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Epitaxial Deposition
MANIT BHOPAL
1
MEMS
ABHISHEK SINGH
222116611
2
Epitaxy
 The term Epitaxy comes from the
Greek word meaning ‘ordered
upon’.
 Epitaxy means the growth of a
single crystal film on top of a
crystalline substrate.
 For most thin film applications
(hard and soft coatings, optical
coatings, protective coatings) it is
of little importance.
 However, for semiconductor thin
film technology it is crucial.
3
Homoepitaxy:
 The film and the substrate are the same material.
 Often used in Si on Si growth (A on A)
 Epitaxially grown layers are purer than the substrate and can be doped
independently of it.
Types of Epitaxy
Heteroepitaxy:
 Film and substrate are different materials.(Growth of AlAs on Si or GaAs
on Si).
 Trying to grow a layer of a different material on top of a substrate leads to
unmatched lattice parameters.
 This will cause strained or relaxed growth and can lead to interfacial
defects.
 Such deviations from normal would lead to changes in the electronic,
optic, thermal and mechanical properties of the films.
 Allows for optoelectronic structures and band gap engineered devices.
4
Ordered, crystalline growth
Epitaxial growth
Epitaxial Growth
NOT epitaxial
 High Quality Film (1μm or less
thickness) deposited on a high
quality substrate.
 To ensure high crystalline quality,
the lattice parameters of the thin
layer should match with that of the
substrate (to minimize strain).
5
 While Si is not the ideal material from an electronic and optical point of view, its
abundance, ease of processing and availability of a good native oxide have made it
the backbone of semiconductor industry.
 Combining Si substrates with compound semiconductor films would enable higher
optoelectronic functionality and higher speeds. However, there are severe lattice
mismatch and chemical compatibility issues between Si and most III-V alloys that
preclude direct growth.
 Metal-Semiconductor Hetero-epitaxy: Metal-semiconductor structures are used for
contact applications. While not essential, epitaxial growth allows increased electron
mobility through a junction.
 Epitaxial growth is useful for applications that place stringent demands on a
deposited layer:
 High purity, Low defect density, Abrupt interfaces, Controlled doping profiles
 High repeatability and uniformity, Safe, efficient operation
 Can create clean, fresh surface for device fabrication
Why Epitaxial Growth
6
 Engineered wafers
 Clean, flat layer on top of less ideal
Si substrate
 On top of SOI structures
 Ex.: Silicon on sapphire
 Higher purity layer on lower quality
substrate (SiC)
 In CMOS structures
 Layers of different doping
 Ex. p- layer on top of p+ substrate to
avoid latch-up
Why Epitaxial Growth
 To make layer which is not available in nature
 Very important in III-V semiconductor production
 Bipolar Transistor (Needed to produce buried layer)
 III-V Devices (Interface quality key, Hetero-junction
Bipolar Transistor, LED, Laser).
7
Steps:
 Absorption of ad atoms
 Surface diffusion
 Crystal growth
 Evaporation of adatoms
Parameters:
 Growth temperature
 Growth pressure
 Flow amount of reactants
 Substrate and treatment
Epitaxial Growth Steps & Parameters
8
Scheme of Epitaxial Deposition
9
Epitaxial Deposition Techniques
Epitaxial growth can be performed at temperatures
considerably below the melting point of the substrate crystal.
A variety of methods are used to provide the appropriate
atoms to the surface of the growing layer.
 Vapor Phase Epitaxy/Chemical vapor deposition (grown
from Vapor)
 Liquid phase epitaxy (grown from a Melt)
 Molecular beam epitaxy (an evaporation of the elements in
a Vacuum)
With this wide range of epitaxial growth techniques, it is
possible to grow a variety of crystals for device applications,
having properties specifically designed for the electronic and
optoelectronic device being made.
10
Liquid Phase Epitaxy
 Reactants are dissolved in a molten solvent at high temperature
 Substrate dipped into solution while the temperature is held
constant
 Example: SiGe on Si
 Bismuth used as solvent
 Temperature held at 800°C
 High quality layer
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
 Very promising technique
 Beams created by evaporating solid source in UHV
 Not ideal for large area layers or abrupt interfaces
 Thermodynamic driving force relatively very low
Epitaxial Deposition Techniques
11
 MOMBE---means when Metel Organic Source used for MBE
 Sputtering---the layer quality is very poor. Thus it is used for making
contact with the help of metal related source.
 HVPE---Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy
 Pulse laser Deposition (PLD)
 Reactive Evaporation
 Electron Beam Plasma Technique
 Solvo thermal Method
Epitaxial Deposition Techniques
*Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications of all these
techniques are very much important. Please collect all the
information……………….
12
Techniques Strengths Weaknesses
LPE (liguid phase epitaxy) Simple, High purity Scale economies Inflexible,
Non-uniformity
HVPE( hydride vapor
phase epitaxy)
Well developed Large scale No Al alloys Complex
process/reactor control difficult,
Hazardous sources
MBE Simple process, Uniform,
Abrupt interface In-situ
monitoring
As/P alloy difficult, Expensive ,
Low throughput
MOCVD/OMVPE/OMCVD
MOVPE
Most flexible, Large scale
production Abrupt interface
Simple reactor, High purity,
selective in situ monitoring
Expensive sources Most
parameters to control Accurately
Hazardous precursors
Overview of Epitaxy Techniques

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epitaxy deposition.ppt

  • 2. 2 Epitaxy  The term Epitaxy comes from the Greek word meaning ‘ordered upon’.  Epitaxy means the growth of a single crystal film on top of a crystalline substrate.  For most thin film applications (hard and soft coatings, optical coatings, protective coatings) it is of little importance.  However, for semiconductor thin film technology it is crucial.
  • 3. 3 Homoepitaxy:  The film and the substrate are the same material.  Often used in Si on Si growth (A on A)  Epitaxially grown layers are purer than the substrate and can be doped independently of it. Types of Epitaxy Heteroepitaxy:  Film and substrate are different materials.(Growth of AlAs on Si or GaAs on Si).  Trying to grow a layer of a different material on top of a substrate leads to unmatched lattice parameters.  This will cause strained or relaxed growth and can lead to interfacial defects.  Such deviations from normal would lead to changes in the electronic, optic, thermal and mechanical properties of the films.  Allows for optoelectronic structures and band gap engineered devices.
  • 4. 4 Ordered, crystalline growth Epitaxial growth Epitaxial Growth NOT epitaxial  High Quality Film (1μm or less thickness) deposited on a high quality substrate.  To ensure high crystalline quality, the lattice parameters of the thin layer should match with that of the substrate (to minimize strain).
  • 5. 5  While Si is not the ideal material from an electronic and optical point of view, its abundance, ease of processing and availability of a good native oxide have made it the backbone of semiconductor industry.  Combining Si substrates with compound semiconductor films would enable higher optoelectronic functionality and higher speeds. However, there are severe lattice mismatch and chemical compatibility issues between Si and most III-V alloys that preclude direct growth.  Metal-Semiconductor Hetero-epitaxy: Metal-semiconductor structures are used for contact applications. While not essential, epitaxial growth allows increased electron mobility through a junction.  Epitaxial growth is useful for applications that place stringent demands on a deposited layer:  High purity, Low defect density, Abrupt interfaces, Controlled doping profiles  High repeatability and uniformity, Safe, efficient operation  Can create clean, fresh surface for device fabrication Why Epitaxial Growth
  • 6. 6  Engineered wafers  Clean, flat layer on top of less ideal Si substrate  On top of SOI structures  Ex.: Silicon on sapphire  Higher purity layer on lower quality substrate (SiC)  In CMOS structures  Layers of different doping  Ex. p- layer on top of p+ substrate to avoid latch-up Why Epitaxial Growth  To make layer which is not available in nature  Very important in III-V semiconductor production  Bipolar Transistor (Needed to produce buried layer)  III-V Devices (Interface quality key, Hetero-junction Bipolar Transistor, LED, Laser).
  • 7. 7 Steps:  Absorption of ad atoms  Surface diffusion  Crystal growth  Evaporation of adatoms Parameters:  Growth temperature  Growth pressure  Flow amount of reactants  Substrate and treatment Epitaxial Growth Steps & Parameters
  • 9. 9 Epitaxial Deposition Techniques Epitaxial growth can be performed at temperatures considerably below the melting point of the substrate crystal. A variety of methods are used to provide the appropriate atoms to the surface of the growing layer.  Vapor Phase Epitaxy/Chemical vapor deposition (grown from Vapor)  Liquid phase epitaxy (grown from a Melt)  Molecular beam epitaxy (an evaporation of the elements in a Vacuum) With this wide range of epitaxial growth techniques, it is possible to grow a variety of crystals for device applications, having properties specifically designed for the electronic and optoelectronic device being made.
  • 10. 10 Liquid Phase Epitaxy  Reactants are dissolved in a molten solvent at high temperature  Substrate dipped into solution while the temperature is held constant  Example: SiGe on Si  Bismuth used as solvent  Temperature held at 800°C  High quality layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy  Very promising technique  Beams created by evaporating solid source in UHV  Not ideal for large area layers or abrupt interfaces  Thermodynamic driving force relatively very low Epitaxial Deposition Techniques
  • 11. 11  MOMBE---means when Metel Organic Source used for MBE  Sputtering---the layer quality is very poor. Thus it is used for making contact with the help of metal related source.  HVPE---Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy  Pulse laser Deposition (PLD)  Reactive Evaporation  Electron Beam Plasma Technique  Solvo thermal Method Epitaxial Deposition Techniques *Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications of all these techniques are very much important. Please collect all the information……………….
  • 12. 12 Techniques Strengths Weaknesses LPE (liguid phase epitaxy) Simple, High purity Scale economies Inflexible, Non-uniformity HVPE( hydride vapor phase epitaxy) Well developed Large scale No Al alloys Complex process/reactor control difficult, Hazardous sources MBE Simple process, Uniform, Abrupt interface In-situ monitoring As/P alloy difficult, Expensive , Low throughput MOCVD/OMVPE/OMCVD MOVPE Most flexible, Large scale production Abrupt interface Simple reactor, High purity, selective in situ monitoring Expensive sources Most parameters to control Accurately Hazardous precursors Overview of Epitaxy Techniques