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A Project Report
On
The Summer Internship
At
Hindustan Aeronautics
Limited (LUCKNOW DIVISION)
SUBMITTED BY
ISHANT GAUTAM
B.TECH (M.E)
ROLL NO. 1232140025
Department of Mechanical Engineering
UPTU, LUCKNOW
II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With deep devotion I thank all mighty God for blessing me with
desire, intention, inclination, will, ability, guidance hope and
achievements of required goal.
The present report entitled “Summer i n t e r n s h i p at
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited” in partial fulfillment for the Degree of
Integrated M.Tech., Gautam Buddha University.
I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the
possibility to complete this project. I want to thank Hindustan
Aeronautics Limited (Lucknow Division) for giving me the permission to
commence this project in the first instance. Would take this
opportunity as a proud privilege to express my deep felt of gratitude to
Mr. S.P. Singh (Senior Manager Technical Training Centre.).
I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Mr. Chaturbhuj Bhama,
TTC Division, HAL Lucknow whose valuable guidance and suggestions
was available throughout the summer internship. His cooperation
was very precious to me without which I would have been incapable to
produce this dissertation work.
Date:
Place: (Ishant Gautam)
I
Declaration
I hereby declare that this report entitled “Summer
Internship At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (Lucknow
Division)” submitted by me in the partial fulfillment for the
degree of Integrated M.Tech (Mechanical Engineering), to the
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gautam Buddha
University, is an outcome of my own efforts and is an original
one.
Date:
Place: Lucknow RAJAT SINGH
Integrated M.Tech. (ME)7th Semester
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Gautam Buddha University
CONTENTS
Certificate I
Acknowledgement II
Declaration III
CHAPTER 1
Introduction 1– 3
- Introduction
- Benefits of SummerInternship
- Importance of Summer Internship
CHAPTER 2 4 - 16
Profile of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
- Introduction
- HAL Products
- HAL Services
- HAL Divisions
- Vision, Mission
- Glimpse of HAL
- Core Business Of HAL
- About HAL Accessories Division, Lucknow
CHAPTER 3 17 - 32
Factories atHAL
- Brief Description
- Mechanical Factory
- Instrument Factory
- Fuel Factory
- Non Destructive TestingLab
CHAPTER 4 33 - 45
AircraftBasics
- Aircraft and AircraftStructure
- Main Parts of an Aircraft
- Bernoulli’s Equation
- Primary Flight Controls
- Secondary Flight Controls
CHAPTER 5 46 - 48
Conclusion and Suggestion
- Conclusion
- Suggestions to enrich Training
BIBLIOGRAPHY 49
Chapter 1
Introduction
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Engineering is amongst the few professions where creativity
and ingenuity matters the most. A successful engineer is
therefore a matter of pride and immense sense of satisfaction
for the society. But at present times the quality of engineers
are degrading. Reason beingthere had been mushroom growth
of engineering colleges in the past and proper practical
exposure is not given. There comes the importance of
industrial training program.
Nobody can deny or ignore the growing demand of industrial
training program day by day. The art of engineering cannot
be learnt by rote learning. Engineering is a practical profession
which is based on implementation step by step in a logical
manner. A keen and analytical mind is required if you aspire
to become a successful Engineering professional. The problem
with the colleges and institutions are that they are lagging
behind the concepts and approaches which are being
implemented and adopted in the industry. The course curriculum
is designed in an old fashioned manner which is not of much
use since it is less practical and more theoretical.
The industrial training program gives you a fantastic exposure
withthecompany’s workingenvironment and stylepattern. For
the first time they get to know about the real time software
applications, programming, installation, configuration, testing,
SDLC phases and many more things. In addition they learn
about corporate etiquettes, interpersonal skills and professional
outlook. Working on projects, again is a very important aspect.
The things that are taught during the student life of your
Engineering will be implemented while carrying out the project
work.
While cracking an interview the first question that is asked by
the recruiters is about their industrial training and the project
they have done because employers expect the candidates to
2
3
gather at least basic fundamental knowledge on their respective
domains. After recession company hardly invests large amount
of capital on the training of the candidates. Their first and
foremost requirement is candidates should be able to grasp the
technology quickly so that they can learn working on it as early
as possible.
The industrial training program helps the students in a much
wider scale as they have ample scope to clear their doubts and
make their fundamentals strong and clear, interact with
industry experienced trainers and lab oriented methodology.
Benefits of SummerInternship:-
- Boost up your confidence level
- Make you technically sound and clear your basics
- Introduce you with Project oriented approach
- Makes your CV strong enough to attract the potential
Recruiters
- Training with Placement assistance in reputed companies.
- Guidance from a team of well-qualified, experienced and
professional developers, trainers and technocrats.
Importance Of Summer Internship:-
Generally, an internship consists of an exchange of services
for experience between the student and an organization.
Students can also use an internship to determine if they have
an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts
or gain school credit. Some interns find permanent, paid
employment with the organizations for which they worked. This
can be a significant benefit to the employer as experienced
interns often need little or no training when they begin regular
employment. Unlike a trainee program, employment at the
completion of an internship is not guaranteed.
4
Chapter 2
Profile
of
Hindustan
Aeronautics Limited
5
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came intoexistence
on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger
of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited
and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur.
The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of
an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth
Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited
at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of
Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a
shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in
1942.
Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and
Design Centres in 7 locations in India. The Company has an
impressive product track record - 12 types of aircraft
manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced
under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft, 3600
engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engine.
HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs
developed for both Defense and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL
has made substantial progress in its current projects :
10
• Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)
• Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)
• Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT)
• Various military and civil upgrades.
Dhruv was delivered to the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force
and the Coast Guard in March 2002, in the very first year of
its production, a unique achievement.
HAL has played a significant role for India's space
programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for
Satellite Launch Vehicles like
• PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle)
• GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)
• IRS (Indian Remote Satellite)
• INSAT (Indian National Satellite)
HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs) :
• BAeHAL Software Limited
• Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL)
• Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd
• SAMTEL HAL Display System Limited
• HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd
• HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd
• INFOTECH HAL Ltd
Apart from these seven, other major diversification
projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport
Services. Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with
international participation are under consideration.
HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence
Services, Coast Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport
Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as
well as State Governments of India. The Company has also
7
achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries,
having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.
HAL has won several International & National Awards for
achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance,
Exports, Energy Conservation, Quality and Fulfillment of
SocialResponsibilities
• HAL was awarded the “INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL
AWARD” for Corporate Achievement in Quality and
Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating
Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating, UK in
conjunction with the International Information and
Marketing Centre (IIMC).
• HAL was presented the International - “ ARCH OF
EUROPE ” Award in Gold Category in recognition for its
commitment to Quality, Leadership, Technology and
Innovation.
• At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD TROPHY" for
excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by
the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE).
8
VISION & MISSION OF HAL
VISION
"To make HAL a dynamic, vibrant, value-based learning
organization with human resources exceptionally skilled,
highly motivated and committed to meet the current and
future challenges. This will be driven by core values of the
Company fully embedded in the culture of the Organization"
MISSION
To become a globally competitive aerospace industry
while working as an instrument for achieving self- reliance in
design, manufacture and maintenance of aerospace defense
equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the
business on commercial lines in a climate of growing
professional competence.
9
GlimpseofHAL
10
HAL PRODUCTS
Aircrafts
ENGINES
11
HAL SERVICES:-
12
In the year 1951, when HT-2 the first indigenously
designed primary trainer made its first flight, it heralded the
era of Research & Design at HAL This aircraft served as the
back bone of IAF's training fleet for more than three decades.
Subsequently, HAL's R&D capabilities have grown from
strength to strength and have been harnessed to achieve
greater heights of self reliance. The Advanced Light Helicopter
- ALH (DHRUV) is the latest new generation helicopter
designed and developed by HAL. It is under production since
2002. The test flights on Technology Demonstrators (TD-I and
II) and Prototype Vehicles (PV-1 and 2) of Light Combat
Aircraft - LCA (Tejas) are progressing satisfactorily. The
Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) is undergoing test flights.
In addition, HAL has successfully completed many
systems updates and integration tasks. HAL has 9 Research &
Design Centres engaged in the design and development of
combat aircraft, helicopters, aero engines, gas turbines, engine
test beds, aircraft communication and navigation systems and
mechanical system accessories.
The indigenously upgraded MiG-27M aircraft has
received Initial Operation Clearance (IOC) and the first batch
of aircraft has been delivered. First flight test on Jaguar Nav
WASS upgraded aircraft with indigenously developed mission
computer with weapon delivery capabilities has been carried
out and retromod of fleet has been taken up.
Equipped with the latest facilities, the company is backed
by high profile, highly skilled manpower with an impressive
track record of more than five decades of rich experience in all
discipline of aeronautics.
13
HAL DIVISIONS
Rank Company Country Sectors
14
2013 2012 2011
1 1 1 Lockheed Martin USA
Aircraft, Electronics, Missiles,
Space
2 2 2 Boeing USA
Aircraft, Electronics, Missiles,
Space
3 3 3 BAE Systems UK
Aircraft, Artillery, Electronics,
Missiles, Military vehicles,
Small arms/ ammunition, Ships
4 4 5
Raytheon
USA Electronics, Missiles
5 6 7 Northrop Grumman USA
Aircraft, Missiles, Military
aircraft, Advanced electronic
sensors and systems
42 43 34 Hindustan Aeronautics INDIA Aircraft, Missiles
54 49 48 Indian Ordnance Factory INDIA
Artillery, Small
arms/ammunition
82 76 77
Bharat Electronics
INDIA Electronics
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
16000
12000
8000
4000
0
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Turnover
15128 15480
14204 14324
13116
15
Core Business of HAL
(to serve the Indian defense services)
HAL–ENABLINGINDIA
- Supplied Helicopters to BSF for Law Enforcement & Counter
insurgency operations
- Supply of Gas Turbines for engines of Ship and MRO of Gas
turbines for Energysector
- Special Mission platforms for rare earth material exploration
for GSI
16
About HAL Accessories Division, Lucknow
Factory Area : 60 Acres
Township Area : 233 Acres
Total Area : 293 Acres (11.86 Lakh Sq
Mts)
17
Chapter 3
Factories
At
HAL
(Lucknow division)
18
BriefDescription
Based on technologies, the division is organized into 3 factories:-
1. Mechanical factory
2. Fuel Factory
3. Instrument Factory
Besides these three Factory Complexes there are sukhoi factory where the
overhaul and assembly of sukhoi parts are done, a well-defined lab consisting
of non-destructive testing lab, physics lab and chemical lab for testing of different
avionics part. The sukhoi wing also contains its own developed fuel and
instrument and engine factory.
19
Mechanical Factory
Different products made at mechanical factory are:-
Hydraulic Accessories
EnvironmentControl
System
PowerFlyingControls
Ejection Seats
Wheels & Brakes
Ejection Release Valve
ASSY. SHOP OF WHEELS & BRAKES
20
(Landing Gear Of Jaguar)
(Hydraulic Unit)
(Main Wheel and BrakeUnit-jaguar)
21
A Note On Su-30MKI:-
'SU' stands for a production fighter designed by the
USSR/Russia's famed Sukhoi Experimental Designed
Bureau. SU-30 derived from the SU-27UB, which is
the twin-seat trainer-combat version of the SU-27.
'MK' is a Russian acronym for Modernized-Commercial
(not 'Multirole') while 'I' stands for Indiski (India) in the
SU-30MKI, while 'K' stands for Kitei (China) in the
SU-30MKK. Names apart, there are many central
differences between the SU-30MKK and SU-30MKI.
Geometrical Data:-
(a)
(b)
Length of aircraft (Excluding Pitot tube)
Wing span


21935 mm
14700 mm
(c) Height of aircraft  6340 mm
(d) Wheel track  4340 mm
22
Instrument Factory
Instrument Factory makes the followingproducts:-
- Electrical Rotating Machines
- BarometricInstruments
- Gyroscopic Instruments
- Electrical & Electronic System & Controls
- Fuel Content Gauging System
- Oxygen System
- Ground Navigation System
Alternator:-
Alternator is the main AC source of an aircraft. It generates
115 V, 1 or 3 phase, and 400 Hz signal. It consists of main
output generator, main exciter and pilot exciter. The permanent
magnet based pilot excitor will feed the stationary field system
for the main exciter through the GCU. The output of main
exciter, rectified by means of shaft mounted rectifier, supplies
power to the rotating field system of the main alternator.
Static Inverter:-
Static Inverter is as emergency AC power supply when both the
alternator fail to supply AC power. It also provides built in
protections against output over voltage, over frequency, input
reverse polarity & output short circuit protections.
23
Fuel Content Gauging Probes:-
- FCG probes works on the principle of capacitance variation
w.r.t fuel height.
- Two concentric precision aluminum alloy tubes insulated
from each other form capacitance plates.
- When the plates are not immersed in fuel, the dielectric
constant of air being lowest, the probe exhibits low
capacitance.
- When the probe is wholly or partially immersed in fuel, air is
replaced by fuel. This increases probe capacitance
proportional to its length immersed in fuel.
- For Gauging sensing capacitance is converted into time
period by a stable oscillator circuit.
- For level switch sensing capacitance is fed to Wein-Bridge
oscillator which starts oscillation at desired fuel level.
Some other instruments used in aircraft are as follows:-
- Starter generator
- Generator control and protectionunit
- DC master box
- AC master box
- Alternator control and protection Unit
- Transformer rectifier unit
- Ground power protection unit
- 3 phaseconverter
- Multi-channel dimmer unit
24
Fuel Factory
Products made, assembled and tested in fuel factory are
as follows:-
- Engine Fuel Control units
- Reheat Fuel & Nozzle Control units
- Centrifugal/Reciprocating Fuel Pump
- Control Valves & Fuel Distributors
- Hydraulic Pump
25
26
Fuel System Of SU-30MKI:-
Fuel Tanks:
Fuel Tanks: Number of fuel tanks: 6 Name of fuel tanks:
1, 2, 3RT, 3LT, 4, 5 Fuel Capacity: 1200 kg Special detail:
Tank no. 2 is the main tank & also known as service tank
having fuel capacity of 600 kg.
Fuel Systems:
Fuel Systems: Purpose of an aircraft fuel system is: To store
& deliver the proper amount of clean fuel at the correct
pressure to the engine Fuel systems should provide positive
and reliable fuel flow through all phases of flight such as 1)
Changes in altitude 2) Violent maneuvers 3) Sudden acceleration
and deceleration Fuel systems should also continuously
monitor system operation such as: Fuel pressure Fuel flow
Warning signals Tank quantity.
Fuel flow & metering system:
This system measures fuel quantity available in aircraft. This
system performs following major function: Fuel flow metering: -
This part computes total quantity of fuel available in aircraft &
transmits to various airborne system for display & recording.
Fuel quantity gauging: - This part exclusively computes quantity
of fuel available in service tank & transmit to various airborne
system for display & warning. Automatic control: - This part
manages sequence of fuel flow to/from various tanks during
refueling as well as during consumption.
Fuel quantity transmitters: DT41:
This sensors are used for computing fuel quantity in service tank.
Capacitance of the probes changes based on the variation in fuel
level in tank. Resultant capacitance of following probes acts as an
input for computing fuel in service tank. Different capacitance probes
used in Su-30MKI are DT41-4, DT41-5, DT41-6, DT41-7, and DT41-8.
27
Fuel flow transmitters: DRT2-2A:
These are impeller types of sensors which produces signal
proportional to the rate of flow of fuel through it. Fuel consumed
by aircraft is computed based on the signals provided by these
sensors.
Fuel Quantity Unit: BT3-4:
This instrument computes quantity of fuel in service tank based on
signals from sensors which are fuel probes (DT41). It delivers
computed information to following instruments: Digital light indicator
(ITSS7-1) Refueling Control Panel (PKUZ&-2) Stand by Equipment
(SBI) Complex Information Signaling System (KISS) it gives warning
signal to pilot for residual fuel of 150 kg in main tank.
Fueling Control Panel: PKUZ7-2:
This instrument is a display device & is used on ground during
refueling. It performs following functions: To display total fuel
quantity to display fuel quantity of service tank to display actual
fuel density
Electronic transducer unit: BEP51-1:
This unit is main processing part of automatic control portion of
STR7-51 system. It manages fuel flow based on signals from
sensors, magnetic operated level switches (DSMKs) fitted in
various tanks. It also senses total residual fuel quantity & transmits
the warning signal to pilot.
Semiconductor Relay Control Unit: BUPR21-1:
This is a part of automatic control portion of STR7-51 system. This
instrument works as an amplifier & a switching device for the signals
required for opening & closing of valve of various tanks of aircraft.
28
Cockpit:
It has multi-function display. Made up of special LCD. This LCDs
can withstand a temperature of -40 degree Celsius. It can absorb
repeated violent impacts of landing on aircraft carriers. The display
is easily readable even in bright sunlight & dim enough for the pilot
to read at night without losing night vision.
Engines:
Su-30MKI is powered by the Al-31FP (F for forsazh & P for
povorotnoye means afterburning movable) engines. The
Al-37FU engine have 2D Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC)
Nozzles. 2D TVC means that the Nozzles can be directed/
pointed in 2 axis or directions - up or down. TVC makes an
aircraft much more maneuverable. The nozzles of the MKI
are capable of deflecting 32 degrees in the horizontal plane
and 15 degrees in the vertical plane.
29
NonDestructiveTestingLab
NDT (non destructive testing) is a wide group of analysis
techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the
properties of a material, component or system without
causing damage. Because NDT does not permanently alter
the article being inspected, it is a highly-valuable technique
that can save both money and time in product evaluation,
troubleshooting, and research.
Some NDT Lab Available At HAL Lucknow:-
Liquid Penetrant Inspection
A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the
surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking
defects. The excess liquid is removed from the surface of the part.
A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out
the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen Visual
inspection is the final step in the process. The penetrant used is
often loaded with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is done
under UV light to increase test sensitivity.
Magnetic Particle Inspection
The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a
dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are
attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an
indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be
visually detected under proper lighting conditions.
Radiography
The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy
(shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves
that we see as visible light. The radiation can come from
an X-ray generator or a radioactive source.
The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film.
The part will stop some of the radiation. Thicker and more dense
area will stop more of the radiation.
(Radiographic Image)
30
31
Eddy Current Testing
Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for detecting
surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical
conductivity and coating thickness measurements. Here a
small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an
attempt to detect a crack.
32
Ultrasonic Inspection (Pulse-Echo)
High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material
and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws.Reflected
sound energy is displayed versus time, and inspector can
visualize a cross section of the specimen showing the depth
of features that reflect sound.
33
Chapter 4
AIRCRAFT
BASICS
34
Aircraft and aircraft Structure
Main Parts Of An Aircraft:-
- Power Plant (Engine)
- Fuselage
- Wing
- Empennage
- Landing gear
Engine:-
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for
an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are
almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines.
- Pistonprop
- Turboprop
- Turbojet
- Turbofan
- Ramjet
35
36
Wings:-
- High-wing
- Mid-wing
- Low-wing
- Monoplanes – one set of wings
- Biplanes – two set of wings
“A wing is a type of fin with a surface that produces
aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the
atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid.
As such, wings have an airfoil shape, a streamlined
cross-sectional shape producing lift.”
37
Fuselage:-
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds
crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft itwill
usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious
aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to
the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull. The
fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization
surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required
for aircraft stability andmaneuverability.
38
Empennage:-
The empennage also known as the tail or tail assembly, of
most aircraft gives stability to the aircraft, in a similar way to the
feathers on an arrow; the term derives from the French forthis.
Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and
horizontal stabilizing surfaces which stabilize the flight
dynamics of yaw and pitch, as well as housing control surfaces.
b
Landing Gear:-
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft, and
is used in both takeoff and landing. For aircraft, the landing gear
supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing it to take off, land,
and taxi without damage. Wheels are typically used but skids, skis,
floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed
depending both on the surface and on whether the craft only
operates vertically or is able to taxi along the surface. Faster aircraft
usually have retractable undercarriages, which folds away during
flight to reduce air resistance or drag.
Types:-
- Wheels - common
- Floats – water operation
- Skis - snow
39
Bernoulli’s Equation
First term is the internal energy of unit mass of the air, ½ v²
is the kinetic energy of unit mass and gz is the potential energy
of unit mass. Thus, Bernoulli’s equation in this form is a
statement of the principle of conservation of energy in the
absence of heat exchanged and work done.
This is Bernoulli’s equation for an incompressible fluid, i.e. a fluid
that cannot be compressed or expanded, and for which the density
is invariable.
Air flow over an aerofoil inclined at a small angle
40
41
Pressure Distribution over Aerofoil
Lift Produced
42
Primary Flight Controls
Aircraft flight control surfaces allow a pilot to adjust and
control the aircraft's flight attitude. Development of an effective
set of flight controls was a critical advance in the developmentof
aircraft. Early efforts at fixed-wing aircraft design succeeded in
generating sufficient lift to get the aircraft off the ground, but
once aloft, the aircraft proved uncontrollable, often with
disastrous results. The development of effective flight controls
is what allowed stable flight.
The main control surfaces are as follows:-
- Aileron
- Elevator
- T-tail
- Canard
- Rudder
- V-tail
43
Secondary FlightControls
Some of the secondary flight control surfaces are:-
- Flaps
- Leading Edge Devices
- Spoilers
- Trim Devices
(Flaps)
(Leading
Edge
Devices)
44
45
(Spoilers)
TRIM TABS:-
- Trim Tabs
- Balance Tabs
- Anti-servo Tabs
- Ground Adjustable Tabs
- Adjustable Stabilizer
(Trim Tabs)
46
Chapter 5
Conclusion and
Suggestion
47
CONCLUSION
Training can beinitiated to address a "performance gap" (learning
needed to meet performance standards for a current task or job),
"growth gap" (learning needed to achieve career goals) or
"opportunity gap" (learning needed to qualify for an identified
new job or role).
Majority of the employees feel happy and are willing to spend
the rest of their carrier with the organization. Along with this,
the employees also feel the organization’s problem as their own and
adhering to the organization is not the consequence of any
obligation to them. Further, the employees feel that training
programs establish a clear view of work roles and increase their
performance level. Also the training program provide knowledge
sharing demonstrated in the organization. Also, the training
programs are practical and employees were able to apply the
training techniques in their work.
Keeping in view the organizational requirement and goals and
objectives of training, the following have been identified as the key
focus areas of training:
Technology
Tooling
Quality
Information Technology
Further, to facilitate the development of soft skills (change of
mind-set, managerial development etc.) training would be imparted
on a continuous basis.
Suggestions to Enrich Training and Development:
Some Basic Requirements ofLearners
• Learners Must Be Willing to Grow, to Experience
• Growth Involves the Entire Learner
• Growth Requires Seeking OngoingFeedback
Some Basic Requirements ofSupervisors
• Include More Factory Visit Days per Week.
• Include Learners in Development of Training and
Development Plan
• Provide Ongoing Feedback andSupport
• When Assessing Results of Learning, Maximize Feedback
About Performance
• Set Aside Regular Times for Supervisor and Learner to
Meeting
Bibliography
http://www.hal-india.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustan_Aeronautics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HAL_Tejas
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukhoi_Su-30MKI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HAL_Light_Combat_Helicopter
http://www.hal-india.com/Aerospace%20Division%20Bangalore/M 99

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Hal lucknow

  • 1. A Project Report On The Summer Internship At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (LUCKNOW DIVISION) SUBMITTED BY ISHANT GAUTAM B.TECH (M.E) ROLL NO. 1232140025 Department of Mechanical Engineering UPTU, LUCKNOW
  • 2. II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With deep devotion I thank all mighty God for blessing me with desire, intention, inclination, will, ability, guidance hope and achievements of required goal. The present report entitled “Summer i n t e r n s h i p at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited” in partial fulfillment for the Degree of Integrated M.Tech., Gautam Buddha University. I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this project. I want to thank Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (Lucknow Division) for giving me the permission to commence this project in the first instance. Would take this opportunity as a proud privilege to express my deep felt of gratitude to Mr. S.P. Singh (Senior Manager Technical Training Centre.). I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Mr. Chaturbhuj Bhama, TTC Division, HAL Lucknow whose valuable guidance and suggestions was available throughout the summer internship. His cooperation was very precious to me without which I would have been incapable to produce this dissertation work. Date: Place: (Ishant Gautam)
  • 3. I Declaration I hereby declare that this report entitled “Summer Internship At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (Lucknow Division)” submitted by me in the partial fulfillment for the degree of Integrated M.Tech (Mechanical Engineering), to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gautam Buddha University, is an outcome of my own efforts and is an original one. Date: Place: Lucknow RAJAT SINGH Integrated M.Tech. (ME)7th Semester Department of Mechanical Engineering Gautam Buddha University
  • 4. CONTENTS Certificate I Acknowledgement II Declaration III CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1– 3 - Introduction - Benefits of SummerInternship - Importance of Summer Internship CHAPTER 2 4 - 16 Profile of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited - Introduction - HAL Products - HAL Services - HAL Divisions - Vision, Mission - Glimpse of HAL - Core Business Of HAL - About HAL Accessories Division, Lucknow
  • 5. CHAPTER 3 17 - 32 Factories atHAL - Brief Description - Mechanical Factory - Instrument Factory - Fuel Factory - Non Destructive TestingLab CHAPTER 4 33 - 45 AircraftBasics - Aircraft and AircraftStructure - Main Parts of an Aircraft - Bernoulli’s Equation - Primary Flight Controls - Secondary Flight Controls
  • 6. CHAPTER 5 46 - 48 Conclusion and Suggestion - Conclusion - Suggestions to enrich Training BIBLIOGRAPHY 49
  • 8. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Engineering is amongst the few professions where creativity and ingenuity matters the most. A successful engineer is therefore a matter of pride and immense sense of satisfaction for the society. But at present times the quality of engineers are degrading. Reason beingthere had been mushroom growth of engineering colleges in the past and proper practical exposure is not given. There comes the importance of industrial training program. Nobody can deny or ignore the growing demand of industrial training program day by day. The art of engineering cannot be learnt by rote learning. Engineering is a practical profession which is based on implementation step by step in a logical manner. A keen and analytical mind is required if you aspire to become a successful Engineering professional. The problem with the colleges and institutions are that they are lagging behind the concepts and approaches which are being implemented and adopted in the industry. The course curriculum is designed in an old fashioned manner which is not of much use since it is less practical and more theoretical. The industrial training program gives you a fantastic exposure withthecompany’s workingenvironment and stylepattern. For the first time they get to know about the real time software applications, programming, installation, configuration, testing, SDLC phases and many more things. In addition they learn about corporate etiquettes, interpersonal skills and professional outlook. Working on projects, again is a very important aspect. The things that are taught during the student life of your Engineering will be implemented while carrying out the project work. While cracking an interview the first question that is asked by the recruiters is about their industrial training and the project they have done because employers expect the candidates to 2
  • 9. 3 gather at least basic fundamental knowledge on their respective domains. After recession company hardly invests large amount of capital on the training of the candidates. Their first and foremost requirement is candidates should be able to grasp the technology quickly so that they can learn working on it as early as possible. The industrial training program helps the students in a much wider scale as they have ample scope to clear their doubts and make their fundamentals strong and clear, interact with industry experienced trainers and lab oriented methodology. Benefits of SummerInternship:- - Boost up your confidence level - Make you technically sound and clear your basics - Introduce you with Project oriented approach - Makes your CV strong enough to attract the potential Recruiters - Training with Placement assistance in reputed companies. - Guidance from a team of well-qualified, experienced and professional developers, trainers and technocrats. Importance Of Summer Internship:- Generally, an internship consists of an exchange of services for experience between the student and an organization. Students can also use an internship to determine if they have an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts or gain school credit. Some interns find permanent, paid employment with the organizations for which they worked. This can be a significant benefit to the employer as experienced interns often need little or no training when they begin regular employment. Unlike a trainee program, employment at the completion of an internship is not guaranteed.
  • 11. 5 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came intoexistence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942. Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Centres in 7 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record - 12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft, 3600 engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engine. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defense and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects :
  • 12. 10 • Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) • Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) • Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) • Various military and civil upgrades. Dhruv was delivered to the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and the Coast Guard in March 2002, in the very first year of its production, a unique achievement. HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like • PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) • GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) • IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) • INSAT (Indian National Satellite) HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs) : • BAeHAL Software Limited • Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) • Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd • SAMTEL HAL Display System Limited • HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd • HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd • INFOTECH HAL Ltd Apart from these seven, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport Services. Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also
  • 13. 7 achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness. HAL has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conservation, Quality and Fulfillment of SocialResponsibilities • HAL was awarded the “INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD” for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating, UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing Centre (IIMC). • HAL was presented the International - “ ARCH OF EUROPE ” Award in Gold Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, Technology and Innovation. • At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD TROPHY" for excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE).
  • 14. 8 VISION & MISSION OF HAL VISION "To make HAL a dynamic, vibrant, value-based learning organization with human resources exceptionally skilled, highly motivated and committed to meet the current and future challenges. This will be driven by core values of the Company fully embedded in the culture of the Organization" MISSION To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an instrument for achieving self- reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of aerospace defense equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence.
  • 18. 12 In the year 1951, when HT-2 the first indigenously designed primary trainer made its first flight, it heralded the era of Research & Design at HAL This aircraft served as the back bone of IAF's training fleet for more than three decades. Subsequently, HAL's R&D capabilities have grown from strength to strength and have been harnessed to achieve greater heights of self reliance. The Advanced Light Helicopter - ALH (DHRUV) is the latest new generation helicopter designed and developed by HAL. It is under production since 2002. The test flights on Technology Demonstrators (TD-I and II) and Prototype Vehicles (PV-1 and 2) of Light Combat Aircraft - LCA (Tejas) are progressing satisfactorily. The Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) is undergoing test flights. In addition, HAL has successfully completed many systems updates and integration tasks. HAL has 9 Research & Design Centres engaged in the design and development of combat aircraft, helicopters, aero engines, gas turbines, engine test beds, aircraft communication and navigation systems and mechanical system accessories. The indigenously upgraded MiG-27M aircraft has received Initial Operation Clearance (IOC) and the first batch of aircraft has been delivered. First flight test on Jaguar Nav WASS upgraded aircraft with indigenously developed mission computer with weapon delivery capabilities has been carried out and retromod of fleet has been taken up. Equipped with the latest facilities, the company is backed by high profile, highly skilled manpower with an impressive track record of more than five decades of rich experience in all discipline of aeronautics.
  • 19. 13 HAL DIVISIONS Rank Company Country Sectors
  • 20. 14 2013 2012 2011 1 1 1 Lockheed Martin USA Aircraft, Electronics, Missiles, Space 2 2 2 Boeing USA Aircraft, Electronics, Missiles, Space 3 3 3 BAE Systems UK Aircraft, Artillery, Electronics, Missiles, Military vehicles, Small arms/ ammunition, Ships 4 4 5 Raytheon USA Electronics, Missiles 5 6 7 Northrop Grumman USA Aircraft, Missiles, Military aircraft, Advanced electronic sensors and systems 42 43 34 Hindustan Aeronautics INDIA Aircraft, Missiles 54 49 48 Indian Ordnance Factory INDIA Artillery, Small arms/ammunition 82 76 77 Bharat Electronics INDIA Electronics Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 16000 12000 8000 4000 0 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Turnover 15128 15480 14204 14324 13116
  • 21. 15 Core Business of HAL (to serve the Indian defense services) HAL–ENABLINGINDIA - Supplied Helicopters to BSF for Law Enforcement & Counter insurgency operations - Supply of Gas Turbines for engines of Ship and MRO of Gas turbines for Energysector - Special Mission platforms for rare earth material exploration for GSI
  • 22. 16 About HAL Accessories Division, Lucknow Factory Area : 60 Acres Township Area : 233 Acres Total Area : 293 Acres (11.86 Lakh Sq Mts)
  • 24. 18 BriefDescription Based on technologies, the division is organized into 3 factories:- 1. Mechanical factory 2. Fuel Factory 3. Instrument Factory Besides these three Factory Complexes there are sukhoi factory where the overhaul and assembly of sukhoi parts are done, a well-defined lab consisting of non-destructive testing lab, physics lab and chemical lab for testing of different avionics part. The sukhoi wing also contains its own developed fuel and instrument and engine factory.
  • 25. 19 Mechanical Factory Different products made at mechanical factory are:- Hydraulic Accessories EnvironmentControl System PowerFlyingControls Ejection Seats Wheels & Brakes Ejection Release Valve ASSY. SHOP OF WHEELS & BRAKES
  • 26. 20 (Landing Gear Of Jaguar) (Hydraulic Unit) (Main Wheel and BrakeUnit-jaguar)
  • 27. 21 A Note On Su-30MKI:- 'SU' stands for a production fighter designed by the USSR/Russia's famed Sukhoi Experimental Designed Bureau. SU-30 derived from the SU-27UB, which is the twin-seat trainer-combat version of the SU-27. 'MK' is a Russian acronym for Modernized-Commercial (not 'Multirole') while 'I' stands for Indiski (India) in the SU-30MKI, while 'K' stands for Kitei (China) in the SU-30MKK. Names apart, there are many central differences between the SU-30MKK and SU-30MKI. Geometrical Data:- (a) (b) Length of aircraft (Excluding Pitot tube) Wing span   21935 mm 14700 mm (c) Height of aircraft  6340 mm (d) Wheel track  4340 mm
  • 28. 22 Instrument Factory Instrument Factory makes the followingproducts:- - Electrical Rotating Machines - BarometricInstruments - Gyroscopic Instruments - Electrical & Electronic System & Controls - Fuel Content Gauging System - Oxygen System - Ground Navigation System Alternator:- Alternator is the main AC source of an aircraft. It generates 115 V, 1 or 3 phase, and 400 Hz signal. It consists of main output generator, main exciter and pilot exciter. The permanent magnet based pilot excitor will feed the stationary field system for the main exciter through the GCU. The output of main exciter, rectified by means of shaft mounted rectifier, supplies power to the rotating field system of the main alternator. Static Inverter:- Static Inverter is as emergency AC power supply when both the alternator fail to supply AC power. It also provides built in protections against output over voltage, over frequency, input reverse polarity & output short circuit protections.
  • 29. 23 Fuel Content Gauging Probes:- - FCG probes works on the principle of capacitance variation w.r.t fuel height. - Two concentric precision aluminum alloy tubes insulated from each other form capacitance plates. - When the plates are not immersed in fuel, the dielectric constant of air being lowest, the probe exhibits low capacitance. - When the probe is wholly or partially immersed in fuel, air is replaced by fuel. This increases probe capacitance proportional to its length immersed in fuel. - For Gauging sensing capacitance is converted into time period by a stable oscillator circuit. - For level switch sensing capacitance is fed to Wein-Bridge oscillator which starts oscillation at desired fuel level.
  • 30. Some other instruments used in aircraft are as follows:- - Starter generator - Generator control and protectionunit - DC master box - AC master box - Alternator control and protection Unit - Transformer rectifier unit - Ground power protection unit - 3 phaseconverter - Multi-channel dimmer unit 24
  • 31. Fuel Factory Products made, assembled and tested in fuel factory are as follows:- - Engine Fuel Control units - Reheat Fuel & Nozzle Control units - Centrifugal/Reciprocating Fuel Pump - Control Valves & Fuel Distributors - Hydraulic Pump 25
  • 32. 26 Fuel System Of SU-30MKI:- Fuel Tanks: Fuel Tanks: Number of fuel tanks: 6 Name of fuel tanks: 1, 2, 3RT, 3LT, 4, 5 Fuel Capacity: 1200 kg Special detail: Tank no. 2 is the main tank & also known as service tank having fuel capacity of 600 kg. Fuel Systems: Fuel Systems: Purpose of an aircraft fuel system is: To store & deliver the proper amount of clean fuel at the correct pressure to the engine Fuel systems should provide positive and reliable fuel flow through all phases of flight such as 1) Changes in altitude 2) Violent maneuvers 3) Sudden acceleration and deceleration Fuel systems should also continuously monitor system operation such as: Fuel pressure Fuel flow Warning signals Tank quantity. Fuel flow & metering system: This system measures fuel quantity available in aircraft. This system performs following major function: Fuel flow metering: - This part computes total quantity of fuel available in aircraft & transmits to various airborne system for display & recording. Fuel quantity gauging: - This part exclusively computes quantity of fuel available in service tank & transmit to various airborne system for display & warning. Automatic control: - This part manages sequence of fuel flow to/from various tanks during refueling as well as during consumption. Fuel quantity transmitters: DT41: This sensors are used for computing fuel quantity in service tank. Capacitance of the probes changes based on the variation in fuel level in tank. Resultant capacitance of following probes acts as an input for computing fuel in service tank. Different capacitance probes used in Su-30MKI are DT41-4, DT41-5, DT41-6, DT41-7, and DT41-8.
  • 33. 27 Fuel flow transmitters: DRT2-2A: These are impeller types of sensors which produces signal proportional to the rate of flow of fuel through it. Fuel consumed by aircraft is computed based on the signals provided by these sensors. Fuel Quantity Unit: BT3-4: This instrument computes quantity of fuel in service tank based on signals from sensors which are fuel probes (DT41). It delivers computed information to following instruments: Digital light indicator (ITSS7-1) Refueling Control Panel (PKUZ&-2) Stand by Equipment (SBI) Complex Information Signaling System (KISS) it gives warning signal to pilot for residual fuel of 150 kg in main tank. Fueling Control Panel: PKUZ7-2: This instrument is a display device & is used on ground during refueling. It performs following functions: To display total fuel quantity to display fuel quantity of service tank to display actual fuel density Electronic transducer unit: BEP51-1: This unit is main processing part of automatic control portion of STR7-51 system. It manages fuel flow based on signals from sensors, magnetic operated level switches (DSMKs) fitted in various tanks. It also senses total residual fuel quantity & transmits the warning signal to pilot. Semiconductor Relay Control Unit: BUPR21-1: This is a part of automatic control portion of STR7-51 system. This instrument works as an amplifier & a switching device for the signals required for opening & closing of valve of various tanks of aircraft.
  • 34. 28 Cockpit: It has multi-function display. Made up of special LCD. This LCDs can withstand a temperature of -40 degree Celsius. It can absorb repeated violent impacts of landing on aircraft carriers. The display is easily readable even in bright sunlight & dim enough for the pilot to read at night without losing night vision. Engines: Su-30MKI is powered by the Al-31FP (F for forsazh & P for povorotnoye means afterburning movable) engines. The Al-37FU engine have 2D Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) Nozzles. 2D TVC means that the Nozzles can be directed/ pointed in 2 axis or directions - up or down. TVC makes an aircraft much more maneuverable. The nozzles of the MKI are capable of deflecting 32 degrees in the horizontal plane and 15 degrees in the vertical plane.
  • 35. 29 NonDestructiveTestingLab NDT (non destructive testing) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected, it is a highly-valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research. Some NDT Lab Available At HAL Lucknow:- Liquid Penetrant Inspection A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking defects. The excess liquid is removed from the surface of the part. A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen Visual inspection is the final step in the process. The penetrant used is often loaded with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is done under UV light to increase test sensitivity.
  • 36. Magnetic Particle Inspection The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions. Radiography The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light. The radiation can come from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source. The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The part will stop some of the radiation. Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation. (Radiographic Image) 30
  • 37. 31 Eddy Current Testing Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for detecting surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements. Here a small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an attempt to detect a crack.
  • 38. 32 Ultrasonic Inspection (Pulse-Echo) High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws.Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen showing the depth of features that reflect sound.
  • 41. Main Parts Of An Aircraft:- - Power Plant (Engine) - Fuselage - Wing - Empennage - Landing gear Engine:- An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines. - Pistonprop - Turboprop - Turbojet - Turbofan - Ramjet 35
  • 42. 36 Wings:- - High-wing - Mid-wing - Low-wing - Monoplanes – one set of wings - Biplanes – two set of wings “A wing is a type of fin with a surface that produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid. As such, wings have an airfoil shape, a streamlined cross-sectional shape producing lift.”
  • 43. 37 Fuselage:- The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft itwill usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull. The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required for aircraft stability andmaneuverability.
  • 44. 38 Empennage:- The empennage also known as the tail or tail assembly, of most aircraft gives stability to the aircraft, in a similar way to the feathers on an arrow; the term derives from the French forthis. Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and horizontal stabilizing surfaces which stabilize the flight dynamics of yaw and pitch, as well as housing control surfaces.
  • 45. b Landing Gear:- Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft, and is used in both takeoff and landing. For aircraft, the landing gear supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing it to take off, land, and taxi without damage. Wheels are typically used but skids, skis, floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed depending both on the surface and on whether the craft only operates vertically or is able to taxi along the surface. Faster aircraft usually have retractable undercarriages, which folds away during flight to reduce air resistance or drag. Types:- - Wheels - common - Floats – water operation - Skis - snow 39
  • 46. Bernoulli’s Equation First term is the internal energy of unit mass of the air, ½ v² is the kinetic energy of unit mass and gz is the potential energy of unit mass. Thus, Bernoulli’s equation in this form is a statement of the principle of conservation of energy in the absence of heat exchanged and work done. This is Bernoulli’s equation for an incompressible fluid, i.e. a fluid that cannot be compressed or expanded, and for which the density is invariable. Air flow over an aerofoil inclined at a small angle 40
  • 47. 41 Pressure Distribution over Aerofoil Lift Produced
  • 48. 42 Primary Flight Controls Aircraft flight control surfaces allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude. Development of an effective set of flight controls was a critical advance in the developmentof aircraft. Early efforts at fixed-wing aircraft design succeeded in generating sufficient lift to get the aircraft off the ground, but once aloft, the aircraft proved uncontrollable, often with disastrous results. The development of effective flight controls is what allowed stable flight.
  • 49. The main control surfaces are as follows:- - Aileron - Elevator - T-tail - Canard - Rudder - V-tail 43
  • 50. Secondary FlightControls Some of the secondary flight control surfaces are:- - Flaps - Leading Edge Devices - Spoilers - Trim Devices (Flaps) (Leading Edge Devices) 44
  • 51. 45 (Spoilers) TRIM TABS:- - Trim Tabs - Balance Tabs - Anti-servo Tabs - Ground Adjustable Tabs - Adjustable Stabilizer (Trim Tabs)
  • 53. 47 CONCLUSION Training can beinitiated to address a "performance gap" (learning needed to meet performance standards for a current task or job), "growth gap" (learning needed to achieve career goals) or "opportunity gap" (learning needed to qualify for an identified new job or role). Majority of the employees feel happy and are willing to spend the rest of their carrier with the organization. Along with this, the employees also feel the organization’s problem as their own and adhering to the organization is not the consequence of any obligation to them. Further, the employees feel that training programs establish a clear view of work roles and increase their performance level. Also the training program provide knowledge sharing demonstrated in the organization. Also, the training programs are practical and employees were able to apply the training techniques in their work. Keeping in view the organizational requirement and goals and objectives of training, the following have been identified as the key focus areas of training: Technology Tooling Quality Information Technology Further, to facilitate the development of soft skills (change of mind-set, managerial development etc.) training would be imparted on a continuous basis.
  • 54. Suggestions to Enrich Training and Development: Some Basic Requirements ofLearners • Learners Must Be Willing to Grow, to Experience • Growth Involves the Entire Learner • Growth Requires Seeking OngoingFeedback Some Basic Requirements ofSupervisors • Include More Factory Visit Days per Week. • Include Learners in Development of Training and Development Plan • Provide Ongoing Feedback andSupport • When Assessing Results of Learning, Maximize Feedback About Performance • Set Aside Regular Times for Supervisor and Learner to Meeting