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HEADACHE
 Headache, is one of the most common
of all human physical complaints.
Headache is actually a symptom
rather than a disease a stress
response, vasodilation (migraine),
skeletal muscle tension (tension
headache), or a combination of
factors.
 Definition :
 A headache is a pain or discomfort in
the head , scalp , or neck .
Types of headache :
 1 ) tension type headache
 2 ) migraine headache
 3 ) cluster headache
 4 ) other types of headache
 Tension type headache :
 Is the most common type of headache
, is characterized by bilateral location .
It is usually mild or moderate intensity
& not aggravated by physical activity
 Tension type headache is sub
categorize as
 1) infrequent episodic
 2) frequent episodic
 3) chronic
 Etiology :
 It caused due to sustained pain full
contraction of the muscles of the
scalps & neck
 Clinical manifestation :
 Headache does not involve nausea or
vomiting
 Photophobia – sensitivity to light
 Phonophobia – sensitivity to sound
 Diagnostic tests :
 History taking
 Physical examination
 Electromyography ( EMG ) = this test
may reveals the sustained
contractions of the muscles of the
neck , face & scalp .
 Migraine headache :
 Migraine headache is a recurring pain
characterized by unilateral or bilateral
throbbing Pain
 Migraine type of headache occurs
more in females then males
 It is associated with anatomical or
nervous system dysfunction .
 Etiology :
 Different theories suggest different
causes
 1) vascular theory = vasoconstriction
followed by vasodilation with resulting
in changes in blood flow causes the
throbbing pain .
 2) second theory suggest that pain is
results from muscular tension & is re
 3) biochemical changes = changes in
serotonin level
 Clinical manifestation :
 Classified by IHS :
 1) migraine without aura( formerly
called common migraine )
Migraine without aura is the most
common type of headache
 2 ) migraine with aura ( formerly
called as a classic migraine )
 It occurs in only 10 % of migraine
headache
 Aura ( feeling of pain before it starts )
lasts for 10 to 30 minutes before the
starts of the headache & may include
sensory dysfunction
 Visual field defects
 Tingling or burning sensation
 Paresthesia
Motor dysfunction :
• Weakness
• Paralysis
• Dizziness
• Confusion
• Loss of consciousness
 Diagnostic tests :
 HC
 PE
 Neurological examination
 CT , MRI
3 ) cluster headache:
it involves repeated headaches that can
occur for weeks to months at a time
followed by a period of remission.
Clinical manifestation :
Pain around the eye , forehead , cheeks ,
nose or gums
Swelling around the eye
Facial flushing
 Diagnostic tests :
 HC
 PE
 Neurological examination
 CT , MRI
 Other type of headache :
 This type of the headache may be the
first symptoms of the other illness
 It should be due to some other illness
such as a subarchnoid hemorrhage ,
brain tumors , trigeminal neuralgia , &
any other systemic disease
Management :
Prevention
 Preventive medical management of
migraine involves the daily use of one
or more agents that are thought to
block the physiologic events leading to
an attack
 There are several proven or widely
used medications for the prevention of
migraine.
 Two beta-blocking agents, propranolol
(Inderal) and metoprolol (Lopressor),
inhibit the action of betareceptors—
cells in the heart and brain that control
the dilation of blood vessels.
 Calcium antagonists (verapamil HCl
 Cluster headaches are unilateral and
come in clusters of one to eight daily,
with pain localized to the eye and orbit
and radiating to the facial and
temporal regions.
Nursing Management
 the goals of nursing management are
to enhance pain relief. It is reasonable
to try nonpharmacologic interventions
 first, but the use of pharmacologic
agents should not be delayed.
 The goal is to treat the acute event of
the headache and
to prevent recurrent episodes.

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Headache

  • 2.  Headache, is one of the most common of all human physical complaints. Headache is actually a symptom rather than a disease a stress response, vasodilation (migraine), skeletal muscle tension (tension headache), or a combination of factors.
  • 3.  Definition :  A headache is a pain or discomfort in the head , scalp , or neck .
  • 4. Types of headache :  1 ) tension type headache  2 ) migraine headache  3 ) cluster headache  4 ) other types of headache
  • 5.  Tension type headache :  Is the most common type of headache , is characterized by bilateral location . It is usually mild or moderate intensity & not aggravated by physical activity  Tension type headache is sub categorize as  1) infrequent episodic  2) frequent episodic  3) chronic
  • 6.  Etiology :  It caused due to sustained pain full contraction of the muscles of the scalps & neck  Clinical manifestation :  Headache does not involve nausea or vomiting  Photophobia – sensitivity to light  Phonophobia – sensitivity to sound
  • 7.
  • 8.  Diagnostic tests :  History taking  Physical examination  Electromyography ( EMG ) = this test may reveals the sustained contractions of the muscles of the neck , face & scalp .
  • 9.  Migraine headache :  Migraine headache is a recurring pain characterized by unilateral or bilateral throbbing Pain  Migraine type of headache occurs more in females then males  It is associated with anatomical or nervous system dysfunction .
  • 10.  Etiology :  Different theories suggest different causes  1) vascular theory = vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation with resulting in changes in blood flow causes the throbbing pain .  2) second theory suggest that pain is results from muscular tension & is re
  • 11.  3) biochemical changes = changes in serotonin level
  • 12.  Clinical manifestation :  Classified by IHS :  1) migraine without aura( formerly called common migraine ) Migraine without aura is the most common type of headache
  • 13.  2 ) migraine with aura ( formerly called as a classic migraine )  It occurs in only 10 % of migraine headache  Aura ( feeling of pain before it starts ) lasts for 10 to 30 minutes before the starts of the headache & may include sensory dysfunction  Visual field defects
  • 14.  Tingling or burning sensation  Paresthesia Motor dysfunction : • Weakness • Paralysis • Dizziness • Confusion • Loss of consciousness
  • 15.  Diagnostic tests :  HC  PE  Neurological examination  CT , MRI
  • 16. 3 ) cluster headache: it involves repeated headaches that can occur for weeks to months at a time followed by a period of remission. Clinical manifestation : Pain around the eye , forehead , cheeks , nose or gums Swelling around the eye Facial flushing
  • 17.  Diagnostic tests :  HC  PE  Neurological examination  CT , MRI
  • 18.  Other type of headache :  This type of the headache may be the first symptoms of the other illness  It should be due to some other illness such as a subarchnoid hemorrhage , brain tumors , trigeminal neuralgia , & any other systemic disease
  • 19. Management : Prevention  Preventive medical management of migraine involves the daily use of one or more agents that are thought to block the physiologic events leading to an attack
  • 20.  There are several proven or widely used medications for the prevention of migraine.  Two beta-blocking agents, propranolol (Inderal) and metoprolol (Lopressor), inhibit the action of betareceptors— cells in the heart and brain that control the dilation of blood vessels.  Calcium antagonists (verapamil HCl
  • 21.  Cluster headaches are unilateral and come in clusters of one to eight daily, with pain localized to the eye and orbit and radiating to the facial and temporal regions.
  • 22. Nursing Management  the goals of nursing management are to enhance pain relief. It is reasonable to try nonpharmacologic interventions  first, but the use of pharmacologic agents should not be delayed.  The goal is to treat the acute event of the headache and to prevent recurrent episodes.