Water and climate change  B.Y. Lee Director of the Hong Kong Observatory May 2010
Global warming  :  “ Most of the observed increase in globally-averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very li...
About  10% increase relative to the 1980-1999 average of 2324 mm   About 5% or 120mm less than the 1980-1999 average
香港極 端少雨 和極 端多 雨的年數 Number of extremely dry years and extremely wet years in Hong Kong ( 相片來源:水務署   Photo from Water Suppli...
Personally per capita 100 litres/day Daily food consumption  2000-5000 litres 1 kg bolt of cloth >10 000 litres 1 kg of be...
What about the melting glaciers in the Himalayas? <ul><li>Mean annual mass balance [Note] of reference glaciers from 1980 ...
Flooding of the coastal areas becomes  easier  under tropical cyclone situations Sea level rise, plus storm surge waves ca...
Magnitude of extreme sea levels at Victoria Harbour  based on past data, a projected rise of 0.59 m and of 1.4 m. Note: mC...
(courtesy of  TVB )  F looding in Tai O  after Typhoon Hagupit   (September 2008)
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City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO

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Where does the water we drink come from? Is there enough for everyone? Where will it come from?

Hong Kong's water supply comes from two sources: the rainfall we collect in our reservoirs (20-30%) and water we buy from the Mainland (70-80%). The current agreement for water from the Dongjiang, a tributary of the Pearl River, will expire in 2015. With demand for water growing sharply throughout the Pearl River Delta and the supply of water compromised by pollution and climate change, Hong Kong's future access to clean water is far from certain.

In our drive to become a sustainable city, should Hong Kong become self-sufficient? Should we increase the size of our reservoirs? Follow Singapore and recycle our waste water? Build plants to desalinate seawater? What other possible methods are there? Who's going to pay?

CitySpeak invites you to join Hong Kong officials, academics and planners in this discussion about our water issues.

The keynote speaker is Mr. LT Ma, Director of the Water Supplies Department, who will set the scene and outline the current situation in Hong Kong. The discussion will be moderated by Mr. Mike Kilburn, Environmental Programme Manager, Civic Exchange.

Background reading
"Liquid Assets -- Water security and management in the Pearl River Basin and Hong Kong" by Civic Exchange, November 2009 (http://www.civic-exchange.org/eng/upload/files/091204LiquidAssets.pdf). For more information about water in China, visit http://www.asiawaterproject.org/. Civic Exchange is a Hong Kong independent non-profit think tank. See: www.civic-exchange.org

Designing Hong Kong is a not-for-profit organisation focused on sustainable urban planning. See: www.designinghongkong.com

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City Speak XII - Water We Drink: BY Lee of HKO

  1. 1. Water and climate change B.Y. Lee Director of the Hong Kong Observatory May 2010
  2. 2. Global warming : “ Most of the observed increase in globally-averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in man-made greenhouse-gas (GHG) concentrations” ( United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), 2007) Very likely = 90%
  3. 3. About 10% increase relative to the 1980-1999 average of 2324 mm About 5% or 120mm less than the 1980-1999 average
  4. 4. 香港極 端少雨 和極 端多 雨的年數 Number of extremely dry years and extremely wet years in Hong Kong ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) 期間 Period 10 4 21 st century 2 2 1885 - 200 0 極端多雨的年數 Extremely wet years 極端少雨的年數 Extremely dry years ( 相片來源:水務署 Photo from Water Supplies Department ) ( 相片來源:渠務署 Photo from Drainage Services Department ) Notes : Extremely dry years - annual rainfall less than 1282 mm; extremely wet years - annual rainfall more than 3187 mm 極端少雨的年數 - 年雨量低於 1282 毫米 ; 極端多雨的年數 - 年雨量高於 3187 毫米 ( 相片來源:渠務署 Photo from Drainage Services Department )
  5. 5. Personally per capita 100 litres/day Daily food consumption 2000-5000 litres 1 kg bolt of cloth >10 000 litres 1 kg of beef 15 000 litres 1 kg of vegetable 2000 litres Water usage (source : The Economist, 11 April 2009)
  6. 6. What about the melting glaciers in the Himalayas? <ul><li>Mean annual mass balance [Note] of reference glaciers from 1980 to 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>with positive values in blue and negative values in red.. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source : World Glacier Monitoring Service : Preliminary glacier mass </li></ul><ul><li>balance data 2007/2008 http://www.geo.unizh.ch/wgms/mbb/sum08.html) </li></ul>Source : World Glacier Monitoring Service : Preliminary glacier mass balance data 2007/2008 http://www.geo.unizh.ch/wgms/mbb/sum08.html)
  7. 7. Flooding of the coastal areas becomes easier under tropical cyclone situations Sea level rise, plus storm surge waves caused by typhoon r i se in sea level coast coast
  8. 8. Magnitude of extreme sea levels at Victoria Harbour based on past data, a projected rise of 0.59 m and of 1.4 m. Note: mCD = metres above Chart Datum. Chart Datum is 0.146 metre below Principal Datum. 4.9 4.1 3.5 50 4.8 4.0 3.4 20 4.7 3.8 3.3 10 4.5 3.7 3.1 5 4.3 3.5 2.9 2 Extreme sea-level (mCD) after a mean of sea-level rise of 1.4 m Extreme sea-level (mCD) after a mean of sea-level rise of 0.59 m Extreme sea-level (mCD) based on past data Return period (year) Extreme sea-levels at Victoria Harbour
  9. 9. (courtesy of TVB ) F looding in Tai O after Typhoon Hagupit (September 2008)

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