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A REPORT ON
Vocational Training
IN
CHAMERA HYDROELECTRIC POWER
PROJECT
(STAGE – III)
under
NHPC LTD.
(A Government of India Enterprise)
BY: ISHANT GAUTAM
B.TECH (C.E)
ROLL NO. 1232140025
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MESRA, RANCHI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of
any task would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it
possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned our efforts with
success.
I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. A.K.MALHOTRA , General Manager for
providing a congenial working environment..
I am also indebted to all the Managers and Asst.Managers of different
departments and many others for their useful guidance and encouragement
throughout the training period.
Yours sincerely,
ISHANT GAUTAM
Civil Engg.
BIT, MESRA
INDEX
The complete project has been divided into the following major parts for a
easier description:
1.DAM SITE
2.HRT
3.POWER HOUSE COMPLEX
4.TECHNIQUES OF ROCK SUPPORTING
5.TOWNSHIP COMPLEX
6.QUALITY CONTROL
7.CONTRACT AND PROCUREMENT
8.ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST
9.GEOLOGY
10.BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT
INTRODUCTION
CHAMERA HYDROELECTRIC POWER
PROJECT –III
The project is located in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh on the river Ravi
upstream of 300 m MW Chamera-II power station.The power house is located
at Dharwala about 145 kms from the nearest rail head i.e. Pathankot and 255
kms from nearest airport Jammu.The dam is located about 300 m downstream
of confluence of Tundah Nallah and river Ravi an is accessible through Chamba
Bharmour road.
Some of the major salient features of the project are:-
 Estimated Cost -- Rs.1405.63 Cr.
 Annual generation -- 1104 MU (90% Dependable year)
 Year of Completion -- August 2010
 Diameter of HRT -- 6.5 Mtr, Horse shoe shape.
 Diameter of Surge Shaft -- 18.0 Mtr.Cricular
 Size of Desilting System -- 200 Mtr x 13 Mtr x 17 Mtr.
1) DAM SITE
The major parts of the Dam site are:
i) Highway Tunnel
ii) Diversion Tunnel
iii)Coffer Wall
iv) Power Intake
v) Desilting Chamber
vi) Silt Flushing Tunnel
vii) Dam
a) Gates
b) Spillway
c) Drainage Gallery
d) Spillway Channel
e) Control Room
i) HIGHWAY TUNNEL
A portion of this State Highway falls in the body of Concrete Dam, as
such it was envisaged to divert a portion of State Highway by realigning the
same at higher altitude alongwith a Highway tunnel in the vicinity of main
Dam. The Highway tunnel 450.50 M long connects realigned, State Highway
760 M from Chamba side and 330 M from Bharmour side. The realigned road
was thrown open to traffic in late July 2007.
The underground excavation for the tunnel was taken up firstly from one face
only, which was later on taken up from both the ends by following the
sequence:-
“Profiling—Drilling—Charging & Blasting ---Dumping of excavated rock—
Providing rock support—clean ing the face---Profiling.”
After exposing the surface the same was applied with primary support system
by installing Rock Bolts and shot crete. The places where the rock was not firm
and largely foliated, rib section with backfill concrete has been provided. The
tunnel was duly supported with shotcrete and rock bolts with ribs and & wire
mesh where err is needed as per the rock conditions.
Salient Features:
TYPE & SIZE OF TUNNEL D- SHAPED,6.5 M DIA., 7 M
Height
ELEVATION U/S EL +- 1405.66
D/S EL +- 1400.23
LENGTH 450.50 MTR.
UNDERGROUND EXCAVATION 23855 cum
TUNNEL OVERBREAK 3519 cum
WIDTH OF CARRIAGE WAY >6.20 M
ii) DIVERSION TUNNEL
Diversion scheme has been designed for protection of site against non-
monsoon floods. The DT is housed in massive to blocky, moderate to
widely jointed greenish gray phyllitic quartzite. The inlet portal is in
moderately to thinly foliated, strong phyllitic quartzite; whereas 5 cm
wide-open joints have been witnessed on D/S reach of portal.
Excavation is carried out by taking up the drilling work with two boom
hydraulic drill Jambo, following different drilling patterns/ loading patterns for
different class of rocks so as to minimize the over break The excavation of
tunnel was taken up from two faces i.e. Inlet & outlet.
Salient Features:
Tunnel dia (Finished): 8.2 m
Total length of DT: 362.15 mtr.
Length of Intake structure: 19 mtrs.
Total qty. of excavation: 28821.766
cum
EL at Inlet: 1351 mtr
EL at Outlet: 1345 mtr
Slope: 1 in 58.808 m
Rock bolt 25mm & 32mm: 7722 mtr.
Wire mesh: 1916.34 sqm
Ribs: 50.789 MT
Post tensioned Rock bolt : 525 mtr.
Rock Anchors : 3284 mtr.
Shotcrete : 398.409 cum
Reinforcement = 324.502 MT
iii)COFFER DAM
Coffer Dam is temporary structure which enables the construction of
dam and diversion tunnel. It also helps in blocking the flow of the
river in its actual direction till the period of construction. It provides
the ground for the construction of dam or in other words it provides
access for machinery for period of construction. Another important
function of coffer dam is it protects the construction site from off
season flooding.
Construction:-
The area was covered with rounded & sub-rounded boulders of river
borne material. For taking up the main works for D.T. & Intake all the
area needed for mobilization and work has to be protected so as to
avoid the waters running into the main working area & hampering the
works. To safe guard the work for constructing the Coffer walls was
taken on war footing by using M 10 A40 Conc., injecting the cement
grout and providing steel anchors against toppling the wall. In all
9218.31 m3 of conc. was used in Coffer walls on U/S & D/S side of
D.T.
iv)DAM STRUCTURE:
The The dam is located 300 Mtr downstream of confluence of Tundah Nallah
and river Ravi is accessible through Chamba Bharmour road. It is a 68 Mtr high
and 75 Mtr long concrete gravity dam with three radial gates, 12.5 Mtr X 16.5
Mtr in size and D shaped spillway tunnel of 110 Mtr length.
The elevation level of the lowest points of the dam structure are
1431m and 1499m respectively.
TYPE:-The dam is a concrete gravity dam .The reason for
constructing a gravity dam is the presence of solid rock foundation
and relatively very weak abutments.
CATCHMENT AREA AND RESERVOIR:-The catchment area of
the dam is 2204 km2
which includes a snow catchment area of 230
km2
.
CATCHMENT AREA : 2203.45 SQ.KM.
SNOW CATCHMENT : 230 SQ.KM.
DIVERSION FLOOD : 840 CUM/SEC
RESERVOIR FEATURES:-
FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL : EL.1397.00M
MIN.DRAW DOWN LEVEL : EL.1380.00M
GROSS STORAGE : 5.48 M.CUM.
LIVE STORAGE CAPACITY : 3.64 M.CUM.
SPILLWAYS:-
The water release system of the dam includes three spillway bays and
a spillway open channel.
.
The salient features of these structures are given below:
SPILLWAY BAY :ORIFICE TYPE WITH BREAST WALLS
DESIGN FLOOD : 11400 CUMECS
CREST ELEVATION : 1360 M.
NUMBER OF BAYS : 3 NOS.
SIZE OF RADIAL GATE : 12.5 X 16.5 M.
SPILLWAY OPEN CHANNEL:
CREST ELEVATION : 1382M
DISCHARGING CAPACITY :1200 CUMECS
RADIAL LOCK GATES:
The elevation level of the gates varies from 1360M at the lowest to
1376.50M at its highest point. These gates are operated using a
TRUNNION BEAM .They can be operated both using electrical and
mechanical systems.
BREAST WALLS:-The Breast wall lies above the lock gates from
elevation level 1376.50M to 1399M.The main purpose of the Breast
wall is to simultaneously handle water pressure along with the radial
gates due to large height of the dam.
DRAINAGE GALLERY:-The Drainage gallery is basically a small
tunnel within the dam which runs along the width of the dam.Its major
purpose is to provide space for installing instruments for measurement
of various physical factors and also for inspection for checking the
stability of the dam.This gallery extends on both sides inside the
abutments.
INSTRUMENTS:-
V-notch:It is used to calculate the discharge of the seepage water in
the drainage gallery..
Normal Plumb line and Inverted Plumb line:The function of the plumb
line is to measure the displacement of the dam structure due to water
pressure in the reservoir and other factors.
Dewatering systems:This system is installed to pump out the seepage
water from the drainage gallery .For this a 610mm dia Lean discharge
pipe is installed in the dam.
Pressure gauge:These gauges are installed for measuring the upward
pressure of the underground water in the drainage gallery.
Piezometric gauges:These gauges are installed to measure the
elevation level of water in the reservoir.
v) POWER INTAKE
The power intake structure comprising of two independent intakes has
been provided on the right bank just U/S of the Dam . Each intake has
been designed for a discharge of 78.42 Cumecs ( which includes 20%
discharge for silt flushing )
.
Sizes of these horse shoe shaped power intake tunnels are 5m dia.
each &lengths are 250m and 315m .Lining of these tunnel has been
completed with gantry arrangement.
A 9 m high x 11.6 m wide trash rack (divided into four parts by means
of concrete beams 0 has been provided for each power intake. It is a
net type structure attach to the opening of the power intake structure.
The purpose of trash rack is to avoid the entering of wooden logs in
the power intake structure.
vi) DESILTING CHAMBER
It is a chamber into which the power intake tunnels open. The velocity
of the water is reduced severly to enhance the settling of silt.
A desilting system (comprising of 2 no’s desilting basins,silt flushing
tunnels, inlet tunnels , branch tunnels and gate operating chambers etc
.) has been provided for removal of silt from water drawn from the
reservoir for Power generation .
These desilting chamber are of dofour type having dimensions 220m
X 13m X 17m including hoopers.
Silt which’ll settle down’ll b flushed out with the help of silt flushing
tunnel. Each chamber’ll constitute a d-shaped branch tunnel of
size 2m X 2.5m & these’ll further combine to form a single d-shaped
silt flushing tunnel of size 2m X 3.5m.
vii) SILT FLUSHING TUNNEL(SFT)
It is a structure which provides the way to remove the silt from the
desilting chamber and flush the silt in the river on the downstream
side. It starts from the bottom portion of the desilting Chamber and
opens into the river. It is a D-shaped structure which opens at EL1350.
It is provided with gates at the junction of SFT and Desilting Chamber
to control the flow of water and silt through the SFT. Generally SFT is
used during monsoon because the amount of silt in river increases
rapidly during monsoon.
viii) GATE OPERATION CHAMBER(GOC’S)
GOC’S are made for gate operation in water intake tunnel , Desilting
Chamber , Branched Tunnels. These gates are operated through
respected gates operation chambers.
Power Intake Gate Operation Chambers-It controls the gates at the
junction of power intake tunnel and desilting chamber.
Desilting Basin Gate Operation Chambers- It controls the gates at the
junction of desilting chamber and SFT and desilting chamber and
branched tunnel.
2) HEAD RACE TUNNEL (HRT)
The main purpose of HRT is to take the water from the reservoir to the
power house . It also controls the velocity and amount of water. The 2
branched tunnels combines to form HRT.
The horse shoe shaped head race tunnel 15.9 Km long ,6.5 m finished
diameter and having a average slope of 1 in 315 is designed to carry a
design discharge of 130.7 cumecs , at a velocity of 3.73 m /sec .The rock
cover above headrace tunnel generally varies from + - 100m to + -
1000m. The water conductor crosses Balij Nallah as a steel conduit of
about 130 m length . Six numbers of construction ADITS have been
proposed to facilitate excavation of Head race tunnel from eight faces
.The distances of the ADITS from the starting point of HRT and their
respective lengths have been given below:
I RD 63.60 M. : 159.35 M.
II RD 2236 M. : 193.00 M.
III RD 7185 M. : 213.00 M.
IV RD 11741.25 M. : 103.00 M.
V RD 11891.25 M : 63.80 M.
VI RD 15774.00 M. : 365.87 M.
3) POWER HOUSE COMPLEX:
The Power House Complex consists of the following structures:
i) SURGE SHAFT
The restricted orifice type underground Surge Shaft of 18 Meter
Diameter and 110 meter height above HRT crown has been proposed at
RD 15930 m . Top level of Surge shaft is proposed as EL 1435 m based
on prelimnary transient studies .
Surge shaft constitutes two galleries:
1. Upper expansion gallery (U.E.G.):
It is horse shoe shaped having dia. of 6.5 m at E.L.1408.5m.
its length is 342.0m.
2. Lower expansion gallery (L.E.G.):
It is also horse shoe shaped having dia. of 7.5m at E.L.1332.25m.Its
length is 250.0m.
Function
1. Basic function of surge shaft is to compensate the water hammering
effect. As we know ,we can’t make all the units to work regularly so if
sometimes we’v to stop the water supply for some maintenance purposes
then water will strike back with a hammering effect,which can damge
H.R.T. so in order to dissipate this effect a huge tank with open mouth is
required known as “surge shaft”.
2. It helps in providing a constant head even in lean season.
3. It prevents air locking in H.R.T ,due to which H.R.T is always filled with
water.
ii) PRESSURE SHAFT
It is a vertical tunnel which increases the velocity of water . The height of
pressure shaft is calculated by knowing the velocity of water by which it
should fall on the turbine.
Since the height of the tunnel is directly related to the pressure of water
therefore it is known as pressure shaft.
It is a 5.2 m Diameter Steel lined Vertical pressure shaft of height 163.75
m has been proposed . The shaft has 175 m top and 105.0 m bottom
horizontal limb . The top horizontal portion comprises of one transition
from rectangular to 5.2 m circular section.
iii) MACHINE HALL:
TYPE : UNDERGROUND
SIZE : 100 M. X 18.6 M. X 42 M.
TURBINES : FRANCIS VERTICAL AXIS
UNITS : 3 X 77 MW
GROSS HEAD : 230 M.
PENSTOCK:The Penstock carries water from the lower Pressure shaft
after trifurcation to the main inlet valve.They are three in number each of
diameter 3000mm.The penstock is steel lined and the steel lining is
completely encased in concrete.Suitable stiffness and thrust collars are also
provided to increase stability. The completion length of the Penstock is
93m.
MIV(Main Inlet Valve):This lies between the Penstock and the Spiral
casing. Its purpose is to regulate this volume of water flowing into the Spiral
casing.
SPIRAL CASING:This is basically a converging pipe which spirals from
the MIV to the turbine hence increasing the velocity of the water greatly.
TURBINE:This project is a medium head plant.For this a FRANCIS
Vertical axis turbine has been selected.Each turbine is designed to generate
the rated generator output of 77MW.
CONTROL BLOCK:The Control block is a structure along with the
machine hall from where the power house is operated.It is separated from
the machine hall by a damping fabric so that the vibrations created by the
turbines don’t affect it.
TRANSFORMER CHAMBER:This chamber houses the installed step-up
transformers.In this case three transformers each of capacity 77MW have
been installed.
iv)TRT(Tail Race Tunnel):
The water coming out of each the turbines is passed through Draft tubes
connected to each turbine .The three Draft tubes combine into a common
outlet called the Tail Race Tunnel.This tunnel opens into the river hence
releasing the water back into the river.
Maximum tail water level : 1188 m
Minimum tail water level : 1167 m
LENGTH : 125 M.
DIAMETER : 6.5 M.
TYPE : HORSE SHOE
TRSG(Tail Race Surge Gallery):To prevent the backflow of water into the
TRT in case of flood a surge tunnel called the TRSG is excavated as a side
extension to the TRT to handle the excess water during floods.
DIAMETER :6.5M
LENGTH :210M
v) GIS(Gas Insulated Switchyard) BUILDING:
Due to space constraints, it is not possible to provide a conventional
switchyard and therefore a Gas insulated switchyard is being made.
TYPE : SURFACE, 220 KV GIS
SIZE : 100M X 18M/50M. X 18M.
ELEVATION : EL.1205M./EL1210M.
4) TECHNIQUES USED FOR ROCK
SUPPORTING:
The following methods are applied for rock supporting:
1.Rock bolting
2.Shotcreting
3.Grouting
4.Rock anchoring
5.Steel ribs
Rock bolting
(1) ROCK BOLT (EXPANSION SHELL) is a stressed (i.e. post-
tensioned) reinforcing element consisting of a rod, an expansion shell
anchorage, a plate and a nut for stressing by tightening the nut.
(2) Expansion shell rock bolts shall be of 25 mm , 32 mm or 36 mm
dia. and shall be of various lengths as specified in Bill of quantities (for
longer lengths, couplers may be required).
(3) The Rock bolts shall be manufactured from reinforcing bar with
Yield strength not less than 500 N/mm2 (The reinforcing bar shall
comply with IS 1786).
When coupler is used, the threading in the bar shall not reduce the
effective diameter of bar. Coupler itself should be able to transfer at least
125 % of the yield load of the bar.
(4) Rock bolts shall be furnished complete with all accessories and
other materials necessary for their installation, fixing, stressing and
grouting. Expansion shell shall be manufactured by a reputed agency
only.
(5) Bearing plates shall be flat steel plates of following minimum
dimensions:
36mm dia. rock bolt 1 no. plate of 200x200x16mm
32mm dia. rock bolt 1 no. plate of 200x200x12mm
25mm dia. rock bolt 1 no. plate of 150x150x10 mm
The plate shall conform to IS 2062 for Structural Steel. The nuts shall be
heavy hexagonal type.
Shotcreting:
1) Shotcrete is defined as a mixture of cement, aggregate, water and
accelerators in correct proportions, with maximum size of aggregate
less than 10 mm projected at high velocity from a spray nozzle on to a
surface to form a layer of pneumatically applied concrete on that
surface. Shotcrete can be either wet or dry mix. It will be used for
protection and supporting rock surfaces after excavation, to fill the
cavities caused by overbreak or weathering.
(2) Dry-Mix Process: The cement, aggregates and accelerator batched
by weight, are thoroughly mixed dry (with enough moisture to
prevent dusting) and fed into a purpose-made machine wherein the
mixture is pressurised, metered into a dry air stream and conveyed
through hoses or pipes to a nozzle in which water as a spray is
introduced to hydrate the mix which is projected without interruption
into place.
(3) Wet-Mix Process: All materials including cement, aggregates weigh
batched and mixed together with water, but without accelerators, to
produce mortar or concrete. The mixture is then conveyed by
positive displacement or compressed air to a nozzle where air, and
accelerator, is injected to increase velocity, and projected without
interruption into place.
(4)Layer is a term used for a discrete thickness of shotcrete built up from
a number of passes of the nozzle and allowed to set.
(5) Rebound is a term used for all material, which, having passed
through the nozzle does not adhere to the target surface.
Grouting:
(1) GROUTED ANCHOR BAR is a reinforcing element consisting of a
reinforcing bar embedded in a cement grout filled hole. It shall extend
into structural concrete to provide anchorage of concret.
(2) The grouted anchor bars will not be stressed. The rods shall be fully
grouted with cement grout.
(3) Grouted anchor bars shall be of 25 mm , 32 mm or 36 mm dia. and
shall be of various lengths as specified in Bill of quantities (for longer
lengths, couplers may be required).
(4) The Grouted anchor bars shall be manufactured from reinforcing bar
with Yield strength not less than 500 N/mm2. (The reinforcing bar
shall comply with IS 1786.)
When coupler is used, the threading in the bar shall not reduce the
effective diameter of bar. Coupler itself should be able to transfer at least
125 % of the yield load of the bar.
(5) Grouted anchor bars shall be furnished complete with all accessories and
other materials necessary for their installation, fixing and grouting.
(6) The surface of the grouted anchor bars shall be clean of rust, scale,
dirt or other foreign matter.
(7) Diameter of hole drilled for installation of grouted anchor bar shall
be as under
36 mm dia. grouted anchor bar 76 mm dia.
32 mm dia. grouted anchor bar 64 mm dia.
25 mm dia. grouted anchor bar 45 mm dia.
(8) Spacers (centralizer) shall be used for both 25 mm, 32 mm and 36
mm dia. grouted anchor bars longer than 4 m for equal annulus of grout all
around the anchor.
(9) After drilling each hole in sound rock, the drill hole shall be
washed with clean water and cleaned by blowing out all drill cuttings and
debris with compressed air. The holes in rock, which tends to swell or is
interspersed with clay filled fissures, shall be cleaned with compressed air
only.
The compressed air shall not contain oil or any other material,
which could prevent the bond between the rock and grout.
(10) The grout shall be introduced into the end of the hole through a pipe.
The pipe will be gradually withdrawn as the hole is filled.
(11) Grout mix used shall have a water cement ratio of not more than of
0.32. The grout mix shall contain an expanding plasticizer admixture
(allowing upto 3.5% expansion in neat cement), from a reputed
manufacturer which has a long past proven record of use for such
applications. The dosage of admixture shall be as per the manufacturer’s
recommendation. For additional workability, a compatible
superplasticizer may also be required.
The grout mix shall have a strength of 35 N/mm² at 28 days.
(12) The anchor bar shall be forced into the grout-filled hole before the
initial set of the grout and good contact between steel surface and grout
ensured.
(13) Bar ends to be embedded in the concrete structure shall be provided
with hooks welded to the bar to provide a good anchorage. In order to
facilitate the inserting of the bars into the holes, the hooks can be welded
to the anchor bar after installing. The welding and the overlap of the bar
end with the hook(s) shall be as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
(14) Anchors bars shall be protected after installations in such a manner
as to prevent any movement until the grout has hardened. The Contractor
shall replace any bars found to be loose after the grout has set.
Rock anchoring:
(1) Rock Anchor is an untensioned reinforcing element consisting of a
rod embedded in a cement grout filled hole. The rock anchor shall have a
plate and a nut.
(2) The rock anchors will either be stressed nominally or not be stressed.
The rods shall be fully grouted with cement grout.
(3) Rock anchors shall be of 25 mm, 32 mm or 36 mm dia. and shall be of
various lengths as specified in Bill of quantities (for longer lengths,
couplers may be required).
(4)The Rock anchors shall be manufactured from reinforcing bar with
Yield strength not less than 500 N/mm2. (The reinforcing bar shall
comply with IS 1786.)
When coupler is used, the threading in the bar shall not reduce the
effective diameter of bar. Coupler itself should be able to transfer at
least 125 % of the yield load of the bar.
Steel ribs:
(1) All steel section and plates used for ribs and accessories shall conform to
IS 2062. "Structural Steel" (Standard Quality).
(2)Steel for bolts, nuts and washers shall conform to IS 8500. "Specification
forHigh Tensile Strength Structural Steel".
(3)Material used in splices shall conform to the specification of the material
being spliced.
(4)All steel and fabrication thereof shall conform to the requirements of IS 800
"Code of Practice for use of structural steel in General Building Construction".
(5) All welding, welding electrodes and workmanship shall conform to IS 814
and IS 816.
5) TOWNSHIP COMPLEX:
The basic function of township complex is to look after residential and
non residential buildings. The few complexes which are under township
are given below
1. Housing:- Housing is the primary need of the man. In Chamera,
stageIII the housing building is under construction in Karian, Chamba
. But some employees of Chamera stage-III lived in Karian , Chamba
NHPC provided housing facilities to employees , water and electric
supply to houses and fans to each house
Basically there are four type of houses with general layout as given
below:
Type Plinth area
(m*m)
A 43
B 72
B* 72
C 83
2. Field Hostel;- in Chamera stage-III , project hostel facility is available
in Dharwala Chamba. There are 40 single rooms in hostel.
3. Education: - Education is the most important part of the life. So that
NHPC have been provided the school facility . In Karian , Chamba .
NHPC provided Kendriya vidalaya upto class XII . the building funds
and residential accommodation has been provided by NHPC.
4. Hospital and Dispensaries:- NHPC has provided the hospital and
dispensaries to all the employees. At the work site , there is a hospital
which provides first aid facility and there are two doctors and in
Karian,Chamba there is main hospital which houses three doctors
including one lady doctor, Senior Chief medical Officer. Hospitals has a
capacity of 10 beds.
6) QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control is a mechanism for ensuring that an output (product or
service) conforms to a predetermined specification
Quality control usually involves a process of testing outputs. It is also
sometimes used loosely to refer to any form of quality evaluation but this usage
is confusing.Control in the sense of quality control sense is distinct from the
concept of control as a purpose of external quality monitoring or evaluation.
Construction supervision, quality control, and field and laboratory testing
are among the main pillars of any organization. Each of company QC project
teams for civil work is led by a QA/QC Construction Supervisor who is
responsible for ensuring the implementation of the quality control plans and
procedures, and directing the Quality Assurance Engineer, Site Material (QC)
Engineer, and laboratory technicians who are assigned to each project site.
Steps in quality control:
Construction supervision : Regulate time and costs, assure compliance with
design and construction specifications, and control the quality of a construction
project.
Control over testing & inspections: QC professionals will exam the
qualifications of inspection and testing personnel; assure that any deficient work
is corrected; perform project preparatory, initial, follow-up and completion
inspections; assure that test procedures include test and instrumentation
requirements; develop requirements for measuring and monitoring; assure that
careful consideration is given to environmental concerns; and develop detailed
acceptance criteria before project work begins.
Test records: It ensure that all tests are documented and test records include the
items tested, the date of the test, the test conductor or data recorder, acceptance
criteria, type of observation, results and acceptability, action taken in
connection with any noted deviation, and the signature, affiliation and title of
the person evaluating the test results.
Control of special processes: Quality control engineers assure that certain tests,
for example, welding radiographic and nondestructive tests, are performed by
qualified personnel using approved written procedures prepared in accordance
with the contract drawings and specifications and the referenced codes and
standards.
Handling, storage and shipping: Materials and equipment that are handled,
stored or shipped by a contractor or supplier are required to meet the applicable
requirements defined in the project specifications. Our QC engineers review
and assure compliance with any special handling instructions, including the use
of specially tested and inspected handling tools; the storage procedures required
by the drawings and specifications; preventive maintenance requirements; and
requirements for the appropriate protection of shipped items.
Document control: prepare material requisitions and purchase orders, revise
procurement documents, if required, and control compliance with instructions
and procedures prescribing activities that affect quality.
Record control: QC engineers develop and implement programs to control the
collection, storage and maintenance of the records generated throughout project
construction, such as material mill certificates, test certificates from off-site
laboratories, test records from on-site laboratories, calibration documents, check
list records, standard forms appendices, and schedules of approved and/or
rejected materials.
Calibration control: implements a program to control the calibration, recall,
repair, and maintenance of measuring devices, instruments, and equipment that
are used for inspection and testing, ensuring that all tools, gauges, and other
measuring equipment are calibrated and maintained in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations. Items that typically require calibration
control are batching plants, testing machines, pressure gauges, torque wrenches,
meager testers, survey instruments, scales and balances, and voltage and
amperage meters.
Control of purchased items and services: QC engineers work with project
managers to evaluate and select suppliers of purchased items and subcontracted
services
7) CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT
CONTRACT--Procedure for giving contracts basically starts from estimation
of two things- cost of project and time required for its completion. Then tenders
are invited from experienced companies in the area.in open type tendering
anybody can submit the tender,but in limited type tendering only some selected
companies are invited to submit the tender. Then a committee is formed to
select the tenders.The bidders have to satisfy some basic criterions to be eligible
to get contract.sometime during selection if required,negotiations are also done
with respective companies.After this procedure contract is given to the selected
company.Selected company has to submit earnest money which is 2% of the
total cost in this project and is refundable in nature.This money is taken as
security money and is kept for some given period after completion of the
project.
In this project contract for civil works is given to HCC and that for electrical
works is given to ALSTOM.
PROCUREMENT—This is procedure of purchasing goods.In this if any type
of goods are required in the project ,an initial requisition notice is given to the
procurement department.Then the department selects the place from where
things has to be purchased.The other party sends the goods to store room of
department,which afterwards checks the products and on approval sends them
to required place.Some security deposit is also kept from the selected party.
8) ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST
The job of environmental study has been assigned to “Centre for
Interdisciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment”, Delhi University.
The center has been preparing EIA and EMP reports, which will be submitted to
MOEF, Government of India, for environmental clearance of the project.
Provisional forest clearance has been accorded by MOEF, Government of India.
Proposal for Environment clearance is to be sent to MOEF Government of India
by H.P.Govt.
9) GEOLOGY
The Project lies within lesser Himalayan terrain and will be housed
within competent metamorphic rocks of Chamba formation consisting of varied
rock types viz. greenish grey/ phyllites /slates, phyllite quartzite and quartzite.
The Dhauladhar granites occur as apophasis within Chamba formation.
10) BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT
The project will generate 104.53 MU annually in 90% dependable year,
which will be fed to northern grid. Beneficiary States are Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Chandigarh, Delhi,
Rajasthan & Uttaranchal. 12% free power will be supplied to the home state
Himachal Pradesh.
The area in and around the project will immensely be benefited due to
widening of PWD road from Bagga to Kharamukh.
After completion of three major bridges over river Ravi at Dunali, Gehra
and Durgathi, the right bank of the river Ravi which is totally cut off due to
inaccessibility will get a big boost to its economy and socio-economic
conditions of the local people in the area will undergo a major upliftment.
Nhpc training report civil engineerimg_bit_mesra_ISHANT GAUTAM
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Nhpc training report civil engineerimg_bit_mesra_ISHANT GAUTAM

  • 1. A REPORT ON Vocational Training IN CHAMERA HYDROELECTRIC POWER PROJECT (STAGE – III) under NHPC LTD. (A Government of India Enterprise) BY: ISHANT GAUTAM B.TECH (C.E) ROLL NO. 1232140025 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA, RANCHI
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned our efforts with success. I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. A.K.MALHOTRA , General Manager for providing a congenial working environment.. I am also indebted to all the Managers and Asst.Managers of different departments and many others for their useful guidance and encouragement throughout the training period. Yours sincerely, ISHANT GAUTAM Civil Engg. BIT, MESRA
  • 3. INDEX The complete project has been divided into the following major parts for a easier description: 1.DAM SITE 2.HRT 3.POWER HOUSE COMPLEX 4.TECHNIQUES OF ROCK SUPPORTING 5.TOWNSHIP COMPLEX 6.QUALITY CONTROL 7.CONTRACT AND PROCUREMENT 8.ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST 9.GEOLOGY 10.BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT
  • 4. INTRODUCTION CHAMERA HYDROELECTRIC POWER PROJECT –III The project is located in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh on the river Ravi upstream of 300 m MW Chamera-II power station.The power house is located at Dharwala about 145 kms from the nearest rail head i.e. Pathankot and 255 kms from nearest airport Jammu.The dam is located about 300 m downstream of confluence of Tundah Nallah and river Ravi an is accessible through Chamba Bharmour road. Some of the major salient features of the project are:-  Estimated Cost -- Rs.1405.63 Cr.  Annual generation -- 1104 MU (90% Dependable year)  Year of Completion -- August 2010  Diameter of HRT -- 6.5 Mtr, Horse shoe shape.  Diameter of Surge Shaft -- 18.0 Mtr.Cricular  Size of Desilting System -- 200 Mtr x 13 Mtr x 17 Mtr.
  • 5. 1) DAM SITE The major parts of the Dam site are: i) Highway Tunnel ii) Diversion Tunnel iii)Coffer Wall iv) Power Intake v) Desilting Chamber vi) Silt Flushing Tunnel vii) Dam a) Gates b) Spillway c) Drainage Gallery d) Spillway Channel e) Control Room i) HIGHWAY TUNNEL A portion of this State Highway falls in the body of Concrete Dam, as such it was envisaged to divert a portion of State Highway by realigning the same at higher altitude alongwith a Highway tunnel in the vicinity of main Dam. The Highway tunnel 450.50 M long connects realigned, State Highway 760 M from Chamba side and 330 M from Bharmour side. The realigned road was thrown open to traffic in late July 2007.
  • 6. The underground excavation for the tunnel was taken up firstly from one face only, which was later on taken up from both the ends by following the sequence:- “Profiling—Drilling—Charging & Blasting ---Dumping of excavated rock— Providing rock support—clean ing the face---Profiling.” After exposing the surface the same was applied with primary support system by installing Rock Bolts and shot crete. The places where the rock was not firm and largely foliated, rib section with backfill concrete has been provided. The tunnel was duly supported with shotcrete and rock bolts with ribs and & wire mesh where err is needed as per the rock conditions. Salient Features: TYPE & SIZE OF TUNNEL D- SHAPED,6.5 M DIA., 7 M Height ELEVATION U/S EL +- 1405.66 D/S EL +- 1400.23 LENGTH 450.50 MTR. UNDERGROUND EXCAVATION 23855 cum TUNNEL OVERBREAK 3519 cum WIDTH OF CARRIAGE WAY >6.20 M
  • 7. ii) DIVERSION TUNNEL Diversion scheme has been designed for protection of site against non- monsoon floods. The DT is housed in massive to blocky, moderate to widely jointed greenish gray phyllitic quartzite. The inlet portal is in moderately to thinly foliated, strong phyllitic quartzite; whereas 5 cm wide-open joints have been witnessed on D/S reach of portal. Excavation is carried out by taking up the drilling work with two boom hydraulic drill Jambo, following different drilling patterns/ loading patterns for different class of rocks so as to minimize the over break The excavation of tunnel was taken up from two faces i.e. Inlet & outlet. Salient Features: Tunnel dia (Finished): 8.2 m Total length of DT: 362.15 mtr. Length of Intake structure: 19 mtrs. Total qty. of excavation: 28821.766 cum EL at Inlet: 1351 mtr EL at Outlet: 1345 mtr
  • 8. Slope: 1 in 58.808 m Rock bolt 25mm & 32mm: 7722 mtr. Wire mesh: 1916.34 sqm Ribs: 50.789 MT Post tensioned Rock bolt : 525 mtr. Rock Anchors : 3284 mtr. Shotcrete : 398.409 cum Reinforcement = 324.502 MT iii)COFFER DAM Coffer Dam is temporary structure which enables the construction of dam and diversion tunnel. It also helps in blocking the flow of the river in its actual direction till the period of construction. It provides the ground for the construction of dam or in other words it provides access for machinery for period of construction. Another important function of coffer dam is it protects the construction site from off season flooding. Construction:- The area was covered with rounded & sub-rounded boulders of river borne material. For taking up the main works for D.T. & Intake all the area needed for mobilization and work has to be protected so as to avoid the waters running into the main working area & hampering the works. To safe guard the work for constructing the Coffer walls was taken on war footing by using M 10 A40 Conc., injecting the cement grout and providing steel anchors against toppling the wall. In all 9218.31 m3 of conc. was used in Coffer walls on U/S & D/S side of D.T. iv)DAM STRUCTURE: The The dam is located 300 Mtr downstream of confluence of Tundah Nallah and river Ravi is accessible through Chamba Bharmour road. It is a 68 Mtr high and 75 Mtr long concrete gravity dam with three radial gates, 12.5 Mtr X 16.5 Mtr in size and D shaped spillway tunnel of 110 Mtr length.
  • 9. The elevation level of the lowest points of the dam structure are 1431m and 1499m respectively. TYPE:-The dam is a concrete gravity dam .The reason for constructing a gravity dam is the presence of solid rock foundation and relatively very weak abutments. CATCHMENT AREA AND RESERVOIR:-The catchment area of the dam is 2204 km2 which includes a snow catchment area of 230 km2 . CATCHMENT AREA : 2203.45 SQ.KM. SNOW CATCHMENT : 230 SQ.KM. DIVERSION FLOOD : 840 CUM/SEC RESERVOIR FEATURES:- FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL : EL.1397.00M MIN.DRAW DOWN LEVEL : EL.1380.00M GROSS STORAGE : 5.48 M.CUM. LIVE STORAGE CAPACITY : 3.64 M.CUM.
  • 10. SPILLWAYS:- The water release system of the dam includes three spillway bays and a spillway open channel. . The salient features of these structures are given below: SPILLWAY BAY :ORIFICE TYPE WITH BREAST WALLS DESIGN FLOOD : 11400 CUMECS CREST ELEVATION : 1360 M. NUMBER OF BAYS : 3 NOS. SIZE OF RADIAL GATE : 12.5 X 16.5 M. SPILLWAY OPEN CHANNEL: CREST ELEVATION : 1382M DISCHARGING CAPACITY :1200 CUMECS
  • 11. RADIAL LOCK GATES: The elevation level of the gates varies from 1360M at the lowest to 1376.50M at its highest point. These gates are operated using a TRUNNION BEAM .They can be operated both using electrical and mechanical systems. BREAST WALLS:-The Breast wall lies above the lock gates from elevation level 1376.50M to 1399M.The main purpose of the Breast wall is to simultaneously handle water pressure along with the radial gates due to large height of the dam. DRAINAGE GALLERY:-The Drainage gallery is basically a small tunnel within the dam which runs along the width of the dam.Its major purpose is to provide space for installing instruments for measurement of various physical factors and also for inspection for checking the stability of the dam.This gallery extends on both sides inside the abutments. INSTRUMENTS:- V-notch:It is used to calculate the discharge of the seepage water in the drainage gallery.. Normal Plumb line and Inverted Plumb line:The function of the plumb line is to measure the displacement of the dam structure due to water pressure in the reservoir and other factors. Dewatering systems:This system is installed to pump out the seepage water from the drainage gallery .For this a 610mm dia Lean discharge pipe is installed in the dam.
  • 12. Pressure gauge:These gauges are installed for measuring the upward pressure of the underground water in the drainage gallery. Piezometric gauges:These gauges are installed to measure the elevation level of water in the reservoir. v) POWER INTAKE The power intake structure comprising of two independent intakes has been provided on the right bank just U/S of the Dam . Each intake has been designed for a discharge of 78.42 Cumecs ( which includes 20% discharge for silt flushing ) . Sizes of these horse shoe shaped power intake tunnels are 5m dia. each &lengths are 250m and 315m .Lining of these tunnel has been completed with gantry arrangement. A 9 m high x 11.6 m wide trash rack (divided into four parts by means of concrete beams 0 has been provided for each power intake. It is a net type structure attach to the opening of the power intake structure. The purpose of trash rack is to avoid the entering of wooden logs in the power intake structure.
  • 13. vi) DESILTING CHAMBER It is a chamber into which the power intake tunnels open. The velocity of the water is reduced severly to enhance the settling of silt. A desilting system (comprising of 2 no’s desilting basins,silt flushing tunnels, inlet tunnels , branch tunnels and gate operating chambers etc .) has been provided for removal of silt from water drawn from the reservoir for Power generation . These desilting chamber are of dofour type having dimensions 220m X 13m X 17m including hoopers. Silt which’ll settle down’ll b flushed out with the help of silt flushing tunnel. Each chamber’ll constitute a d-shaped branch tunnel of size 2m X 2.5m & these’ll further combine to form a single d-shaped silt flushing tunnel of size 2m X 3.5m. vii) SILT FLUSHING TUNNEL(SFT) It is a structure which provides the way to remove the silt from the desilting chamber and flush the silt in the river on the downstream side. It starts from the bottom portion of the desilting Chamber and opens into the river. It is a D-shaped structure which opens at EL1350. It is provided with gates at the junction of SFT and Desilting Chamber to control the flow of water and silt through the SFT. Generally SFT is
  • 14. used during monsoon because the amount of silt in river increases rapidly during monsoon. viii) GATE OPERATION CHAMBER(GOC’S) GOC’S are made for gate operation in water intake tunnel , Desilting Chamber , Branched Tunnels. These gates are operated through respected gates operation chambers. Power Intake Gate Operation Chambers-It controls the gates at the junction of power intake tunnel and desilting chamber. Desilting Basin Gate Operation Chambers- It controls the gates at the junction of desilting chamber and SFT and desilting chamber and branched tunnel. 2) HEAD RACE TUNNEL (HRT) The main purpose of HRT is to take the water from the reservoir to the power house . It also controls the velocity and amount of water. The 2 branched tunnels combines to form HRT. The horse shoe shaped head race tunnel 15.9 Km long ,6.5 m finished diameter and having a average slope of 1 in 315 is designed to carry a design discharge of 130.7 cumecs , at a velocity of 3.73 m /sec .The rock cover above headrace tunnel generally varies from + - 100m to + - 1000m. The water conductor crosses Balij Nallah as a steel conduit of about 130 m length . Six numbers of construction ADITS have been proposed to facilitate excavation of Head race tunnel from eight faces .The distances of the ADITS from the starting point of HRT and their respective lengths have been given below: I RD 63.60 M. : 159.35 M. II RD 2236 M. : 193.00 M. III RD 7185 M. : 213.00 M. IV RD 11741.25 M. : 103.00 M. V RD 11891.25 M : 63.80 M. VI RD 15774.00 M. : 365.87 M.
  • 15. 3) POWER HOUSE COMPLEX: The Power House Complex consists of the following structures: i) SURGE SHAFT The restricted orifice type underground Surge Shaft of 18 Meter Diameter and 110 meter height above HRT crown has been proposed at RD 15930 m . Top level of Surge shaft is proposed as EL 1435 m based on prelimnary transient studies . Surge shaft constitutes two galleries: 1. Upper expansion gallery (U.E.G.): It is horse shoe shaped having dia. of 6.5 m at E.L.1408.5m. its length is 342.0m. 2. Lower expansion gallery (L.E.G.): It is also horse shoe shaped having dia. of 7.5m at E.L.1332.25m.Its length is 250.0m. Function 1. Basic function of surge shaft is to compensate the water hammering effect. As we know ,we can’t make all the units to work regularly so if sometimes we’v to stop the water supply for some maintenance purposes then water will strike back with a hammering effect,which can damge H.R.T. so in order to dissipate this effect a huge tank with open mouth is required known as “surge shaft”. 2. It helps in providing a constant head even in lean season. 3. It prevents air locking in H.R.T ,due to which H.R.T is always filled with water.
  • 16. ii) PRESSURE SHAFT It is a vertical tunnel which increases the velocity of water . The height of pressure shaft is calculated by knowing the velocity of water by which it should fall on the turbine. Since the height of the tunnel is directly related to the pressure of water therefore it is known as pressure shaft. It is a 5.2 m Diameter Steel lined Vertical pressure shaft of height 163.75 m has been proposed . The shaft has 175 m top and 105.0 m bottom horizontal limb . The top horizontal portion comprises of one transition from rectangular to 5.2 m circular section. iii) MACHINE HALL: TYPE : UNDERGROUND SIZE : 100 M. X 18.6 M. X 42 M. TURBINES : FRANCIS VERTICAL AXIS UNITS : 3 X 77 MW GROSS HEAD : 230 M.
  • 17. PENSTOCK:The Penstock carries water from the lower Pressure shaft after trifurcation to the main inlet valve.They are three in number each of diameter 3000mm.The penstock is steel lined and the steel lining is completely encased in concrete.Suitable stiffness and thrust collars are also provided to increase stability. The completion length of the Penstock is 93m.
  • 18. MIV(Main Inlet Valve):This lies between the Penstock and the Spiral casing. Its purpose is to regulate this volume of water flowing into the Spiral casing. SPIRAL CASING:This is basically a converging pipe which spirals from the MIV to the turbine hence increasing the velocity of the water greatly. TURBINE:This project is a medium head plant.For this a FRANCIS Vertical axis turbine has been selected.Each turbine is designed to generate the rated generator output of 77MW. CONTROL BLOCK:The Control block is a structure along with the machine hall from where the power house is operated.It is separated from the machine hall by a damping fabric so that the vibrations created by the turbines don’t affect it.
  • 19. TRANSFORMER CHAMBER:This chamber houses the installed step-up transformers.In this case three transformers each of capacity 77MW have been installed. iv)TRT(Tail Race Tunnel): The water coming out of each the turbines is passed through Draft tubes connected to each turbine .The three Draft tubes combine into a common outlet called the Tail Race Tunnel.This tunnel opens into the river hence releasing the water back into the river. Maximum tail water level : 1188 m Minimum tail water level : 1167 m LENGTH : 125 M. DIAMETER : 6.5 M. TYPE : HORSE SHOE TRSG(Tail Race Surge Gallery):To prevent the backflow of water into the TRT in case of flood a surge tunnel called the TRSG is excavated as a side extension to the TRT to handle the excess water during floods. DIAMETER :6.5M LENGTH :210M
  • 20. v) GIS(Gas Insulated Switchyard) BUILDING: Due to space constraints, it is not possible to provide a conventional switchyard and therefore a Gas insulated switchyard is being made. TYPE : SURFACE, 220 KV GIS SIZE : 100M X 18M/50M. X 18M. ELEVATION : EL.1205M./EL1210M. 4) TECHNIQUES USED FOR ROCK SUPPORTING: The following methods are applied for rock supporting: 1.Rock bolting 2.Shotcreting 3.Grouting 4.Rock anchoring 5.Steel ribs
  • 21. Rock bolting (1) ROCK BOLT (EXPANSION SHELL) is a stressed (i.e. post- tensioned) reinforcing element consisting of a rod, an expansion shell anchorage, a plate and a nut for stressing by tightening the nut. (2) Expansion shell rock bolts shall be of 25 mm , 32 mm or 36 mm dia. and shall be of various lengths as specified in Bill of quantities (for longer lengths, couplers may be required). (3) The Rock bolts shall be manufactured from reinforcing bar with Yield strength not less than 500 N/mm2 (The reinforcing bar shall comply with IS 1786). When coupler is used, the threading in the bar shall not reduce the effective diameter of bar. Coupler itself should be able to transfer at least 125 % of the yield load of the bar. (4) Rock bolts shall be furnished complete with all accessories and other materials necessary for their installation, fixing, stressing and grouting. Expansion shell shall be manufactured by a reputed agency only. (5) Bearing plates shall be flat steel plates of following minimum dimensions: 36mm dia. rock bolt 1 no. plate of 200x200x16mm 32mm dia. rock bolt 1 no. plate of 200x200x12mm 25mm dia. rock bolt 1 no. plate of 150x150x10 mm The plate shall conform to IS 2062 for Structural Steel. The nuts shall be heavy hexagonal type.
  • 22. Shotcreting: 1) Shotcrete is defined as a mixture of cement, aggregate, water and accelerators in correct proportions, with maximum size of aggregate less than 10 mm projected at high velocity from a spray nozzle on to a surface to form a layer of pneumatically applied concrete on that surface. Shotcrete can be either wet or dry mix. It will be used for protection and supporting rock surfaces after excavation, to fill the cavities caused by overbreak or weathering. (2) Dry-Mix Process: The cement, aggregates and accelerator batched by weight, are thoroughly mixed dry (with enough moisture to prevent dusting) and fed into a purpose-made machine wherein the mixture is pressurised, metered into a dry air stream and conveyed through hoses or pipes to a nozzle in which water as a spray is introduced to hydrate the mix which is projected without interruption into place. (3) Wet-Mix Process: All materials including cement, aggregates weigh batched and mixed together with water, but without accelerators, to produce mortar or concrete. The mixture is then conveyed by positive displacement or compressed air to a nozzle where air, and accelerator, is injected to increase velocity, and projected without interruption into place. (4)Layer is a term used for a discrete thickness of shotcrete built up from a number of passes of the nozzle and allowed to set. (5) Rebound is a term used for all material, which, having passed through the nozzle does not adhere to the target surface.
  • 23. Grouting: (1) GROUTED ANCHOR BAR is a reinforcing element consisting of a reinforcing bar embedded in a cement grout filled hole. It shall extend into structural concrete to provide anchorage of concret. (2) The grouted anchor bars will not be stressed. The rods shall be fully grouted with cement grout. (3) Grouted anchor bars shall be of 25 mm , 32 mm or 36 mm dia. and shall be of various lengths as specified in Bill of quantities (for longer lengths, couplers may be required). (4) The Grouted anchor bars shall be manufactured from reinforcing bar with Yield strength not less than 500 N/mm2. (The reinforcing bar shall comply with IS 1786.) When coupler is used, the threading in the bar shall not reduce the effective diameter of bar. Coupler itself should be able to transfer at least 125 % of the yield load of the bar. (5) Grouted anchor bars shall be furnished complete with all accessories and other materials necessary for their installation, fixing and grouting. (6) The surface of the grouted anchor bars shall be clean of rust, scale, dirt or other foreign matter. (7) Diameter of hole drilled for installation of grouted anchor bar shall be as under 36 mm dia. grouted anchor bar 76 mm dia. 32 mm dia. grouted anchor bar 64 mm dia. 25 mm dia. grouted anchor bar 45 mm dia. (8) Spacers (centralizer) shall be used for both 25 mm, 32 mm and 36 mm dia. grouted anchor bars longer than 4 m for equal annulus of grout all around the anchor.
  • 24. (9) After drilling each hole in sound rock, the drill hole shall be washed with clean water and cleaned by blowing out all drill cuttings and debris with compressed air. The holes in rock, which tends to swell or is interspersed with clay filled fissures, shall be cleaned with compressed air only. The compressed air shall not contain oil or any other material, which could prevent the bond between the rock and grout. (10) The grout shall be introduced into the end of the hole through a pipe. The pipe will be gradually withdrawn as the hole is filled. (11) Grout mix used shall have a water cement ratio of not more than of 0.32. The grout mix shall contain an expanding plasticizer admixture (allowing upto 3.5% expansion in neat cement), from a reputed manufacturer which has a long past proven record of use for such applications. The dosage of admixture shall be as per the manufacturer’s recommendation. For additional workability, a compatible superplasticizer may also be required. The grout mix shall have a strength of 35 N/mm² at 28 days. (12) The anchor bar shall be forced into the grout-filled hole before the initial set of the grout and good contact between steel surface and grout ensured. (13) Bar ends to be embedded in the concrete structure shall be provided with hooks welded to the bar to provide a good anchorage. In order to facilitate the inserting of the bars into the holes, the hooks can be welded to the anchor bar after installing. The welding and the overlap of the bar end with the hook(s) shall be as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. (14) Anchors bars shall be protected after installations in such a manner as to prevent any movement until the grout has hardened. The Contractor shall replace any bars found to be loose after the grout has set.
  • 25. Rock anchoring: (1) Rock Anchor is an untensioned reinforcing element consisting of a rod embedded in a cement grout filled hole. The rock anchor shall have a plate and a nut. (2) The rock anchors will either be stressed nominally or not be stressed. The rods shall be fully grouted with cement grout. (3) Rock anchors shall be of 25 mm, 32 mm or 36 mm dia. and shall be of various lengths as specified in Bill of quantities (for longer lengths, couplers may be required). (4)The Rock anchors shall be manufactured from reinforcing bar with Yield strength not less than 500 N/mm2. (The reinforcing bar shall comply with IS 1786.) When coupler is used, the threading in the bar shall not reduce the effective diameter of bar. Coupler itself should be able to transfer at least 125 % of the yield load of the bar. Steel ribs: (1) All steel section and plates used for ribs and accessories shall conform to IS 2062. "Structural Steel" (Standard Quality). (2)Steel for bolts, nuts and washers shall conform to IS 8500. "Specification forHigh Tensile Strength Structural Steel". (3)Material used in splices shall conform to the specification of the material being spliced. (4)All steel and fabrication thereof shall conform to the requirements of IS 800 "Code of Practice for use of structural steel in General Building Construction". (5) All welding, welding electrodes and workmanship shall conform to IS 814 and IS 816.
  • 26. 5) TOWNSHIP COMPLEX: The basic function of township complex is to look after residential and non residential buildings. The few complexes which are under township are given below 1. Housing:- Housing is the primary need of the man. In Chamera, stageIII the housing building is under construction in Karian, Chamba . But some employees of Chamera stage-III lived in Karian , Chamba NHPC provided housing facilities to employees , water and electric supply to houses and fans to each house Basically there are four type of houses with general layout as given below: Type Plinth area (m*m) A 43 B 72 B* 72 C 83 2. Field Hostel;- in Chamera stage-III , project hostel facility is available in Dharwala Chamba. There are 40 single rooms in hostel. 3. Education: - Education is the most important part of the life. So that NHPC have been provided the school facility . In Karian , Chamba . NHPC provided Kendriya vidalaya upto class XII . the building funds and residential accommodation has been provided by NHPC. 4. Hospital and Dispensaries:- NHPC has provided the hospital and dispensaries to all the employees. At the work site , there is a hospital which provides first aid facility and there are two doctors and in Karian,Chamba there is main hospital which houses three doctors including one lady doctor, Senior Chief medical Officer. Hospitals has a capacity of 10 beds.
  • 27. 6) QUALITY CONTROL Quality control is a mechanism for ensuring that an output (product or service) conforms to a predetermined specification Quality control usually involves a process of testing outputs. It is also sometimes used loosely to refer to any form of quality evaluation but this usage is confusing.Control in the sense of quality control sense is distinct from the concept of control as a purpose of external quality monitoring or evaluation. Construction supervision, quality control, and field and laboratory testing are among the main pillars of any organization. Each of company QC project teams for civil work is led by a QA/QC Construction Supervisor who is responsible for ensuring the implementation of the quality control plans and procedures, and directing the Quality Assurance Engineer, Site Material (QC) Engineer, and laboratory technicians who are assigned to each project site. Steps in quality control: Construction supervision : Regulate time and costs, assure compliance with design and construction specifications, and control the quality of a construction project. Control over testing & inspections: QC professionals will exam the qualifications of inspection and testing personnel; assure that any deficient work is corrected; perform project preparatory, initial, follow-up and completion inspections; assure that test procedures include test and instrumentation requirements; develop requirements for measuring and monitoring; assure that careful consideration is given to environmental concerns; and develop detailed acceptance criteria before project work begins.
  • 28. Test records: It ensure that all tests are documented and test records include the items tested, the date of the test, the test conductor or data recorder, acceptance criteria, type of observation, results and acceptability, action taken in connection with any noted deviation, and the signature, affiliation and title of the person evaluating the test results. Control of special processes: Quality control engineers assure that certain tests, for example, welding radiographic and nondestructive tests, are performed by qualified personnel using approved written procedures prepared in accordance with the contract drawings and specifications and the referenced codes and standards. Handling, storage and shipping: Materials and equipment that are handled, stored or shipped by a contractor or supplier are required to meet the applicable requirements defined in the project specifications. Our QC engineers review and assure compliance with any special handling instructions, including the use of specially tested and inspected handling tools; the storage procedures required by the drawings and specifications; preventive maintenance requirements; and requirements for the appropriate protection of shipped items. Document control: prepare material requisitions and purchase orders, revise procurement documents, if required, and control compliance with instructions and procedures prescribing activities that affect quality. Record control: QC engineers develop and implement programs to control the collection, storage and maintenance of the records generated throughout project construction, such as material mill certificates, test certificates from off-site laboratories, test records from on-site laboratories, calibration documents, check list records, standard forms appendices, and schedules of approved and/or rejected materials. Calibration control: implements a program to control the calibration, recall, repair, and maintenance of measuring devices, instruments, and equipment that are used for inspection and testing, ensuring that all tools, gauges, and other measuring equipment are calibrated and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Items that typically require calibration
  • 29. control are batching plants, testing machines, pressure gauges, torque wrenches, meager testers, survey instruments, scales and balances, and voltage and amperage meters. Control of purchased items and services: QC engineers work with project managers to evaluate and select suppliers of purchased items and subcontracted services 7) CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT CONTRACT--Procedure for giving contracts basically starts from estimation of two things- cost of project and time required for its completion. Then tenders are invited from experienced companies in the area.in open type tendering anybody can submit the tender,but in limited type tendering only some selected companies are invited to submit the tender. Then a committee is formed to select the tenders.The bidders have to satisfy some basic criterions to be eligible to get contract.sometime during selection if required,negotiations are also done with respective companies.After this procedure contract is given to the selected company.Selected company has to submit earnest money which is 2% of the total cost in this project and is refundable in nature.This money is taken as security money and is kept for some given period after completion of the project. In this project contract for civil works is given to HCC and that for electrical works is given to ALSTOM. PROCUREMENT—This is procedure of purchasing goods.In this if any type of goods are required in the project ,an initial requisition notice is given to the procurement department.Then the department selects the place from where things has to be purchased.The other party sends the goods to store room of department,which afterwards checks the products and on approval sends them to required place.Some security deposit is also kept from the selected party.
  • 30. 8) ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST The job of environmental study has been assigned to “Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment”, Delhi University. The center has been preparing EIA and EMP reports, which will be submitted to MOEF, Government of India, for environmental clearance of the project. Provisional forest clearance has been accorded by MOEF, Government of India. Proposal for Environment clearance is to be sent to MOEF Government of India by H.P.Govt. 9) GEOLOGY The Project lies within lesser Himalayan terrain and will be housed within competent metamorphic rocks of Chamba formation consisting of varied rock types viz. greenish grey/ phyllites /slates, phyllite quartzite and quartzite. The Dhauladhar granites occur as apophasis within Chamba formation.
  • 31. 10) BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT The project will generate 104.53 MU annually in 90% dependable year, which will be fed to northern grid. Beneficiary States are Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Chandigarh, Delhi, Rajasthan & Uttaranchal. 12% free power will be supplied to the home state Himachal Pradesh. The area in and around the project will immensely be benefited due to widening of PWD road from Bagga to Kharamukh. After completion of three major bridges over river Ravi at Dunali, Gehra and Durgathi, the right bank of the river Ravi which is totally cut off due to inaccessibility will get a big boost to its economy and socio-economic conditions of the local people in the area will undergo a major upliftment.