TOWN PLANNING (NAR-804)
WHAT IS A GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE
A green and sustainable city is a community of residents, neighbours, workers, and
visitors who strive together to balance ecological, economic, and social needs to ensure
a clean, healthy and safe environment for all members of society and for generations to
The green city means a way to increase the sustainability of urbanized areas. It is a
concept of urban planning relying on the ecosystem services that green infrastructure
can supply. In essence, this concept includes the characteristics of all the urban concepts
described previously (city meeting with nature, restoring the values of urban ecosystem,
minimizing resource and energy consumption, and taking advantage of the ecosystem
services ofthe blue-green natural components).
WHY BECOME A GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CITY?
To ensure a viable future, the City must take a leadership role and address the impacts placed on
the environment by urbanization and a growing populace. These impacts include air and water
pollution, climate change, and habitat loss.
THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF GREEN CITIES
The specific components of green cities influence their morphology and functionality,
which in their turn are responsible for the differences between these settlements and the
Green and blue oxygen- producing areas:- One of the fundamental components of urban
infrastructures, in general, and the green cities, in particular, is represented by the green
areas. These areas encompass all the spaces with planted flowers, shrubs or trees, while the
urban green area system includes both the green spaces within the city and those lying on
its outskirts. In the structure of such a system, one can distinguish three types of green area
distribution; in patches, in strips and composite.
The green corridors (or greenways):- are a network of linear spaces conceived, planned
and managed for multiple purposes, including recreation and biodiversity conservation. At the
same time, they have an aesthetic and cultural role, or any other role that is
compatible with the sustainable use of the territory .
The blue-green corridors :- may be used as instruments for integrating water
surfaces and green areas, as part of the strategic spatial planning of urban environments,
with the intention to manage the flood risk and to maintain the biodiversity of fauna and
flora. This concept primarily applies to the cities that are crossed by rivers or to those lying
in the proximity of watercourses or canals.
The green belts:- are areas delimited around the large cities with a view to protect the
elements of natural setting. At the same time, they are meant to prevent their uncontrolled
expansion, to preserve the valuable traditional landscapes and to ensure additional areas for
leisure and recreation.
urban forest :- it represents the tree vegetation within the cities or around them, in the most
various forms from the isolated trees within the private gardens to the street lining trees, and
from the small clusters around the residential buildings to the parklands and the remnants of
natural forests . In our opinion, urban forests are areas with natural, semi-natural or planted
forests situated in the cities or on the outskirts.
Green walls and vertical gardens. Unlike the conventional city, where urban greenness
is only one of the urban structure components, the green cities regard it as a central
Green houses. A more recent trend is the returning to the old methods, techniques and
building materials. However, the resulted buildings would fit better into the suburbs, not
into the proper city. A new way of valuing housing traditions, blending energy efficiency
with cultural- aesthetic values, is the use of the famous cob. The cob is a mixture of loam,
sand, straw, water and earth that can be used for building sanitary dwellings with diverse
The street network. In the green cities, transport infrastructure should have a minimum
impact on the natural components of the environment and especially on soil permeability
and oxygen-producing areas.
Here we’ll discuss about the design considerations of “green” or sustainable city.
Good urban planning is necessary.
The basic considering element are the “people” who live there.
Being located in an area of natural beauty helps, people often feel more of a connection to
It’s not just about saving the planet, going green drives revenue for a city, there is money to
be made in sustainable manufacturing and services.
WHAT IS REQUIRED?
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES
Sustainable Water Sources
Walkability and Connectivity
Integration of Diverse Community
Strong Sense of Place
The first step in designing for well-being is to ensure clean air
Introduce zoning that requires mixed use of
Ambitious, well defined goals, and regular reporting of
Electricity generation using renewable resources.
Strict building codes favouring green technology.
Investment in public transportation.
Efforts and policies to cut waste, reduce water consumption.
Encourage knowledge-based, creative economies.
Access to affordable, healthy food.
Encourage grass roots efforts to engage citizens.
ELEMENTS WHICH ACT AS CHERRY ON TOP
CANAL WALLGREEN TRAM LINES GREEN ROOFS
BENEFITS OF GREEN CITY
• ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS-
1.URBAN ADVANTAGES-. More green space within a city’s boundaries can improve the
urban environment, helping regulate air quality and climate…reducing energy
consumption by countering the warming effects of paved surfaces….recharging
groundwater supplies and protecting lakes and streams from polluted runoff.
2. IMPROVED AIR QUALITY- Trees, shrubs and turf remove smoke, dust and other
pollutants from the air. One study showed that one acre of trees has the ability to remove
13 tons of particles and gases annually. 2,500 square feet of turf absorbs carbon dioxide
from the atmosphere and releases enough oxygen for a family of four to breathe.
3. REDUCE SOIL EROSION- A dense cover of plants and mulch holds soil in place, keeping
sediment out of lakes, streams, storm drains and roads; and reducing flooding, mudslides
and dust storms.
4. NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION- By using trees to modify temperatures, the
amount of fossil fuels used for cooling and heating is reduced. Properly placed deciduous
trees reduce house temperatures in the summer, allowing air conditioning units to run 2 to
4 percent more efficiently. The trees also allow the sun to warm the house in the winter.
• ECONOMICAL BENEFITS-
1.VIEWS OF PLANTS INCREASE JOB SATISFACTION-. Employees with an outside view of
plants experience less job pressure and greater job satisfaction than workers viewing
man-made objects or having no outside view. They also report fewer headaches and
other ailments than workers without the view.
2. NATURE INCREASES WORK PRODUCTIVITY- Psychologists have found that access to
plants and green spaces provides a sense of rest and allows workers to be more
3. LANDSCAPE RENEWS BUSINESS DISTRICTS- Greening of business districts increases
community pride and positive perception of an area, drawing customers to the
4. QUALITY LANDSCAPING MEANS QUALITY GOODS-A recent study found that
consumers would be willing to pay, on average, a 12% premium for goods purchased in
retail establishments that are accompanied by quality landscaping.
5.EMPLOYMENT AND TOURISM BOOST-. Employment opportunities are associated with
the creation and long term maintenance of urban open space, as well as tourism dollars
of visitors from parks, gardens and civic areas (Woolley 2003).
6.GREEN SPACE CAN IMPROVE PROPERTY VALUE .
7. FAST GROWTH,MAJOR ECONOMIC GROWTH.
8.PARKS IMPROVE PROPERTY VALUE.
9. GREEN SPACE HELPS DECREASING AIR CONDITIONING COST.
• HEALTH BENEFITS
1.Better health linked to green space regardless of socio-economic status: rich or poor,
your health is better.
2. People who use green spaces are more likely to take exercise than those who don’t,
and that the attractiveness or quality of green space is important: people don’t want to
use neglected parks or open spaces.
3. The more time people spend outdoors the less stressed they feel.
4. Improved mental health and wellbeing for children, young people and adults.
5. increased likelihood of physical activity across all age groups.
6. Reduced violence and aggression.
7. A reduction in anti-social behaviour and incidence of crime in urban areas with green
8. Improvement in air and noise quality.
• LIFESTYLE BENEFITS
1.PRIVACY AND TRANQUILITY- Well-placed plantings offer privacy and tranquility by
screening out busy street noises and reducing glare from headlights.
2. LOWER CRIME AND ENHANCED SELF ESTEEM- Studies over a 30-year period in
communities, neighborhoods,housing projects and prisons show that when
landscaping projects are promoted there is a definite increase in self esteem and a
decrease in vandalism.
3. GOOD LANDSCAPING INCREASES COMMUNITY APPEAL- Parks and street trees
have been found to be second only to education in residents’ perceived value of
municipal services offered.
4. MOOD ENHANCER- Gardening and yard work contribute to healthy, active living
both physically and emotionally. Horticulture therapists have discovered that
gardening provides a form of emotional expression and release, and it helps people
connect with others.
5. ROAD RAGE REDUCTION- An interesting effect found in recent studies on driving
and road stress is called the “immunization effect”—the degree of negative response
to a stressful experience is less if a view of nature preceded the stressful situation.
• Vancouver is one of the oldest inhabited areas in the Pacific Northwest.
• Native American presence along the Columbia River dates back more
than 10,000 years.
• The first permanent European settlement in the Northwest was Fort
Vancouver, established in 1825.
• The City of Vancouver developed around the fort and continued to grow
throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
• There were rapid, temporary population influxes with the arrival of
industrial workers during the First and Second World Wars.
• During the 1990s, the population almost tripled from in-migration and the
annexation of Cascade Park, the largest annexation in state history.
• Vancouver in 2011 is a thriving and diverse community with a population
of 162,000 persons, covering approximately 50 square miles.
An Action Plan for Becoming the World’s greenest city By 2020 Members
of the greenest city action team.
• Vancouver’s first comprehensive
plan under the Washington Growth
Management Act was adopted in
• It established a vision of a liveable
urban area with growth tied to the
ability to provide services, and a
range of residential options,
including more intensive
development in urban centers.
• The Vancouver Comprehensive Plan was
completely rewritten in 2004, following an
extensive public process involving Clark
County, local cities, stakeholders, and the
community at large.
• A more modest update was completed in
The city is a green visionary
with the ambition to become
the greenest city in the world
by 2020. An action plan with
impressive goals and
hundreds of projects has
already started to show
If it succeeds, by 2020
Vancouver will be a carbon
neutral city with an ecological
footprint reduced by one-third,
• where walking,
• cycling and
• public transit
has become the preferred
mode of transport, and where
everybody lives within a five-
minute walk of a green space.
1.Green economy, green Jobsgreen economy capital: secure Vanco
international reputation as a mecca of green e
target: create 20,000 new green jobs
2. Climate leadership: eliminate Vancouver’s dependenceon fossil fuels
target: reduce greenhouse gas emissions33per cent from 2007
3. Green Buildings: lead the world in green building
all new construction carbon neutral;
improve efficiency of existing buildings by 20 pe
•green mobility: make walking, cycling, and public transit preferred
1.target: Make the majority of trips (over 50 per cent) on foot,
bicycle, and public transit
•Zero Waste: create zero waste
1.target: reduce solid waste per capita going to landfill or
incinerator by 40 per cent
•easy Access to nature: Provide incomparable access to green
spaces, including the world’s most spectacular urban forest
1.targets: every person lives within a five-minute walk of a
park, beach, greenway, or other natural space; plant 150,000
additional trees in the city
•lighter footprint: Achieve a one-planet ecological footprint
1.target: reduce per capita ecological footprint by 33 per cent
•CLEAN WATER: enjoy the best drinking water of any major city in the world
1.target: always meet or beat the strongest of b.c., canada, and World
health organization drinking water standards; reduce per capita water
consumption by 33 per cent
•CLEAN AIR: Breathe the cleanest air of any major city in the world
1.target: always meet or beat World health organization air quality
guidelines, which are stronger than canadian guidelines
•LOCAL FOOD: Become a global leader in urban food systems
1.targets: reduce the carbon footprint of our food by 33 per cent
Fastest Growing Economy in Canada (Conference Board of Canada)
3rd Most Livable City in the World (Consistently in the Top 3)
3rd Greenest City in the World (Soon to be #1)
$31.5B (US$) brand driven by a global reputation for sustainable
and green leadership (Brand Finance 2015)
•HUNDREDS OF PROJECTS
Only a couple of years into the plan’s implementation, Vancouver is well
on its way to reaching its ambitious goals.
•In 2013, hundreds of projects had been launched and improvements
over the baseline had been achieved in all areas.
FOR INSTANCE, THE CITY HAD:
• Created 1,305 hectares park space and
• 4,021 community garden plots,
• and planted 12,500 trees,
•Increased city-wide and neighbourhood food assets by 24%, and
organized 11 farmers markets,
•Reached a 58% residential waste diversion, and a 16% decrease in
•Reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in existing buildings by 3%
and in the whole community by 4%,
•Increased the share of trips by foot, bicycle, and public transit from 40%
•Installed 40 public EV charging stations, with another 40 underway, and
•Reduced instances of not meeting air quality standards by 41%.
GOALS FOR 2020
Double the number of
green jobs and companies
and establish a free
•Reduce dependence on
fossil fuels with the long
term goal of carbon
neutrality by, for example,
systems and converting
systems to renewable
•Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in existing buildings
by 20%, and require all buildings constructed from 2020 onward to be
carbon neutral in their operations (the city already requires LEED gold for
all building rezonings),
•Make walking, cycling and public transit the preferred transportation
options for over 50% of trips,
•Reduce waste to landfill or incineration by 50% from 2008 levels with the
City of towers
Capital city of Denmark.
The two main visions in Copenhagen:
Ecometropolis (2007) A Metropolis for
Climate Capital More urban life for
World’s best city for
More people walk
A green and blue capital
More people staying
A clean and healthy major
“Sweden’s capitaland largest city is renowned for its beauty, architecture
and abundant water and green spaces.”
General facts & figures about Stockholm
Capital of Sweden
820 000 residents
Area: 209 km2 (including 21 km2 of water)
Around 40% of the city’s land consists of
parks or recreational areas and there are
seven nature reserves within city limits.
Green Facts & Figures
1 000 parks
Seven nature reserves within city
boundaries (and more than 200 in the
surrounding area), 1 cultural reserve and
1 city national park
12 000 trees in the city centre
24 official beaches
Set to become fossil-fuel free by 2050
Mother Nature’s best
Ekoparken: six miles long, the world’s first national city park is a haven for deer,
hares, rare birds, butterflies and even grazing cows.
Djurgården: an island close to central Stockholm featuring Skansen open-air museum and
Bergius botanic garden and park: home to an extensive herb garden, Japanese pond
and the world’s largest water lily.
Långholmen: an idyllic island popular for picnics, recreation and swimming.
one ofthe world’scleanest andmostbeautifulcities…………….
Nearly every resident (more than 90% of the population) lives within 300 meters of a
The green areas – part of a coherent ecological infrastructure – create important
habitats for flora and fauna. A good example is the large number of old oaks, estimated
to provide a home to more than 1 500 different wildlife species.
“The water is so clean you can fish in the city centre”
The blue city
Water makes up over 10% of Stockholm’s surface area
The waste water from Stockholm and some neighbouring areas is treated in two plants
that serve a combined population of 1 million.
Biogas is produced in the waste-water treatment plant and then upgraded for use in
public buses as well as private cars and taxis.
100% of household waste is
converted into heating and electricity
One of the many narrow alleys in the Old
Town (Gamla Stan) – popular with locals and
tourists alike. Car traffic is limited in the
inner parts of the Old Town.
In Stockholm, all separately collected food waste is
recycled as biogas and fertiliser/compost.
separate wastes waste into distinct categories:
food, plastic, paper and glass.
Placed outside of buildings on the main commercial street are signs
constantly measuring how much power that building is producing at
the current moment.
Today, more than 70% of householders have access to district heating, produced partly
by energy extracted from waste.
Stockholmers are travelling together
Some 90% of Stockholm residents live within 300 metres of public transport with an
hourly or more frequent service.
68% of all trips within the city centre are
made on foot or by bicycle.
During peak hours, 78% of all trips to the inner city are made by public transport.
All rail services are operated with certified
renewable electricity, and all city buses run on
A simple but amazingly effective norm in all of Stockholm; these tracks on almost all stairways
allow bikes and strollers to easily move up and down between the many levels of the city.
Stockholm’s roads are bike friendly, with full bike lanes on almost every single road within the city.
At right, the continuing development of Royal Seaport is done in the most effective manner
possible. The buildings are not only sustainable in multiple ways, but are built in a way that creates
as little construction waste as possible, leaving as little of a carbon footprint as the community can.