SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 72
Download to read offline
David NEWBERY
BSc (Hons)
Environmental Sciences
                         ENVIRONMENTAL
Secretary:               MANAGEMENT
Friends of Hoi Ha
                         AND PRACTICE IN
                         THE RURAL NEW
                         TERRITORIES
                         (An Examination of
                         Democracy and the
                         Rule of Law)
• Friends of Hoi Ha.

• Competing Interests & Pressures in the Rural New Territories.

• Management.

• Convention on Bio-Diversity.

• Planning.

• Small House Policy.

• Enforcement.

• Democracy.

• Solutions.

• Conclusions.

• Questions?
WHERE IS THIS?
FRIENDS OF HOI HA
   Small group initially set up 10 years ago to improve the
    management of Hoi Ha Marine Park.
   Has since grown to encompass environmental and planning issues
    within Sai Kung Country Park.
   Has gone beyond the “gweilos against development” label.
   Has built up a large network of advisors from the local community,
    in Government and experts in various fields (including Prof.
    Maxwell).
   Works closely with other environmental groups, such as Friends of
    Sai Kung, Civic Exchange, Designing Hong Kong etc.
   Lobbies and argues for improved Environmental Planning and
    Governance in the Rural New Territories.
   Currently working to ensure that the Town Planning Board makes
    sensible decisions with regard to the zoning of Hoi Ha Development
    Permission Area.
Competing Interests in the
Rural New Territories
 CountryParks (for Conservation and
 Recreation)
 MarineParks (“There is a need to protect
 and conserve the marine environment for
 the purposes of Conservation, Education
 and Recreation) – AFCD website
 Village
        Enclaves ( Villages, some of them
 unoccupied, surrounded by Country or
 Marine Parks)
Competing Pressures
Pollution
Tourism
Recreation
Development
Small   House Policy
MANAGEMENT
   No Published Management Plans for Country
    and Marine Parks – only maps.
   Development-led approach to land
    management.
   “Ring Fencing” of Government Departmental
    Responsibilities. Example 1 - Sewage
   Government looks for loopholes in its own
    legislation. Example 2 - Street Lights
   Government Officials desperate not be seen to
    have made a mistake.
Convention on Bio-Diversity
Signed by Hong Kong in 2012.

Requires:

   National Strategies.
   Environmentally sound and sustainable
    development in areas adjacent to protected
    areas.
   Reporting of plans and measures taken for
    implementation of Convention.
   Subject to international audit.
PLANNING
       There is
         ZERO
effective planning in
    the rural New
      Territories
WHY?
 Applications          for development under the
  Small House Policy are not subject to
  normal planning rules.
 Developers and indigenous villagers
  cheat, exploit loopholes and break the
  Law. Example 3 - Pak Sha O
 Measures designed to improve planning
  are ineffective. Example 4 - HH DPA
CHOICES:




           HOI HA
PAK SHA O
OR:




      TSENG TAU
SAI KENG
WHAT IS PLANNING?
 Proactively designating land suitable for
  development.
 Balancing the needs of the environment
  and human activities.
 Balancing the needs of various
  stakeholders.
 Assessing Infrastructure needs.
 Developing holistic solutions.
 Making a:
PLAN
SMALL HOUSE POLICY
 Outdated.
 An  Administrative Procedure not a Right.
 A “Legitimate Expectation”?
 Intended as a Short-Term Measure.
 Mired in Corruption and Illegality.
 Housing not required by most applicants.
 Responsible for Environmental destruction.
   Few Applications obey Letter and Intent of
    Policy.
   Huge amounts of money involved ≈ HK$10
    million each.
   Responsible for ugly ruination of many NT
    villages.
   Has become, effectively, a free hand-out
    of money to Indigenous Villagers.
   Has little to do with providing housing.
   Responsible for Social Strife.
   Overseen by Heung Yee Kuk. Example 5 - HYK
ENFORCEMENT
The rule of law does not
 exist in the rural New
        Territories
EXAMPLES
 Open    selling of “Ding Rights”
 Environmental Destruction Example 6 - To Kwa Peng
 Intimidation Example 7 - Car Parking Example 8 - Intimidation
 Extortion Example 9 - Extortion
 Illegal Dumping Example 10 - Dumping
 Collusion of Government Example 11 - Tree Cutting
 Government Failure to Follow-Up Illegal
  Activities
 Government Indifference
RESULT
Prosecution Rate and Scale of Punishments
are no Deterrent to Illegal Acts.

Many New Territories Indigenous Villagers
consider themselves to be

              ABOVE THE LAW
DEMOCRACY
Despite changes in NT Village Demographics

   NEW TERRITORIES RURAL POLITICS IS
COMPLETELY DOMINATED BY THE INDIGENOUS
        AND THE HEUNG YEE KUK
VILLAGE ELECTIONS
Now 2 Village representatives:

 Indigenous   Village Representative

 Resident   Village Representative
WHY HAS DEMOCRATISATION
FAILED?
   Eligibility – have to live in village for 3 years
    whereas 30 days for other HK elections.
   Only open to Permanent HKID Card holders.
   No checks of credentials – only if individual
    makes a specific complaint – retribution?
   Electoral officials show favouritism to
    Indigenous and allow Indigenous who do not
    have a “sole or main home” in the village to
    vote. Example 12 - Election
END RESULT?
 Voices   of Non-Indigenous majority are not
 heard.
 Indigenouscompletely control NT politics,
 and social development.
 Small   House Policy dominates NT Planning.
SOLUTIONS
                        EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE

   Government departments working together to develop and
    implement holistic solutions.
   Sensitive areas put under unitary control.
   Rule of Law extended to New Territories.
   Electoral Ordinance amended to provide better representation.
   Environmental crime appropriately punished.
   All “Enclaves” made DPAs or incorporated within Country Parks.
   Small House Policy Repealed.
   Country and Marine Parks given more than the statutory minimum
    protection.
Interim Solutions for Small
House Policy
 Enforce  Spirit and Intent of Policy.
 Revert to prohibition of sale within 5 years
  of building.
 Consider “Land Swaps”.
 Consider flats in NT New Towns to meet
  genuine housing needs.
CONCLUSIONS
   Environmental Management is absent from the rural NT.
   “One Country, 2 Laws”.
   Democracy is absent from the rural NT.
   Government is Reactive and should be Pro-active.
   Government Departments incapable of working in
    consort.
   Small House Policy must be reformed.
   Long Term Plans required for NT villages in sensitive
    areas.
   Environmental Laws must be strengthened and
    enforced.
   Enclaves should be DPAs and developments frozen.
DECISIONS MADE CONCERNING AREAS
    SUCH AS HOI HA HAVE HUGE
 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF THE
COUNTRY AND MARINE PARKS AND THE
     STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING IN HONG
              KONG.
       WE MUST GET IT RIGHT!
CRUCIAL FACTORS
PLANNING


ENFORCEMENT


SMALL   HOUSE POLICY
Example 1
Hoi Ha Sewage Treatment
•   No Sewage disposal system in Hoi Ha village, adjacent to Hoi Ha Marine Park.
•   “Grey Water” flows directly into the Wan.
•   Sewage “treated’ by septic tanks.
•   Inadequately treated sewage enters Hoi Ha Marine Park, which is
    administered by AFCD.
•   AFDC does not oppose new building because the applications are not “in” the
    Marine Park.
•   EPD does not oppose building because waters of Hoi Ha conform to single
    water quality standard in HK.
•   EPD does not inform planners of Hoi Ha Wan’s status as an SSSI, which
    requires a 100 metre spacing between a septic tank and a SSSI as stipulated
    by the Water Pollution Control Ordinance.
•   Tai Po District Council considers Hoi Ha to be too small to warrant a sewage
    treatment facility (ignoring visitors).
•   Planners (LandsD and TPB) assess every application individually and do not
    assess cumulative impacts.

Result:

     Pollution of Hoi Ha Wan is increasing as buildings proliferate and
                    environmental damage is inevitable.
Example 2
Street Lights in Sai Kung Country
Park
• Street Lights were placed on the single road running through the
  middle of Sai Kung Country Park.
• This road is in a Restricted Area and less than 10 vehicles per hour
  use the road during darkness.
• Studies in N America, Europe and Australasia show that street
  lighting decreases road safety on rural roads and should be confined
  to areas such as junctions.
• Street lighting has a significant effect on animals and insects and
  affects their behaviour and migratory patterns.
• Sai Kung Country Park is one of the few areas in HK where you can
  clearly see the stars.
• Under the Country and Marine parks Ordinance, the scheme should
  have been subject to an EIA.
• The EIA was avoided because EPD signed-off the project as:


              “MINOR UNDERGROUND CABLING WORKS”.
Example 3
Pak Sha O
• Beautiful “fortified” village of largely intact old Hakka houses
  which have been restored and cared for by mainly expatriate
  families over a number of years. Surrounded by Country Park
  (an “enclave”) and not accessible by road.
• Old paddy fields surrounding the village became an ecologically
  important wetland with many rare and interesting plants,
  animals and insects.
• Farming land has been bought by a developer.

• Indigenous are about to apply for village houses under the SHP.

• Expatriates are not having leases renewed.

• Wetland has been drained and plants totally destroyed on the
  pretext of “farming”.
• Obvious intention is to destroy the old village and build a large
  complex of “village-type” houses in place of the old houses and
  covering the wetland.



• Pak Sha O deserves conservation and preservation for the people
  of Hong Kong but Government is actively assisting developers
  who wish to destroy this area purely for commercial gain.
LETTERS IN SCMP:

Historic Pak Sha O must be preserved

Hong Kong's best conserved village, Pak Sha O, has been targeted by a
developer.
Green groups warn that if the government doesn't take action to stop
further work, this historic village with its unspoiled natural habitat will
face destruction. I strongly agree with the arguments being put forward
by these groups.
I think this village should be zoned to ensure protection of its heritage
and ecological features.
It is a thriving habitat for many species, some of which are rare, and I
am concerned that if there is further development, we might lose the
endangered species.
Extensive development work can put at risk the entire ecosystem.
Also, this is a well-preserved Hakka village and is therefore a unique
part of Hong Kong's past and traditions.
It is not easy to find similar buildings that have been restored. I do not
want to see this place turned into high-rises and shopping malls.
I really hope the government will act to protect this precious village, so
that future generations can enjoy it.

Valerie Suen, Tai Wai
Threat of losing village unacceptable

The words of Cat Stevens' 1970 song Where do the Children
Play? could perhaps be adopted as the anthem for saving what is left
of Hong Kong's natural beauty.
Hong Kong has indeed come a long way, we are changing day to day,
but tell us, Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying, where do the children
play?
The threat of losing Pak Sha O, home to 75 species of butterflies as
well as numerous other animals, including rare and endangered
species such as the Chinese softshell turtle and the hauntingly
beautiful eagle owl, is simply unacceptable.
Built by the Hakka, Hong Kong's indigenous villagers, Pak Sha O
represents our unique history. Allowing it to fall victim to development
reflects an administration more in tune with corporate profit than
community improvement.
Pak Sha O must be saved; it is Hong Kong's memory.

Mark Peaker, The Peak
Example 4
Hoi Ha DPA
• There was a public outcry over plans to build a large housing
  complex along the shoreline at Hoi Ha by a Japanese developer.

• Village and surrounds of Hoi Ha were designated a Development
  Permission Area in 2011, the intention being to “zone” the area,
  delineating land uses and to publish an Outline Zoning Plan (OZP)
  in 2013.

• This should have been the means by which a
  comprehensive plan for Hoi Ha could be drawn up, taking
  into account:

   o Conservation needs
   o Tourism needs
   o Residents’ needs
   o Demand for development
DRAFT HABITAT MAP OF HOI HA
DRAFT ZONING PROPOSALS
However, the Town Planning Board has the right to consider
    individual applications and assess them on individual merit before
    the publishing of the OZP. The result:

       • In the 17 years before the DPA was gazetted, there were a
         total of 6 new houses built at Hoi Ha.

       • Since the gazetting of the DPA in 2011, there have been 32
         applications for building at Hoi Ha – there is a rush to get
         applications approved before the zoning comes in to force,
         which might, in future, prohibit building in the approved
         locations.

       • Applications are being approved before the zoning of the DPA
         has been fixed and without assessing the cumulative
         environmental and social impact of the new developments.

       • The imposition of the DPA has increased the number of
         applications for Small Houses – the Indigenous Village
         representative has told the TPB that there is a demand for 85
         small Village Houses at Hoi Ha (Hoi Ha presently has about
         30 houses).
•
• The TPB is assessing a zoning plan without any assessment of
  the ownership of the land – whether any future developments
  will be private or under the SHP.



• The TPB is making no assessment of and has no control over
  the number of Small Houses which will be applied for or
  approved in the future.
Example 5
Heung Yee Kuk
•   Originally the New Territories “Triad”.

•   Legalised by the Colonial Government.

•   Legitimised in Post-Colonial times by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance
    (CAP 1097).


•   Preamble:


     o “…a constitution so framed as to ensure that it will as far as
       possible be truly representative of informed and responsible
       opinion in the New Territories.”


•   Part III – Functions of the Kuk


     o a. To promote and develop mutual co-operation and
       understanding among the people of the New Territories.
     o b. To promote and develop co-operation and understanding
       between the Government and the people of the New Territories.
     o c. To advise the Government on social and economic
       developments in the interests of the welfare and prosperity of the
       people of the new Territories………
Note:

•   According to the Ordinance, the Kuk exists to further the interests of “the
    people of the New Territories”.

•   This implies that Residence in the New Territories is more important than
    Ethnicity.

•   The word “Indigenous” does not appear in the Ordinance.

In Practice:

•   The HYK only puts forward views of “Indigenous” Villagers - irrespective of
    whether or not they live in the New Territories.

•   The majority of Indigenous people now live elsewhere in HK or
    abroad.

•   The Kuk exists almost exclusively to make money for Indigenous Villagers.

•   Cultural and heritage values do not feature in HYK deliberations (unless linked
    to monetary compensation).

•   What is the HYK’s opinion of the potential destruction of Pak Sha O?
Example 6
To Kwa Peng
• Developer buys land in and around abandoned village of To Kwa
  Peng, which is an “enclave” surrounded by Sai Kung Country
  Park.
• Village is in an area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, on the coast
  and has a large mangrove area (mangroves are not protected in
  HK).
• Village is inaccessible by road, so developer plans to build illegal
  road.
• Developer puts in application to build 37 houses.
• Application is rejected, partly on the grounds that the abandoned
  houses are home for bats (bats are protected in HK).
• Developer demolishes the remains of the houses, displacing the
  bats.
• Developer re-applies for planning permission for 37 houses.
• The application is presently pending.
  Irrespective of whether or not the Government applies its
     policy of not rewarding the “trashing” of areas, the
       environmental damage has already been caused.
Example 7
Car Parking
• “New” villagers (7th generation Hong Kong Chinese) refuse to pay
  indigenous villagers for car parking on Government land.


• Car is vandalised.


• Couple receive death threats – razor blades put in the post.
Example 8
Intimidation
• Indigenous villager believes, wrongly, that a non-indigenous villager is
  objecting to his application for a Small House.

• IV (who has a criminal record for violent crime) mounts an
  intimidation campaign consisting of:

    o Waking up family at 4 o’clock in the morning by banging gongs
      and drums and shouting obscenities outside bedroom window.
    o Following villager around the village, shouting obscenities and
      threatening to kill her, whilst preventing the victim from talking to
      anyone in the village.
    o Spreading false rumours around the village.


• Criminal Intimidation?

• Police are called on several occasions, video of the incidents are
  provided as evidence.

• Court bounds the IV to keep the peace for a year for the offence of
  illegally playing a musical instrument.
Example 9
Extortion
• New couple (Chinese) move into NT village.


• Huge pile of bricks is dumped in front of their house.


• Person demands HK$20,000 to remove the bricks.
Example 10
Illegal Dumping
• Indigenous villager illegally demolishes his house and dumps the
  rubble on Government land at the side of the village.
• Residents call the Police who witness the dumping.

• IV is served a summons from the District Council.

• IV tears up the summons in front of the District Officers.

• IV rebuilds his house, again, without permission.

• Government place sign on the pile of rubble stating “No
  Dumping Allowed”.
Example 11
Tree Cutting
• Numerous trees are cut down on Government land in a village
  preparatory to a planning application.

• Destruction is witnessed by residents and Police called.

• Photographs of workers destroying trees are taken.

• Police stop activities and take details and ID Card numbers of
  contractors.

• Contractors have map provided by the developer showing the trees
  to be destroyed.

• Police make a report which specifies 6 mature trees being
  demolished on Government land.

• Police pass details to AFCD to initiate prosecution.

• AFCD alters report to show only 2 trees, both within 1.5 metres of
  private land, being destroyed and passes report to DoJ.

• DoJ decides not to prosecute.
Environmental management and practice in the rural New Territories
Environmental management and practice in the rural New Territories

More Related Content

What's hot

Kota Malang Green City
Kota Malang Green CityKota Malang Green City
Kota Malang Green CityDias Satria
 
Woodside Residential Design Guidelines
Woodside Residential Design GuidelinesWoodside Residential Design Guidelines
Woodside Residential Design GuidelinesJim Kaskade
 
Resilient Parks & Open Space in the Southwest
Resilient Parks & Open Space in the SouthwestResilient Parks & Open Space in the Southwest
Resilient Parks & Open Space in the SouthwestDekker/Perich/Sabatini
 
Green Spaces in urban settings.
Green Spaces in urban settings.Green Spaces in urban settings.
Green Spaces in urban settings.Paskal Wanda
 
Green Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and Sustainable
Green Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and SustainableGreen Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and Sustainable
Green Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and SustainableJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Park Design for Community Health & Wellbeing
Park Design for Community Health & WellbeingPark Design for Community Health & Wellbeing
Park Design for Community Health & WellbeingDekker/Perich/Sabatini
 
01 Intro-Background
01 Intro-Background01 Intro-Background
01 Intro-BackgroundJill Watkins
 
Regenerative Building Design
Regenerative Building DesignRegenerative Building Design
Regenerative Building Designcolinro
 
Schematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah city
Schematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah citySchematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah city
Schematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah cityAlexander Decker
 
9/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 1
9/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 19/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 1
9/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 1APA Florida
 
Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces
Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces
Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces Owusu Dennis
 
Creating Healthier Environments for Teaching & Learning
Creating Healthier Environments for Teaching & LearningCreating Healthier Environments for Teaching & Learning
Creating Healthier Environments for Teaching & LearningDekker/Perich/Sabatini
 
Green cities concept in urban design
Green cities concept in urban designGreen cities concept in urban design
Green cities concept in urban designAmit Pokharel
 

What's hot (20)

Kota Malang Green City
Kota Malang Green CityKota Malang Green City
Kota Malang Green City
 
Smart Forest City
Smart Forest City Smart Forest City
Smart Forest City
 
Woodside Residential Design Guidelines
Woodside Residential Design GuidelinesWoodside Residential Design Guidelines
Woodside Residential Design Guidelines
 
Espacio Libre Urbano - Conferencia 04-03-2014 PUJ
Espacio Libre Urbano - Conferencia 04-03-2014 PUJ Espacio Libre Urbano - Conferencia 04-03-2014 PUJ
Espacio Libre Urbano - Conferencia 04-03-2014 PUJ
 
Slums
SlumsSlums
Slums
 
Resilient Parks & Open Space in the Southwest
Resilient Parks & Open Space in the SouthwestResilient Parks & Open Space in the Southwest
Resilient Parks & Open Space in the Southwest
 
Green Spaces in urban settings.
Green Spaces in urban settings.Green Spaces in urban settings.
Green Spaces in urban settings.
 
Green Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and Sustainable
Green Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and SustainableGreen Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and Sustainable
Green Spaces making cities happy, Healthy and Sustainable
 
Eco-City Action Plan
Eco-City Action PlanEco-City Action Plan
Eco-City Action Plan
 
Park Design for Community Health & Wellbeing
Park Design for Community Health & WellbeingPark Design for Community Health & Wellbeing
Park Design for Community Health & Wellbeing
 
Smart forest cities
Smart forest cities Smart forest cities
Smart forest cities
 
Green city
Green city Green city
Green city
 
01 Intro-Background
01 Intro-Background01 Intro-Background
01 Intro-Background
 
Regenerative Building Design
Regenerative Building DesignRegenerative Building Design
Regenerative Building Design
 
Schematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah city
Schematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah citySchematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah city
Schematic analysis of the green areas in al hillah city
 
9/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 1
9/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 19/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 1
9/8 THUR 14:30| Green Elements and Sustainable Codes 1
 
Slums
SlumsSlums
Slums
 
Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces
Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces
Sustainable Policies for Public Open Spaces
 
Creating Healthier Environments for Teaching & Learning
Creating Healthier Environments for Teaching & LearningCreating Healthier Environments for Teaching & Learning
Creating Healthier Environments for Teaching & Learning
 
Green cities concept in urban design
Green cities concept in urban designGreen cities concept in urban design
Green cities concept in urban design
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (14)

Blight of 'temporary' (1982) refuse facilities in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
Blight of 'temporary' (1982) refuse facilities in Causeway Bay, Hong KongBlight of 'temporary' (1982) refuse facilities in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
Blight of 'temporary' (1982) refuse facilities in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
 
Temporary facilities
Temporary facilitiesTemporary facilities
Temporary facilities
 
Site selection & layout planning shikarimartin
Site selection & layout planning shikarimartinSite selection & layout planning shikarimartin
Site selection & layout planning shikarimartin
 
114 site layout-health and safety
114 site layout-health and safety114 site layout-health and safety
114 site layout-health and safety
 
113 site layout design
113 site layout design113 site layout design
113 site layout design
 
Construction Management - New Trends
Construction Management - New TrendsConstruction Management - New Trends
Construction Management - New Trends
 
Site Planning
Site PlanningSite Planning
Site Planning
 
Site analysis
Site analysis Site analysis
Site analysis
 
Site planning
Site planningSite planning
Site planning
 
Site planning
Site planningSite planning
Site planning
 
Site Analysis
Site AnalysisSite Analysis
Site Analysis
 
ACH 216 Lecture 06 (Pre Construction Planning)
ACH 216 Lecture 06 (Pre Construction Planning)ACH 216 Lecture 06 (Pre Construction Planning)
ACH 216 Lecture 06 (Pre Construction Planning)
 
Site planning kevin lynch
Site planning kevin lynchSite planning kevin lynch
Site planning kevin lynch
 
Site Analysis
Site AnalysisSite Analysis
Site Analysis
 

Similar to Environmental management and practice in the rural New Territories

Re imagining rural land use policy
Re imagining rural land use policyRe imagining rural land use policy
Re imagining rural land use policyruralfringe
 
LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptx
LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptxLAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptx
LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptxMACASUSIGLAIZAMAEA
 
Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)
Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)
Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)a95osksj
 
Public Awareness and Environmental conservatin
Public Awareness and Environmental conservatinPublic Awareness and Environmental conservatin
Public Awareness and Environmental conservatinAlok Yadav
 
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...Iwl Pcu
 
03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton
03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton
03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John LawtonNAAONB landscapesforlife
 
YLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skies
YLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skiesYLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skies
YLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skiesInstitution of Lighting Professionals
 
Sustainable closter initative update
Sustainable closter initative   updateSustainable closter initative   update
Sustainable closter initative updateCharles Graham
 
NCAC Comments on COSE
NCAC Comments on COSENCAC Comments on COSE
NCAC Comments on COSEAmanda Rice
 
Society, government and environment chapter 3
Society, government and environment chapter 3Society, government and environment chapter 3
Society, government and environment chapter 3Nayan Vaghela
 
Top Ideas for Environment and Biodiversity
Top Ideas for Environment and BiodiversityTop Ideas for Environment and Biodiversity
Top Ideas for Environment and BiodiversityCopenhagen_Consensus
 
PPT presentation ESIAF1.pptx
PPT presentation ESIAF1.pptxPPT presentation ESIAF1.pptx
PPT presentation ESIAF1.pptxyonas513377
 
Case study report
Case study reportCase study report
Case study reportMyke Evans
 
Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe
Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe
Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe BSBEtalk
 
Change and nz_s_future_jan_22
Change and nz_s_future_jan_22Change and nz_s_future_jan_22
Change and nz_s_future_jan_22Nigel McTaptik
 

Similar to Environmental management and practice in the rural New Territories (20)

Re imagining rural land use policy
Re imagining rural land use policyRe imagining rural land use policy
Re imagining rural land use policy
 
The State of Philippine Environment
The State of Philippine EnvironmentThe State of Philippine Environment
The State of Philippine Environment
 
LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptx
LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptxLAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptx
LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT .pptx
 
Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)
Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)
Michael B Ef D Meeting Presentation (3 Nov 2008)
 
Public Awareness and Environmental conservatin
Public Awareness and Environmental conservatinPublic Awareness and Environmental conservatin
Public Awareness and Environmental conservatin
 
EcoIndustrialParks
EcoIndustrialParksEcoIndustrialParks
EcoIndustrialParks
 
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
A Dominican Republic Case: Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the U...
 
03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton
03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton
03 - NAAONB Conference 2012 - Making Space for Nature by Sir John Lawton
 
YLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skies
YLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skiesYLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skies
YLP CPD Webinar: Two expert planners talk about lighting and dark skies
 
Sustainable closter initative update
Sustainable closter initative   updateSustainable closter initative   update
Sustainable closter initative update
 
NCAC Comments on COSE
NCAC Comments on COSENCAC Comments on COSE
NCAC Comments on COSE
 
Society, government and environment chapter 3
Society, government and environment chapter 3Society, government and environment chapter 3
Society, government and environment chapter 3
 
Top Ideas for Environment and Biodiversity
Top Ideas for Environment and BiodiversityTop Ideas for Environment and Biodiversity
Top Ideas for Environment and Biodiversity
 
UN Paper
UN PaperUN Paper
UN Paper
 
PPT presentation ESIAF1.pptx
PPT presentation ESIAF1.pptxPPT presentation ESIAF1.pptx
PPT presentation ESIAF1.pptx
 
Case study report
Case study reportCase study report
Case study report
 
Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe
Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe
Managing Growth on the Rural Urban Fringe
 
Change and nz_s_future_jan_22
Change and nz_s_future_jan_22Change and nz_s_future_jan_22
Change and nz_s_future_jan_22
 
New Zealand Green Plan
New Zealand Green PlanNew Zealand Green Plan
New Zealand Green Plan
 
City Panel Handout
City Panel HandoutCity Panel Handout
City Panel Handout
 

More from DesigningHongKong

Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...
Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...
Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...DesigningHongKong
 
Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...
Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...
Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...DesigningHongKong
 
Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city
Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable citySustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city
Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable cityDesigningHongKong
 
Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity
Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity
Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity DesigningHongKong
 
TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...
TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...
TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...DesigningHongKong
 
Preliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong Kong
Preliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong KongPreliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong Kong
Preliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong KongDesigningHongKong
 
創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站
創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站 創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站
創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站 DesigningHongKong
 
Designing Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrations
Designing Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrationsDesigning Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrations
Designing Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrationsDesigningHongKong
 
CitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKUCitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKUDesigningHongKong
 
CitySpeak XIII - Edward leung Aedas
CitySpeak XIII - Edward leung AedasCitySpeak XIII - Edward leung Aedas
CitySpeak XIII - Edward leung AedasDesigningHongKong
 
CitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKUCitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKUDesigningHongKong
 
CitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMT
CitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMTCitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMT
CitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMTDesigningHongKong
 
CitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCAD
CitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCADCitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCAD
CitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCADDesigningHongKong
 
CitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic University
CitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic UniversityCitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic University
CitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic UniversityDesigningHongKong
 
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies Department
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies DepartmentCity Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies Department
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies DepartmentDesigningHongKong
 
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKOCity Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKODesigningHongKong
 
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUST
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUSTCity Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUST
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUSTDesigningHongKong
 
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of Alstom
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of AlstomCity Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of Alstom
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of AlstomDesigningHongKong
 

More from DesigningHongKong (20)

Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...
Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...
Elena Galli Giallini left Japan after she collected these scary images of rad...
 
Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...
Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...
Round 3 of Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong. A study by the Hong Kong Trans...
 
Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city
Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable citySustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city
Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city
 
Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity
Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity
Kai Tak - A wasted planning opportunity
 
TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...
TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...
TD response on list of missing and sub standard pedestrian links in Southern ...
 
步行尖沙咀
 步行尖沙咀  步行尖沙咀
步行尖沙咀
 
Walking in Tsim Sha Tsui
Walking in Tsim Sha TsuiWalking in Tsim Sha Tsui
Walking in Tsim Sha Tsui
 
Preliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong Kong
Preliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong KongPreliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong Kong
Preliminary Analysis of Potential Sites for New Boat Clubs in Hong Kong
 
創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站
創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站 創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站
創建香港: 尖沙咀天星碼頭巴士總站
 
Designing Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrations
Designing Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrationsDesigning Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrations
Designing Kong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui terminus design illustrations
 
CitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKUCitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Lee Hoyin HKU
 
CitySpeak XIII - Edward leung Aedas
CitySpeak XIII - Edward leung AedasCitySpeak XIII - Edward leung Aedas
CitySpeak XIII - Edward leung Aedas
 
CitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKUCitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKU
CitySpeak XIII - Juan Du HKU
 
CitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMT
CitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMTCitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMT
CitySpeak XIII - Henry Rolph PMT
 
CitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCAD
CitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCADCitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCAD
CitySpeak XIII - Bob Dickensheet SCAD
 
CitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic University
CitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic UniversityCitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic University
CitySpeak XII: The Water We Drink - Carlos Lo of Polytechnic University
 
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies Department
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies DepartmentCity Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies Department
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: LT Ma of Water Supplies Department
 
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKOCity Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO
City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO
 
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUST
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUSTCity Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUST
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Simon Ng of HKUST
 
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of Alstom
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of AlstomCity Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of Alstom
City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Pascal Dupont of Alstom
 

Recently uploaded

Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdfDigital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdfOnecity
 
如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样
在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样
在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样ykucop
 
BIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic design
BIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic designBIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic design
BIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic designKhushiGandhi15
 
一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理
一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理
一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理thubko
 
iF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythree
iF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythreeiF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythree
iF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythreeCarlgaming1
 
And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)
And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)
And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)☕ 🥧 🚲 Martin Gude
 
Real Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptx
Real Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptxReal Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptx
Real Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptxArindamMookherji1
 
如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质
挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质
挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质yzeoq
 
NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...
NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...
NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...Amil baba
 
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
Eric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-IN
Eric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-INEric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-IN
Eric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-INEric Parein
 
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
CADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdf
CADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdfCADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdf
CADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdfDuyDo100
 
Top 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptx
Top 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptxTop 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptx
Top 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptxe-Definers Technology
 
Onyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets Durability
Onyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets DurabilityOnyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets Durability
Onyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets DurabilityTracy Lipscomb
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdfDigital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
 
如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(ArtEZ毕业证书)ArtEZ艺术学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样
在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样
在线购买田纳西大学毕业证(utk毕业证)硕士学历证书留信网认证原版一模一样
 
BIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic design
BIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic designBIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic design
BIT Khushi gandhi project.pdf graphic design
 
一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理
一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理
一模一样英国德比大学毕业证(derby毕业证书)本科学历-国外大学文凭办理
 
iF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythree
iF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythreeiF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythree
iF_Design_Trend_Report_twentytwenrythree
 
And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)
And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)
And that's about to change! (Service Design Drinks Berlin May 2024)
 
Real Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptx
Real Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptxReal Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptx
Real Smart Art Infographics by Slidesgo.pptx
 
如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCL毕业证书)伦敦大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质
挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质
挂科办理天主教大学毕业证成绩单一模一样品质
 
NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...
NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...
NO1 Best Best Amil In Rawalpindi Bangali Baba In Rawalpindi jadu tona karne w...
 
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UAL毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UB毕业证书)纽约州立大学水牛城分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
Eric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-IN
Eric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-INEric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-IN
Eric Parein CV. Parein in English is best pronounced as PARE-IN
 
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
CADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdf
CADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdfCADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdf
CADD 141 - BIRD Scooter - Cup Holder Photos.pdf
 
Top 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptx
Top 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptxTop 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptx
Top 10 Website Designing Hacks for Beginners.pptx.pptx
 
Onyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets Durability
Onyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets DurabilityOnyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets Durability
Onyx Tiles Where Elegance Meets Durability
 

Environmental management and practice in the rural New Territories

  • 1. David NEWBERY BSc (Hons) Environmental Sciences ENVIRONMENTAL Secretary: MANAGEMENT Friends of Hoi Ha AND PRACTICE IN THE RURAL NEW TERRITORIES (An Examination of Democracy and the Rule of Law)
  • 2. • Friends of Hoi Ha. • Competing Interests & Pressures in the Rural New Territories. • Management. • Convention on Bio-Diversity. • Planning. • Small House Policy. • Enforcement. • Democracy. • Solutions. • Conclusions. • Questions?
  • 4. FRIENDS OF HOI HA  Small group initially set up 10 years ago to improve the management of Hoi Ha Marine Park.  Has since grown to encompass environmental and planning issues within Sai Kung Country Park.  Has gone beyond the “gweilos against development” label.  Has built up a large network of advisors from the local community, in Government and experts in various fields (including Prof. Maxwell).  Works closely with other environmental groups, such as Friends of Sai Kung, Civic Exchange, Designing Hong Kong etc.  Lobbies and argues for improved Environmental Planning and Governance in the Rural New Territories.  Currently working to ensure that the Town Planning Board makes sensible decisions with regard to the zoning of Hoi Ha Development Permission Area.
  • 5. Competing Interests in the Rural New Territories  CountryParks (for Conservation and Recreation)  MarineParks (“There is a need to protect and conserve the marine environment for the purposes of Conservation, Education and Recreation) – AFCD website  Village Enclaves ( Villages, some of them unoccupied, surrounded by Country or Marine Parks)
  • 7. MANAGEMENT  No Published Management Plans for Country and Marine Parks – only maps.  Development-led approach to land management.  “Ring Fencing” of Government Departmental Responsibilities. Example 1 - Sewage  Government looks for loopholes in its own legislation. Example 2 - Street Lights  Government Officials desperate not be seen to have made a mistake.
  • 8. Convention on Bio-Diversity Signed by Hong Kong in 2012. Requires:  National Strategies.  Environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas.  Reporting of plans and measures taken for implementation of Convention.  Subject to international audit.
  • 9. PLANNING There is ZERO effective planning in the rural New Territories
  • 10. WHY?  Applications for development under the Small House Policy are not subject to normal planning rules.  Developers and indigenous villagers cheat, exploit loopholes and break the Law. Example 3 - Pak Sha O  Measures designed to improve planning are ineffective. Example 4 - HH DPA
  • 11. CHOICES: HOI HA
  • 13. OR: TSENG TAU
  • 15. WHAT IS PLANNING?  Proactively designating land suitable for development.  Balancing the needs of the environment and human activities.  Balancing the needs of various stakeholders.  Assessing Infrastructure needs.  Developing holistic solutions.  Making a:
  • 16. PLAN
  • 17. SMALL HOUSE POLICY  Outdated.  An Administrative Procedure not a Right.  A “Legitimate Expectation”?  Intended as a Short-Term Measure.  Mired in Corruption and Illegality.  Housing not required by most applicants.  Responsible for Environmental destruction.
  • 18. Few Applications obey Letter and Intent of Policy.  Huge amounts of money involved ≈ HK$10 million each.  Responsible for ugly ruination of many NT villages.  Has become, effectively, a free hand-out of money to Indigenous Villagers.  Has little to do with providing housing.  Responsible for Social Strife.  Overseen by Heung Yee Kuk. Example 5 - HYK
  • 19. ENFORCEMENT The rule of law does not exist in the rural New Territories
  • 20. EXAMPLES  Open selling of “Ding Rights”  Environmental Destruction Example 6 - To Kwa Peng  Intimidation Example 7 - Car Parking Example 8 - Intimidation  Extortion Example 9 - Extortion  Illegal Dumping Example 10 - Dumping  Collusion of Government Example 11 - Tree Cutting  Government Failure to Follow-Up Illegal Activities  Government Indifference
  • 21. RESULT Prosecution Rate and Scale of Punishments are no Deterrent to Illegal Acts. Many New Territories Indigenous Villagers consider themselves to be ABOVE THE LAW
  • 22. DEMOCRACY Despite changes in NT Village Demographics NEW TERRITORIES RURAL POLITICS IS COMPLETELY DOMINATED BY THE INDIGENOUS AND THE HEUNG YEE KUK
  • 23. VILLAGE ELECTIONS Now 2 Village representatives:  Indigenous Village Representative  Resident Village Representative
  • 24. WHY HAS DEMOCRATISATION FAILED?  Eligibility – have to live in village for 3 years whereas 30 days for other HK elections.  Only open to Permanent HKID Card holders.  No checks of credentials – only if individual makes a specific complaint – retribution?  Electoral officials show favouritism to Indigenous and allow Indigenous who do not have a “sole or main home” in the village to vote. Example 12 - Election
  • 25. END RESULT?  Voices of Non-Indigenous majority are not heard.  Indigenouscompletely control NT politics, and social development.  Small House Policy dominates NT Planning.
  • 26. SOLUTIONS EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE  Government departments working together to develop and implement holistic solutions.  Sensitive areas put under unitary control.  Rule of Law extended to New Territories.  Electoral Ordinance amended to provide better representation.  Environmental crime appropriately punished.  All “Enclaves” made DPAs or incorporated within Country Parks.  Small House Policy Repealed.  Country and Marine Parks given more than the statutory minimum protection.
  • 27. Interim Solutions for Small House Policy  Enforce Spirit and Intent of Policy.  Revert to prohibition of sale within 5 years of building.  Consider “Land Swaps”.  Consider flats in NT New Towns to meet genuine housing needs.
  • 28. CONCLUSIONS  Environmental Management is absent from the rural NT.  “One Country, 2 Laws”.  Democracy is absent from the rural NT.  Government is Reactive and should be Pro-active.  Government Departments incapable of working in consort.  Small House Policy must be reformed.  Long Term Plans required for NT villages in sensitive areas.  Environmental Laws must be strengthened and enforced.  Enclaves should be DPAs and developments frozen.
  • 29. DECISIONS MADE CONCERNING AREAS SUCH AS HOI HA HAVE HUGE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF THE COUNTRY AND MARINE PARKS AND THE STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING IN HONG KONG. WE MUST GET IT RIGHT!
  • 31. Example 1 Hoi Ha Sewage Treatment
  • 32. No Sewage disposal system in Hoi Ha village, adjacent to Hoi Ha Marine Park. • “Grey Water” flows directly into the Wan. • Sewage “treated’ by septic tanks. • Inadequately treated sewage enters Hoi Ha Marine Park, which is administered by AFCD. • AFDC does not oppose new building because the applications are not “in” the Marine Park. • EPD does not oppose building because waters of Hoi Ha conform to single water quality standard in HK. • EPD does not inform planners of Hoi Ha Wan’s status as an SSSI, which requires a 100 metre spacing between a septic tank and a SSSI as stipulated by the Water Pollution Control Ordinance. • Tai Po District Council considers Hoi Ha to be too small to warrant a sewage treatment facility (ignoring visitors). • Planners (LandsD and TPB) assess every application individually and do not assess cumulative impacts. Result: Pollution of Hoi Ha Wan is increasing as buildings proliferate and environmental damage is inevitable.
  • 33. Example 2 Street Lights in Sai Kung Country Park
  • 34. • Street Lights were placed on the single road running through the middle of Sai Kung Country Park. • This road is in a Restricted Area and less than 10 vehicles per hour use the road during darkness. • Studies in N America, Europe and Australasia show that street lighting decreases road safety on rural roads and should be confined to areas such as junctions. • Street lighting has a significant effect on animals and insects and affects their behaviour and migratory patterns. • Sai Kung Country Park is one of the few areas in HK where you can clearly see the stars. • Under the Country and Marine parks Ordinance, the scheme should have been subject to an EIA. • The EIA was avoided because EPD signed-off the project as: “MINOR UNDERGROUND CABLING WORKS”.
  • 36. • Beautiful “fortified” village of largely intact old Hakka houses which have been restored and cared for by mainly expatriate families over a number of years. Surrounded by Country Park (an “enclave”) and not accessible by road.
  • 37.
  • 38. • Old paddy fields surrounding the village became an ecologically important wetland with many rare and interesting plants, animals and insects.
  • 39. • Farming land has been bought by a developer. • Indigenous are about to apply for village houses under the SHP. • Expatriates are not having leases renewed. • Wetland has been drained and plants totally destroyed on the pretext of “farming”.
  • 40. • Obvious intention is to destroy the old village and build a large complex of “village-type” houses in place of the old houses and covering the wetland. • Pak Sha O deserves conservation and preservation for the people of Hong Kong but Government is actively assisting developers who wish to destroy this area purely for commercial gain.
  • 41. LETTERS IN SCMP: Historic Pak Sha O must be preserved Hong Kong's best conserved village, Pak Sha O, has been targeted by a developer. Green groups warn that if the government doesn't take action to stop further work, this historic village with its unspoiled natural habitat will face destruction. I strongly agree with the arguments being put forward by these groups. I think this village should be zoned to ensure protection of its heritage and ecological features. It is a thriving habitat for many species, some of which are rare, and I am concerned that if there is further development, we might lose the endangered species. Extensive development work can put at risk the entire ecosystem. Also, this is a well-preserved Hakka village and is therefore a unique part of Hong Kong's past and traditions. It is not easy to find similar buildings that have been restored. I do not want to see this place turned into high-rises and shopping malls. I really hope the government will act to protect this precious village, so that future generations can enjoy it. Valerie Suen, Tai Wai
  • 42. Threat of losing village unacceptable The words of Cat Stevens' 1970 song Where do the Children Play? could perhaps be adopted as the anthem for saving what is left of Hong Kong's natural beauty. Hong Kong has indeed come a long way, we are changing day to day, but tell us, Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying, where do the children play? The threat of losing Pak Sha O, home to 75 species of butterflies as well as numerous other animals, including rare and endangered species such as the Chinese softshell turtle and the hauntingly beautiful eagle owl, is simply unacceptable. Built by the Hakka, Hong Kong's indigenous villagers, Pak Sha O represents our unique history. Allowing it to fall victim to development reflects an administration more in tune with corporate profit than community improvement. Pak Sha O must be saved; it is Hong Kong's memory. Mark Peaker, The Peak
  • 43.
  • 45. • There was a public outcry over plans to build a large housing complex along the shoreline at Hoi Ha by a Japanese developer. • Village and surrounds of Hoi Ha were designated a Development Permission Area in 2011, the intention being to “zone” the area, delineating land uses and to publish an Outline Zoning Plan (OZP) in 2013. • This should have been the means by which a comprehensive plan for Hoi Ha could be drawn up, taking into account: o Conservation needs o Tourism needs o Residents’ needs o Demand for development
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51. DRAFT HABITAT MAP OF HOI HA
  • 53. However, the Town Planning Board has the right to consider individual applications and assess them on individual merit before the publishing of the OZP. The result: • In the 17 years before the DPA was gazetted, there were a total of 6 new houses built at Hoi Ha. • Since the gazetting of the DPA in 2011, there have been 32 applications for building at Hoi Ha – there is a rush to get applications approved before the zoning comes in to force, which might, in future, prohibit building in the approved locations. • Applications are being approved before the zoning of the DPA has been fixed and without assessing the cumulative environmental and social impact of the new developments. • The imposition of the DPA has increased the number of applications for Small Houses – the Indigenous Village representative has told the TPB that there is a demand for 85 small Village Houses at Hoi Ha (Hoi Ha presently has about 30 houses). •
  • 54. • The TPB is assessing a zoning plan without any assessment of the ownership of the land – whether any future developments will be private or under the SHP. • The TPB is making no assessment of and has no control over the number of Small Houses which will be applied for or approved in the future.
  • 56. Originally the New Territories “Triad”. • Legalised by the Colonial Government. • Legitimised in Post-Colonial times by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance (CAP 1097). • Preamble: o “…a constitution so framed as to ensure that it will as far as possible be truly representative of informed and responsible opinion in the New Territories.” • Part III – Functions of the Kuk o a. To promote and develop mutual co-operation and understanding among the people of the New Territories. o b. To promote and develop co-operation and understanding between the Government and the people of the New Territories. o c. To advise the Government on social and economic developments in the interests of the welfare and prosperity of the people of the new Territories………
  • 57. Note: • According to the Ordinance, the Kuk exists to further the interests of “the people of the New Territories”. • This implies that Residence in the New Territories is more important than Ethnicity. • The word “Indigenous” does not appear in the Ordinance. In Practice: • The HYK only puts forward views of “Indigenous” Villagers - irrespective of whether or not they live in the New Territories. • The majority of Indigenous people now live elsewhere in HK or abroad. • The Kuk exists almost exclusively to make money for Indigenous Villagers. • Cultural and heritage values do not feature in HYK deliberations (unless linked to monetary compensation). • What is the HYK’s opinion of the potential destruction of Pak Sha O?
  • 59. • Developer buys land in and around abandoned village of To Kwa Peng, which is an “enclave” surrounded by Sai Kung Country Park. • Village is in an area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, on the coast and has a large mangrove area (mangroves are not protected in HK). • Village is inaccessible by road, so developer plans to build illegal road. • Developer puts in application to build 37 houses. • Application is rejected, partly on the grounds that the abandoned houses are home for bats (bats are protected in HK). • Developer demolishes the remains of the houses, displacing the bats. • Developer re-applies for planning permission for 37 houses. • The application is presently pending. Irrespective of whether or not the Government applies its policy of not rewarding the “trashing” of areas, the environmental damage has already been caused.
  • 61. • “New” villagers (7th generation Hong Kong Chinese) refuse to pay indigenous villagers for car parking on Government land. • Car is vandalised. • Couple receive death threats – razor blades put in the post.
  • 63. • Indigenous villager believes, wrongly, that a non-indigenous villager is objecting to his application for a Small House. • IV (who has a criminal record for violent crime) mounts an intimidation campaign consisting of: o Waking up family at 4 o’clock in the morning by banging gongs and drums and shouting obscenities outside bedroom window. o Following villager around the village, shouting obscenities and threatening to kill her, whilst preventing the victim from talking to anyone in the village. o Spreading false rumours around the village. • Criminal Intimidation? • Police are called on several occasions, video of the incidents are provided as evidence. • Court bounds the IV to keep the peace for a year for the offence of illegally playing a musical instrument.
  • 65. • New couple (Chinese) move into NT village. • Huge pile of bricks is dumped in front of their house. • Person demands HK$20,000 to remove the bricks.
  • 67. • Indigenous villager illegally demolishes his house and dumps the rubble on Government land at the side of the village.
  • 68. • Residents call the Police who witness the dumping. • IV is served a summons from the District Council. • IV tears up the summons in front of the District Officers. • IV rebuilds his house, again, without permission. • Government place sign on the pile of rubble stating “No Dumping Allowed”.
  • 70. • Numerous trees are cut down on Government land in a village preparatory to a planning application. • Destruction is witnessed by residents and Police called. • Photographs of workers destroying trees are taken. • Police stop activities and take details and ID Card numbers of contractors. • Contractors have map provided by the developer showing the trees to be destroyed. • Police make a report which specifies 6 mature trees being demolished on Government land. • Police pass details to AFCD to initiate prosecution. • AFCD alters report to show only 2 trees, both within 1.5 metres of private land, being destroyed and passes report to DoJ. • DoJ decides not to prosecute.