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CHAPTER –FIRE
      SAFETY
THREE ELEMENT OF FIRE
FUEL
Fuel is substance or material that will
 combine with oxygen in the presence of
 heat and burn as a result
Source :gases/liquid/gas
Compound: Hydrogen and Carbon (can
 oxidized)
Must mix with air in order to burn
HEAT
Absorbed   by substance when it is
 converted from a solid to a liquid, from
 liquid to gas
The source of heat : overhead electrical
 wiring, boiler, chimney, open flame,
 electrical heater, hotplate etc.
Most substance will burn only after the
 solid/liquid fuel has been vaporized or
 decomposed by heat to produce gas
OXYGEN
Oxygen   is odorless, tasteless and
 colorless gas
Air contain 21% oxygen, a fire require
 16% to burn
It is most difficult element to control in
 order to prevent fire.
CLASS OF FIRE
CLASS A
Class A –
Ordinary Combustible Solids
-   Fire that caused by solid,
    combustible material

-   Example:
-   Wood, paper, cloth, plastic, rubber
CLASS B
Class B – Flammable &
   Combustible Liquids
 Fire that is cause by
flammable liquid or liquefiable solid or
   combustible gasses

-   Example:
-   Petrol, oil, kerosene, thinner,
    alcohol
CLASS C
Class C – Flammable Gases

    Fire that cause by energized
    electrical, or chemical, equipment   or
     gases/ liquefiable gases resulted   by
     spillage/ leakage

-    Example:
-    LPG, Gas Butane, Methane, Hydrogen
CLASS D
Class D – Combustible Metals



Fire which cause by combustible,
   extinguishing metal

-   Example:
-   Magnesium, Aluminium,Sodium
CLASS E
Class E – Electrical Fires

   Fire which cause by electrical
    material, electrical device, short
    circuit

-   Example:
-   Plug, Computer, Switchboard
CLASS F
Class F – Cooking Oils and Fats

   Fire cause by cooking activity

-   Example:
-   Cooking Oil,Fat
FIRE SAFETY PLAN
INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY
               PLAN
Must include:
1. Identification of the significant fire
   hazard

2.   Procedures for recognizing and reporting
     unsafe conditions

3.   Alarm procedures
INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY
               PLAN
Must include:
4. Procedures for notifying employees of a
   fire emergency

5.   Procedures for notifying fire response
     organizations of a fire emergency

6.   Procedures for evacuation
INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY
           PLAN
Must include:
7. Procedures to account for all employees
   after an evacuation

8. Names, job titles, or departments for
   individuals who can be contacted for
   further information about the plan.
EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES
1.   The employer must review the plan with
     each employee at the following times :

       I) Upon initial assignment for new
     employees; and

       II) When the actions the employee
     must take under the plan change
     because of a change in duties or a
     change in the plan
EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES
2. Keep the plan accessible to   employees,
   employee representatives,     and OSHA

3. Review and update the plan whenever
   necessary. Employees have been informed
   about the plan as required

4. Ensure any outside fire response organization
    that the employer expects to respond to fires at
    the employer's worksite has been given a copy
    of the current plan.
SAMPLE OF FIRE SAFETY PLAN
FIRE CONTROL METHOD
METHOD
The methods used to extinguish a fire, once
   started, fall into two classes:

1.   deprive the fire of oxygen and

2.   cool the fire below the ignition temperature

3.   Most fire extinguishers operate by excluding
     oxygen from the site of combustion
CONTAIN OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER
1.   Portable fire extinguishers contain CO2

2.   dry chemical extinguishers contain
     nitrogen

3.   water and foam extinguishers typically
     use air
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER

     A small, disposable sodium
     bicarbonate dry chemical unit intended
     for home kitchen use

     A typical dry chemical extinguisher
     containing 5 lbs. of ammonium
     phosphate dry chemical.
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER

     A 20lb.U.S.Navy cartridge-operated
     purple-K dry chemical (potassium
     bicarbonate) extinguisher
TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL
Powder

Powder  based agent that extinguishes by
 separating the four parts of the fire
 tetrahedron.

Itprevents the chemical reaction between
 heat, fuel and oxygen and halts the
 production of fire sustaining "free-
 radicals", thus extinguishing the fire.
TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL
Foam

Foams  are sprayed on fires to exclude air.
  The foam is generated in the extinguisher
 using water and a foaming agent.

The  most type in portable foam
 extinguisher is aqueous film forming
 foam.
TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL
Water

Airpressurized water cool burning
 material by absorbing heat. (cool burning
 material)

Water  Mist uses a fine misting nozzle to
 break up a stream of deionized water to
 the point of not conducting electricity back
 to the operator
TYPES OF WET CHEMICAL
Antifreeze  Chemicals added to water to
 lower its freezing point to about −40 °F.
 Has no appreciable effect on extinguishing
 performance.

Wet   Chemical (potassium acetate,
 carbonate, or citrate) extinguishes the fire
 by forming a soapy foam blanket over the
 burning oil and by cooling the oil below its
 ignition temperature.
CO2 AND CLEAN AGENT
Such  extinguishers spray a cloud of CO2
 particles, which convert to gas and
 blanket the area, excluding oxygen

Other systems to exclude oxygen use
 nitrogen gas or Freon.

CO2,  a clean gaseous agent which
 displaces oxygen. the high-pressure cloud
 of gas can scatter burning materials
STEP TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
1. Pull the Pin at the top of the extinguisher

2. Aim at the base of the fire

3. Squeeze the lever slowly

4. Sweep from side to side

5.Call 999 (if required)
METHODS OF
EXTINGUISHING
CLASS A
Method   to extinguishing fire are using :

1.Water

2.Dry chemical

3.Carbon dioxide
CLASS B
Method    to extinguishing fire are :

1.foam,   dry chemical

2. carbon dioxide

3. Powder

4.Water Spray/Light Water/Vaporizing Liquid

5.Use foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder
CLASS C
Method    to extinguishing fire are :

1.Carbon dioxide, dry powder, carbon
 dioxide agent

2. foam, dry powder in
CLASS D,E,F
Method   to extinguishing fire are :

Class D - Use   heat absorbing medium that
 are reactive   with the burning metal

Class E -Dry Chemical and carbon dioxide

Class F – Wet Chemical and carbon dioxide
FIRE PROTECTION METHOD
PREVENTION METHODS
1.Provide adequate fire appliances, fire
 hydrants & other facilities to assist fire &
 rescue personnel

2. Provide adequate fixed installation,
 where appropriate, for quick & effective
 detection & extinguishment of fires
PREVENTION METHODS
3. Designing & installing building services
 so that they do no assist the spread
 of fire, smoke or toxic fumes

4. Designing & providing adequate and
 safe escape routes for the occupants
 of the building
PREVENTION METHODS
5. Selecting materials for the construction
 which will not promote the rapid spread of
 fire or generate dangerous smoke

6. Subdividing buildings into compartments
 of reasonable sizes by means of fire
 resisting walls & floors, providing fire
 stops to protect openings between floors
 & compartments
PREVENTION METHODS
7. Designing & constructing the exterior of
 a building so that fire is unlikely to spread
 to it from another burning building
FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAM
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Smoking

Activity:

1.Prohibit smoking in all area
2.Clearly marked smoking area and display
 sign
3. Proper handling and disposal match
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Equipment

Activity:

 Equipment   should be selected to fit the need of
  job.
 2.Equipment approved by government standard
 3.provision for safe storage and handling fuel.
  Provision for safe disposal for all waste
 Training for personal
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Documentation

Activity:

prepare    standard operating procedure
 (SOP)
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Housekeeping

Activity:

1.provide good housekeeping program
2. Minimize accumulation of waste
3.Provide safe container for all flammable
 and combustion substance
CAUSE & ACTIVITY
Cause:
Chemical Flammable Liquid

Activity:

1.avoid use highly flammable liquid
2. All flammable liquid kept in closed safety container
3.limit the supply of flammable liquid
4.provide SOP for all hazardous and critical process
5.Provide adequate ventilation
6.Safety disposal of flammable liquid
7.Provide substance for cleaning spillage/leakages
8.Prohibit smoking
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Structural Design and fire extinguisher

Activity:

1. use incombustible roof, sparks arrester,
  insulator of combustible
2.Provide housekeeping to avoid accumulation of
  fuel
3.Provide fire extinguisher
4.Provide periodic maintenance
5.Provide SOP
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Source of Ignition

Activity:

1.must have proper lubrication and
 maintenance for friction of machine
2.hot surface must be cooled down
3.Electrical arcing must be monitor and check
CAUSE & ACTIVITY

Cause:
Fuel

Activity:
1. Amount of fuel should be kept to
 minimum
2.Constant monitoring
FIRE PREVENTION
   EQUIPMENT
SMOKE DETECTOR

 Function:   to warn occupants of a fire in time
   for them to leave the building and seek safety
   away from the burning structure.
 Benefit : you will receive warning in the event
   of a fire
 Type:
1. ion smoke detector -uses a radioactive source
   to detect smoke.
2. use a radioactive source to create an electrical
   circuit. Breaking the circuit causes the alarm to
   go off
HEAT DETECTOR

Photoelectric  cell detected the emission of
 infrared/uv radiation from the fire
The radiation produces an electrical
 current.
Tiny amounts of smoke, even if invisible,
 disrupt the production of the current,
 setting off the alarm. Thus, detectors
 using this system respond quickly, even to
 fires that do not produce much smoke.
FLAMMABLE GAS DETECTOR

Function:  used to give early warning of
 leaks from plant containing flammable
 gases or vapors, or for monitoring
 concentrations of such gases and vapors
 within plant
Benefit: useful where there is the
 possibility of a leak
If a specified gas concentration or set
 point is exceeded, the detector system
 should trigger an alarm.
HUMAN DETECTOR
Through  surveillance, inspection,
 rounding, patrol serves as early as fire
 detection system

Incase of the fire, the number to call is
 999, it is recommended to have the
 number of the Jabatan Bomba
ALARM SYSTEM
An  automatic fire alarm system is
 designed to detect the unwanted presence
 of fire by monitoring environmental
 changes associated with combustion

A fire alarm system will indicate a FIRE
 EMERGENCY requiring immediate action.
 The system shall alert all occupants of a
 building where it is installed when a fire
 emergency is present.
SPRINKLER
The use of sprinkle is to:
a.To detect, control and extinguish a fire


b. To warn the occupants of the occurrence
 of fire
HOSE REEL SYSTEM
intended  for the occupant to use during
 the early stages of fire
Hose reel:
a. 30mcoverage of each hose reel
b. One hose reel for every 800sq.mof
 usable floor space
c. Located along escape routes or besides
 exit doors or staircase
Fire safety

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Fire safety

  • 3. FUEL Fuel is substance or material that will combine with oxygen in the presence of heat and burn as a result Source :gases/liquid/gas Compound: Hydrogen and Carbon (can oxidized) Must mix with air in order to burn
  • 4. HEAT Absorbed by substance when it is converted from a solid to a liquid, from liquid to gas The source of heat : overhead electrical wiring, boiler, chimney, open flame, electrical heater, hotplate etc. Most substance will burn only after the solid/liquid fuel has been vaporized or decomposed by heat to produce gas
  • 5. OXYGEN Oxygen is odorless, tasteless and colorless gas Air contain 21% oxygen, a fire require 16% to burn It is most difficult element to control in order to prevent fire.
  • 7. CLASS A Class A – Ordinary Combustible Solids - Fire that caused by solid, combustible material - Example: - Wood, paper, cloth, plastic, rubber
  • 8. CLASS B Class B – Flammable & Combustible Liquids  Fire that is cause by flammable liquid or liquefiable solid or combustible gasses - Example: - Petrol, oil, kerosene, thinner, alcohol
  • 9. CLASS C Class C – Flammable Gases  Fire that cause by energized electrical, or chemical, equipment or gases/ liquefiable gases resulted by spillage/ leakage - Example: - LPG, Gas Butane, Methane, Hydrogen
  • 10. CLASS D Class D – Combustible Metals Fire which cause by combustible, extinguishing metal - Example: - Magnesium, Aluminium,Sodium
  • 11. CLASS E Class E – Electrical Fires  Fire which cause by electrical material, electrical device, short circuit - Example: - Plug, Computer, Switchboard
  • 12. CLASS F Class F – Cooking Oils and Fats  Fire cause by cooking activity - Example: - Cooking Oil,Fat
  • 14. INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY PLAN Must include: 1. Identification of the significant fire hazard 2. Procedures for recognizing and reporting unsafe conditions 3. Alarm procedures
  • 15. INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY PLAN Must include: 4. Procedures for notifying employees of a fire emergency 5. Procedures for notifying fire response organizations of a fire emergency 6. Procedures for evacuation
  • 16. INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY PLAN Must include: 7. Procedures to account for all employees after an evacuation 8. Names, job titles, or departments for individuals who can be contacted for further information about the plan.
  • 17. EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES 1. The employer must review the plan with each employee at the following times : I) Upon initial assignment for new employees; and II) When the actions the employee must take under the plan change because of a change in duties or a change in the plan
  • 18. EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES 2. Keep the plan accessible to employees, employee representatives, and OSHA 3. Review and update the plan whenever necessary. Employees have been informed about the plan as required 4. Ensure any outside fire response organization that the employer expects to respond to fires at the employer's worksite has been given a copy of the current plan.
  • 19. SAMPLE OF FIRE SAFETY PLAN
  • 21. METHOD The methods used to extinguish a fire, once started, fall into two classes: 1. deprive the fire of oxygen and 2. cool the fire below the ignition temperature 3. Most fire extinguishers operate by excluding oxygen from the site of combustion
  • 22. CONTAIN OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER 1. Portable fire extinguishers contain CO2 2. dry chemical extinguishers contain nitrogen 3. water and foam extinguishers typically use air
  • 23. TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER A small, disposable sodium bicarbonate dry chemical unit intended for home kitchen use A typical dry chemical extinguisher containing 5 lbs. of ammonium phosphate dry chemical.
  • 24. TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER A 20lb.U.S.Navy cartridge-operated purple-K dry chemical (potassium bicarbonate) extinguisher
  • 25. TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL Powder Powder based agent that extinguishes by separating the four parts of the fire tetrahedron. Itprevents the chemical reaction between heat, fuel and oxygen and halts the production of fire sustaining "free- radicals", thus extinguishing the fire.
  • 26. TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL Foam Foams are sprayed on fires to exclude air. The foam is generated in the extinguisher using water and a foaming agent. The most type in portable foam extinguisher is aqueous film forming foam.
  • 27. TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL Water Airpressurized water cool burning material by absorbing heat. (cool burning material) Water Mist uses a fine misting nozzle to break up a stream of deionized water to the point of not conducting electricity back to the operator
  • 28. TYPES OF WET CHEMICAL Antifreeze Chemicals added to water to lower its freezing point to about −40 °F. Has no appreciable effect on extinguishing performance. Wet Chemical (potassium acetate, carbonate, or citrate) extinguishes the fire by forming a soapy foam blanket over the burning oil and by cooling the oil below its ignition temperature.
  • 29. CO2 AND CLEAN AGENT Such extinguishers spray a cloud of CO2 particles, which convert to gas and blanket the area, excluding oxygen Other systems to exclude oxygen use nitrogen gas or Freon. CO2, a clean gaseous agent which displaces oxygen. the high-pressure cloud of gas can scatter burning materials
  • 30. STEP TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 1. Pull the Pin at the top of the extinguisher 2. Aim at the base of the fire 3. Squeeze the lever slowly 4. Sweep from side to side 5.Call 999 (if required)
  • 32. CLASS A Method to extinguishing fire are using : 1.Water 2.Dry chemical 3.Carbon dioxide
  • 33. CLASS B Method to extinguishing fire are : 1.foam, dry chemical 2. carbon dioxide 3. Powder 4.Water Spray/Light Water/Vaporizing Liquid 5.Use foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder
  • 34. CLASS C Method to extinguishing fire are : 1.Carbon dioxide, dry powder, carbon dioxide agent 2. foam, dry powder in
  • 35. CLASS D,E,F Method to extinguishing fire are : Class D - Use heat absorbing medium that are reactive with the burning metal Class E -Dry Chemical and carbon dioxide Class F – Wet Chemical and carbon dioxide
  • 37. PREVENTION METHODS 1.Provide adequate fire appliances, fire hydrants & other facilities to assist fire & rescue personnel 2. Provide adequate fixed installation, where appropriate, for quick & effective detection & extinguishment of fires
  • 38. PREVENTION METHODS 3. Designing & installing building services so that they do no assist the spread of fire, smoke or toxic fumes 4. Designing & providing adequate and safe escape routes for the occupants of the building
  • 39. PREVENTION METHODS 5. Selecting materials for the construction which will not promote the rapid spread of fire or generate dangerous smoke 6. Subdividing buildings into compartments of reasonable sizes by means of fire resisting walls & floors, providing fire stops to protect openings between floors & compartments
  • 40. PREVENTION METHODS 7. Designing & constructing the exterior of a building so that fire is unlikely to spread to it from another burning building
  • 42. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Smoking Activity: 1.Prohibit smoking in all area 2.Clearly marked smoking area and display sign 3. Proper handling and disposal match
  • 43. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Equipment Activity:  Equipment should be selected to fit the need of job.  2.Equipment approved by government standard  3.provision for safe storage and handling fuel. Provision for safe disposal for all waste  Training for personal
  • 45. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Housekeeping Activity: 1.provide good housekeeping program 2. Minimize accumulation of waste 3.Provide safe container for all flammable and combustion substance
  • 46. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Chemical Flammable Liquid Activity: 1.avoid use highly flammable liquid 2. All flammable liquid kept in closed safety container 3.limit the supply of flammable liquid 4.provide SOP for all hazardous and critical process 5.Provide adequate ventilation 6.Safety disposal of flammable liquid 7.Provide substance for cleaning spillage/leakages 8.Prohibit smoking
  • 47. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Structural Design and fire extinguisher Activity: 1. use incombustible roof, sparks arrester, insulator of combustible 2.Provide housekeeping to avoid accumulation of fuel 3.Provide fire extinguisher 4.Provide periodic maintenance 5.Provide SOP
  • 48. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Source of Ignition Activity: 1.must have proper lubrication and maintenance for friction of machine 2.hot surface must be cooled down 3.Electrical arcing must be monitor and check
  • 49. CAUSE & ACTIVITY Cause: Fuel Activity: 1. Amount of fuel should be kept to minimum 2.Constant monitoring
  • 50. FIRE PREVENTION EQUIPMENT
  • 51. SMOKE DETECTOR  Function: to warn occupants of a fire in time for them to leave the building and seek safety away from the burning structure.  Benefit : you will receive warning in the event of a fire  Type: 1. ion smoke detector -uses a radioactive source to detect smoke. 2. use a radioactive source to create an electrical circuit. Breaking the circuit causes the alarm to go off
  • 52. HEAT DETECTOR Photoelectric cell detected the emission of infrared/uv radiation from the fire The radiation produces an electrical current. Tiny amounts of smoke, even if invisible, disrupt the production of the current, setting off the alarm. Thus, detectors using this system respond quickly, even to fires that do not produce much smoke.
  • 53. FLAMMABLE GAS DETECTOR Function: used to give early warning of leaks from plant containing flammable gases or vapors, or for monitoring concentrations of such gases and vapors within plant Benefit: useful where there is the possibility of a leak If a specified gas concentration or set point is exceeded, the detector system should trigger an alarm.
  • 54. HUMAN DETECTOR Through surveillance, inspection, rounding, patrol serves as early as fire detection system Incase of the fire, the number to call is 999, it is recommended to have the number of the Jabatan Bomba
  • 55. ALARM SYSTEM An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion A fire alarm system will indicate a FIRE EMERGENCY requiring immediate action. The system shall alert all occupants of a building where it is installed when a fire emergency is present.
  • 56. SPRINKLER The use of sprinkle is to: a.To detect, control and extinguish a fire b. To warn the occupants of the occurrence of fire
  • 57. HOSE REEL SYSTEM intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of fire Hose reel: a. 30mcoverage of each hose reel b. One hose reel for every 800sq.mof usable floor space c. Located along escape routes or besides exit doors or staircase