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Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production

Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production

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Deterioration causes of crop varieties
and their control; Maintenance of
Genetic Purity during seed Production
Dr. B.A.Badiger
Assistant Professor of SST
COA,Hanumanamati
The main aim of seed production is to produce
genetically pure and good quality seed.
Variety: Is a group of plants having clear
distinguished characters which when reproduced
either sexually or asexually retains these
characters
Introduction
Factors responsible for loss of genetic purity
(kadam ., 1942)
 Developmental Variation
 Mechanical Mixtures
 Mutations
 Natural Crossing
 Genetic drift
 Minor Genetic Variation
 Selective influence of
Diseases
 Techniques of the
Breeder
 Breakdown of male
sterility
 Improper / defective
seed certification System
Developmental Variation:
 Seed crop is grown in difficult environmental
conditions
 For several consecutive generations the
developmental variations may arise as
differential growth response.
To avoid or minimize such developmental
variations the variety should always be grown in
adaptable area
2. Mechanical Mixtures:
a. Contamination through field – self sown seed or
volunteer plants
b. Seed drill – if same seed drill is used for sowing
2 or 3 varieties
c. Carrying 2 different varieties adjacent to each
other.
d. Growing 2 different varieties adjacent to each
other.
e. Threshing floor
f. Combine or threshers
g. Bags or seed bins
h. During seed processing
it would be necessary to rogue the seed fields at
different stages of crop growth
Mutations:
It is not of much importance as the
occurrence of spontaneous mutations
is very low i.e. 10-7.
If any visible mutations are observed
they should be removed by rouging.

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Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production

  • 1. Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production Dr. B.A.Badiger Assistant Professor of SST COA,Hanumanamati
  • 2. The main aim of seed production is to produce genetically pure and good quality seed. Variety: Is a group of plants having clear distinguished characters which when reproduced either sexually or asexually retains these characters Introduction
  • 3. Factors responsible for loss of genetic purity (kadam ., 1942)  Developmental Variation  Mechanical Mixtures  Mutations  Natural Crossing  Genetic drift  Minor Genetic Variation  Selective influence of Diseases  Techniques of the Breeder  Breakdown of male sterility  Improper / defective seed certification System
  • 4. Developmental Variation:  Seed crop is grown in difficult environmental conditions  For several consecutive generations the developmental variations may arise as differential growth response. To avoid or minimize such developmental variations the variety should always be grown in adaptable area
  • 5. 2. Mechanical Mixtures: a. Contamination through field – self sown seed or volunteer plants b. Seed drill – if same seed drill is used for sowing 2 or 3 varieties c. Carrying 2 different varieties adjacent to each other. d. Growing 2 different varieties adjacent to each other. e. Threshing floor f. Combine or threshers g. Bags or seed bins h. During seed processing it would be necessary to rogue the seed fields at different stages of crop growth
  • 6. Mutations: It is not of much importance as the occurrence of spontaneous mutations is very low i.e. 10-7. If any visible mutations are observed they should be removed by rouging.
  • 7. Natural Crossing: • It is an important source of contamination in sexually propagated crops due to introgression of genes from unrelated stocks/genotypes. • The extent of contamination depends upon the amount of natural cross-fertilization • natural crossing is main source of contamination in cross-fertilized or often cross-fertilized crops. • The extent of genetic contamination depends on breeding system of the species, isolation distance, varietal mass and pollinating agent. To overcome the problem of natural crossing isolation distance has to be maintained.
  • 8. Genetic drift: When seed is multiplied in large areas only small quantities of seed is taken and preserved for the next years sowing. Because of such sub-sampling all the genotypes will not be represented in the next generation and leads to change in genetic composition. This is called as genetic drift.
  • 9. Minor Genetic variation  Some minor genetic changes may occur during production cycles due to difference in environment.  Due to these changes in the yields may be affected.  To avoid such minor genetic variations periodic testing of the varieties must be done from breeder’s seed and nucleus seed in self-pollinated crops.  minor genetic variation is a common feature in often cross- pollinated species; therefore care should be taken during maintenance of nucleus and breeder seed.
  • 10. Selective influence of Disease: • In case of foliar diseases the size of the seed gets affected due to poor supply of carbohydrates from infected photosynthetic tissue. • In case of seed and soil borne diseases like downy mildew and ergot of Jowar, smut of bajra and bunt of wheat, it is dangerous to use seeds for commercial purpose once the crop gets infected. • New crop varieties may often become susceptible to new races of diseases and that leads to these varieties may become out of seed production programms. (Proper plant protection - major pests and diseases)
  • 11. Techniques of the Breeder • Instability may occur in a variety due to genetic irregularities if it is not properly assessed at the time of release. • Premature release of a variety, which has been breed for particular disease, leads to the production of resistant and susceptible plants which may be an important cause of deterioration. – When sonalika and kalyan sona wheat varieties were released in India for commercial cultivation the genetic variability in both the varieties was still in flowing stage and several secondary selections were made by the breeders.
  • 12. Breakdown of male sterility: Generally in hybrid seed production if there is any breakdown of male sterility in may lead to a mixture of F1 hybrids Improper Seed Certification It is not a factor that deteriorates the crops varieties, but if there is any lacuna in any of the above factors and if it has not been checked it may lead to deterioration of crop varieties.
  • 13. Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production Horne (1953) had suggested the following methods for maintenance of genetic purity; 1. Use of approved seed in seed multiplication 2. Inspection of seed fields prior to planting 3. Field inspection and approval of the Crop at critical stages for verification of genetic purity, detection of mixtures, weeds and seed borne diseases. 4. Sampling and sealing of cleaned lots 5. Growing of samples with authentic stocks or Grow-out test
  • 14. Steps suggested by Hartman and Kestar (1968) for maintaining genetic purity 1. Providing isolation to prevent cross fertilization or mechanical mixtures 2. Rouging of seed fields prior to planting 3. Periodic testing of varieties for genetic purity 4. Grow in adapted areas only to avoid genetic shifts in the variety 5. Certification of seed crops to maintain genetic purity and quality 6. Adopting generation system
  • 15. Safe guards for maintenance of genetic purity 1. Control of seed source : 2. Preceding crop requirement 3. Isolation 4. Rouging of seed fields 5. Seed certification 6. Grow out test
  • 16. Control of Seed Source  Appropriate class from the approved source for raising a seed crop.  There are four classes of seed from breeder seed, which are given and defined by Association of Official Seed Certification agency (AOSCA). – Nucleus Seed: – Breeder Seed : – Foundation Seed: – Certified seed
  • 17. Scheme showing cultivar breeding , maintenance and multiplication in India
  • 18. Preceding Crop requirement : This has been fixed to avoid contamination through volunteer plants and also the soil borne diseases.
  • 19. Isolation : • Isolation is required to avoid natural crossing with other undesirable types, off types in the fields and mechanical mixtures at the time of sowing, threshing, processing and contamination due to seed borne diseases from nearby fields. • Protection from these sources of contamination is necessary for maintaining genetic purity and good quality of seed.
  • 20. Rouging of Seed Fields: The existence of off type plants is another source of genetic contamination. Off type plants differing in their characteristics from that of the seed crop are called as off types. Removal of off types is referred to as roughing
  • 21. The main sources of off types a. Segregation of plants for certain characters or mutations b. Volunteer plants from previous crops or c. Accidentally planted seeds of other variety d. Diseased plants Off type plants should be rouged out from the seed plots before they shed pollen and pollination occurs. To accomplish this regular supervision of trained personnel is required.
  • 22. Seed Certification:  The main objective of seed certification is to make available seeds of good quality to farmers.  To achieve this qualified and trained personnel from SCA carry out field inspections at appropriate stages of crop growth.  They also make seed inspection by drawing samples from seed lots after processing.  The SCA verifies for both filed and seed standards and the seed lot must confirm to get approval as certified seed.
  • 23. Grow-out Test  Varieties that are grown for seed production should be periodically tested for genetic purity by conducting GOT to make sure that they are being maintained in true form.  GOT test is compulsory for hybrids produced by manual emasculation and pollination and for testing the purity of parental lines used in hybrid seed production.