* #3!4$'2* N/%!+,,- .157!O/0P/%Q!730/2 )**$GHH8$/09#(H2#3HKKRD+K
  • 124. 673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* )**$GHH*P'**396#BH'34H4*/*84HK--RSSKRK
  • 125. 90%+%/$*+-$/-'7:'.!8')'!+2,%'; !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! .8$/0!!6#3 1T$#43!.8$/0E4!/*/!'2!5.=/ :8*#B/*'6/00% U#!5.=!3T$3*'43!3V8'3 ! .8$/0!!6#2*'W8*3!B#8034 N#3!5.=!A#B/*4!X5.=HYNZQ!2*'$034Q!*8*03[ =03T'W03!V83%'2(!X]:5^Z[ 1T$#*!/2!7B$#*
  • 126. +/0$*/$2+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! *86*83!/*/G!'24*/2634!#A! *%$34!P'*)!$#$3*'34!/2! 30/*'#24)'$4 ! #2*32*!*%$3!J!5.=!60/44 ! ='30!J!5.=!$#$3*% ! U#3!J!5.=!34#863 )**$GHHPPP9A0'6F96#BH$)#*#4H#6B/2H++SMLMD+S,
  • 130. .!8'%)5'.!8% !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! !#$%'$()*+,*-,( ! ..#/$0%$12-3$456(/$78)-( ! 922:;/$1*22=/$*?'223
  • 131. .!8'%)5'.!8% !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! 922,7;*)52+( ! @$A$B-?+)$5+?-*($5+$)-*C? ! 1*22$2'(-D($*$EFA$5+?-*($5+$)$ #;5?3G)-28:G7*)
  • 134. A*)*:$-'7:'.!8')'!+2,%'; !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! =_:=Q!7_Q!`_Q!.!a#8*!#A!*)3!W#Tb ! :00!8434!)/;3!/2!#20'23!'32*'*%G! c3W7.G!d57!A#!/2!'2';'8/0 e843HRfB3!!!!!Jg!!A#/AG]34#2 e=_:=hZ!/8*)32*'6/*'#2
  • 135. B73'@%/0)*-'-**'!+2,%',%#*- !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! dW'V8'*%!5.=/ ! '2'63!i!j)3!3B/2*'6!c3W!'23T )**$GHH8W'V8'*%iA/9(##(036#396#BH4;2H*82FH8W'V8'*%i0#/39k4 )**$GHH4'2'6396#BH
  • 136. H2%$6*?5+($($I-8B*;$B*:( !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! dW'V8'*%!5.=/ ! '2'63!i!j)3!3B/2*'6!c3W!'23T
  • 137. H2%$6*?5+($($I-8B*;$B*:( !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* .;2:$B2()$*($*$:-*B ! dW'V8'*%!5.=/ ! '2'63!i!j)3!3B/2*'6!c3W!'23T
  • 138. !+2,%'%)5'60*'C*D'%$'%+#* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! .8$/0!J!$'#233!N ! ]0/*A#B!#A!6)#'63!A#!B/2%!843!6/434 ! 72A083263!*)3!*324 ! L,,9,,,!.8$/0!4'*34!XSl[ ! N#3!5.=!/*/!#2!*)3!c3W
  • 139. /E)73*5#*@*)$- !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 97*%#2*-'%$'!(.1'%)5'F1!'1):7+@%$/- 60-'37+E'0%-'D**)':2)5*5'D='$0*':773)#'#+%)$- !6'3263!=#82/*'#2!730/2!823!O/2*!U#9!=7H,DH1H7SRD, !=]H7ji+,,9K9K!j51]
  • 140. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 60%)E-G H2*-$7)-I 0$$,JKK-*@%)$/L5+2,%4/7@K