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Anatomy of female
pelvis
Mohammad tailakh
Fetal Head
Diameters
FETAL HEAD
 The head is the largest and least compressible part of the fetus. Thus, from
an obstetric point of view , it is the most important part, whether the
presentation is cephalic or breech.
 The fetal skull consists of a base and a vault (the cranium). The base of the
skull has large, ossified, firmly united, and non-compressible bones. This
serves to protect the vital structures contained within the brain stem and its
spinal connections
Fetal head
 The cranium consists of the
occipital bone posteriorly, two
parietal bones bilaterally, and
two frontal and temporal bones
anteriorly. The cranial bones at
birth are thin, weakly ossified,
easily compressible, and
interconnected only by
membranes. These features
allow them to overlap under
pressure and to change shape to
conform to the maternal pelvis,
a process known as molding.
Sutures
 The membrane-occupied spaces between the cranial bones are known as
sutures. The sagittal suture lies between the parietal bones and extends in
an anteroposterior direction between the fontanelles, dividing the head into
right and left sides
 The lambdoidal suture extends from the posterior fontanelle laterally and
serves to separate the occipital from the parietal bones.
 The coronal suture extends from the anterior fontanelle laterally and serves
to separate the parietal and frontal bones.
 The frontal suture lies between the frontal bones and extends from the
anterior fontanelle to the glabella (the prominence between the eyebrows).
landmarks
 Moving from front to back, they include the following
 1. Nasion (the root of the nose)
 2. Glabella (the elevated area between the orbital ridges)
 3. Sinciput (brow) (the area between the anterior fontanelle and the glabella)
 4. Anterior fontanelle (bregma)—diamond shaped
 5. Vertex (the area between the fontanelles and bounded laterally by the parietal
eminences)
 6. Posterior fontanelle (lambda)—Y or T shaped
 7. Occiput (the area behind and inferior to the posterior fontanelle and lambdoid
sutures)
Diameters
 The anteroposterior diameter
 1. Suboccipitobregmatic (9.5 cm),
the presenting anteroposterior
diameter when the head is well
flexed, as in an occipitotransverse
or occipitoanterior position, it
extends from the undersurface of
the occipital bone at the junction
with the neck to the center of the
anterior fontanelle.
diameters
 2. Occipitofrontal (11 cm),
the presenting
anteroposterior diameter
when the head is deflexed,
as in an occipitoposterior
presentation, it extends
from the external occipital
protuberance to the
glabella .
diameters
 3. Supraoccipitomental
(13.5 cm), the presenting
anteroposterior diameter
in a brow presentation
and the longest
anteroposterior diameter
of the head, it extends
from the vertex to the
chin .
diameters
 4. Submentobregmatic
(9.5 cm), the presenting
anteroposterior diameter
in face presentations it
extends from the junction
of the neck and lower jaw
to the center of the
anterior fontanelle.
 The transverse diameters of the fetal skull
are :
 1. Biparietal (9.5 cm), the largest
transverse diameter; it extends
between the parietal bones.
 2. Bitemporal (8 cm), the shortest
transverse diameter; it extends
between the temporal bones.
 The average circumference of the term
fetal head, measured in the
occipitofrontal plane, is 34.5 cm.
THANK YOU

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Fetal head diameters

  • 3. FETAL HEAD  The head is the largest and least compressible part of the fetus. Thus, from an obstetric point of view , it is the most important part, whether the presentation is cephalic or breech.  The fetal skull consists of a base and a vault (the cranium). The base of the skull has large, ossified, firmly united, and non-compressible bones. This serves to protect the vital structures contained within the brain stem and its spinal connections
  • 4. Fetal head  The cranium consists of the occipital bone posteriorly, two parietal bones bilaterally, and two frontal and temporal bones anteriorly. The cranial bones at birth are thin, weakly ossified, easily compressible, and interconnected only by membranes. These features allow them to overlap under pressure and to change shape to conform to the maternal pelvis, a process known as molding.
  • 5. Sutures  The membrane-occupied spaces between the cranial bones are known as sutures. The sagittal suture lies between the parietal bones and extends in an anteroposterior direction between the fontanelles, dividing the head into right and left sides  The lambdoidal suture extends from the posterior fontanelle laterally and serves to separate the occipital from the parietal bones.  The coronal suture extends from the anterior fontanelle laterally and serves to separate the parietal and frontal bones.  The frontal suture lies between the frontal bones and extends from the anterior fontanelle to the glabella (the prominence between the eyebrows).
  • 6.
  • 7. landmarks  Moving from front to back, they include the following  1. Nasion (the root of the nose)  2. Glabella (the elevated area between the orbital ridges)  3. Sinciput (brow) (the area between the anterior fontanelle and the glabella)  4. Anterior fontanelle (bregma)—diamond shaped  5. Vertex (the area between the fontanelles and bounded laterally by the parietal eminences)  6. Posterior fontanelle (lambda)—Y or T shaped  7. Occiput (the area behind and inferior to the posterior fontanelle and lambdoid sutures)
  • 8.
  • 9. Diameters  The anteroposterior diameter  1. Suboccipitobregmatic (9.5 cm), the presenting anteroposterior diameter when the head is well flexed, as in an occipitotransverse or occipitoanterior position, it extends from the undersurface of the occipital bone at the junction with the neck to the center of the anterior fontanelle.
  • 10. diameters  2. Occipitofrontal (11 cm), the presenting anteroposterior diameter when the head is deflexed, as in an occipitoposterior presentation, it extends from the external occipital protuberance to the glabella .
  • 11.
  • 12. diameters  3. Supraoccipitomental (13.5 cm), the presenting anteroposterior diameter in a brow presentation and the longest anteroposterior diameter of the head, it extends from the vertex to the chin .
  • 13. diameters  4. Submentobregmatic (9.5 cm), the presenting anteroposterior diameter in face presentations it extends from the junction of the neck and lower jaw to the center of the anterior fontanelle.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.  The transverse diameters of the fetal skull are :  1. Biparietal (9.5 cm), the largest transverse diameter; it extends between the parietal bones.  2. Bitemporal (8 cm), the shortest transverse diameter; it extends between the temporal bones.  The average circumference of the term fetal head, measured in the occipitofrontal plane, is 34.5 cm.