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Green city

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Green city presentation with case study.
(youtube video attached)

Published in: Environment
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Green city

  1. 1. GREEN CITY TOWN PLANNING (NAR-804) SEMESTER VIII
  2. 2. WHAT IS A GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CITY? A green and sustainable city is a community of residents, neighbours, workers, and visitors who strive together to balance ecological, economic, and social needs to ensure a clean, healthy and safe environment for all members of society and for generations to come. The green city means a way to increase the sustainability of urbanized areas. It is a concept of urban planning relying on the ecosystem services that green infrastructure can supply. In essence, this concept includes the characteristics of all the urban concepts described previously (city meeting with nature, restoring the values of urban ecosystem, minimizing resource and energy consumption, and taking advantage of the ecosystem services ofthe blue-green natural components). WHY BECOME A GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CITY? To ensure a viable future, the City must take a leadership role and address the impacts placed on the environment by urbanization and a growing populace. These impacts include air and water pollution, climate change, and habitat loss.
  3. 3. THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF GREEN CITIES The specific components of green cities influence their morphology and functionality, which in their turn are responsible for the differences between these settlements and the “common” cities. Green and blue oxygen- producing areas:- One of the fundamental components of urban infrastructures, in general, and the green cities, in particular, is represented by the green areas. These areas encompass all the spaces with planted flowers, shrubs or trees, while the urban green area system includes both the green spaces within the city and those lying on its outskirts. In the structure of such a system, one can distinguish three types of green area distribution; in patches, in strips and composite. The green corridors (or greenways):- are a network of linear spaces conceived, planned and managed for multiple purposes, including recreation and biodiversity conservation. At the same time, they have an aesthetic and cultural role, or any other role that is compatible with the sustainable use of the territory . The blue-green corridors :- may be used as instruments for integrating water surfaces and green areas, as part of the strategic spatial planning of urban environments, with the intention to manage the flood risk and to maintain the biodiversity of fauna and flora. This concept primarily applies to the cities that are crossed by rivers or to those lying in the proximity of watercourses or canals. The green belts:- are areas delimited around the large cities with a view to protect the elements of natural setting. At the same time, they are meant to prevent their uncontrolled expansion, to preserve the valuable traditional landscapes and to ensure additional areas for leisure and recreation.
  4. 4. urban forest :- it represents the tree vegetation within the cities or around them, in the most various forms from the isolated trees within the private gardens to the street lining trees, and from the small clusters around the residential buildings to the parklands and the remnants of natural forests . In our opinion, urban forests are areas with natural, semi-natural or planted forests situated in the cities or on the outskirts. Green walls and vertical gardens. Unlike the conventional city, where urban greenness is only one of the urban structure components, the green cities regard it as a central point. Green houses. A more recent trend is the returning to the old methods, techniques and building materials. However, the resulted buildings would fit better into the suburbs, not into the proper city. A new way of valuing housing traditions, blending energy efficiency with cultural- aesthetic values, is the use of the famous cob. The cob is a mixture of loam, sand, straw, water and earth that can be used for building sanitary dwellings with diverse architecture. The street network. In the green cities, transport infrastructure should have a minimum impact on the natural components of the environment and especially on soil permeability and oxygen-producing areas.
  5. 5. Here we’ll discuss about the design considerations of “green” or sustainable city.
  6. 6.  Good urban planning is necessary.  The basic considering element are the “people” who live there.  Being located in an area of natural beauty helps, people often feel more of a connection to their surroundings.  It’s not just about saving the planet, going green drives revenue for a city, there is money to be made in sustainable manufacturing and services.  Air Pollution  Water Pollution  Land Consumption  Transportation Choices  Limited Connectivity  Mixed-Use Development WHAT IS REQUIRED? ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES  Open Space  Sustainable Water Sources  Walkability and Connectivity  Integration of Diverse Community Features  Strong Sense of Place
  7. 7.  The first step in designing for well-being is to ensure clean air and water.  Introduce zoning that requires mixed use of neighbourhood/community space.  Ambitious, well defined goals, and regular reporting of progress.  Electricity generation using renewable resources.  Strict building codes favouring green technology.  Investment in public transportation.  Efforts and policies to cut waste, reduce water consumption.  Encourage knowledge-based, creative economies.  Access to affordable, healthy food.  Encourage grass roots efforts to engage citizens. PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
  8. 8. ELEMENTS WHICH ACT AS CHERRY ON TOP GREEN PARKING CANAL WALLGREEN TRAM LINES GREEN ROOFS FLOATING GARDEN
  9. 9. BENEFITS OF GREEN CITY • ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS- 1.URBAN ADVANTAGES-. More green space within a city’s boundaries can improve the urban environment, helping regulate air quality and climate…reducing energy consumption by countering the warming effects of paved surfaces….recharging groundwater supplies and protecting lakes and streams from polluted runoff. 2. IMPROVED AIR QUALITY- Trees, shrubs and turf remove smoke, dust and other pollutants from the air. One study showed that one acre of trees has the ability to remove 13 tons of particles and gases annually. 2,500 square feet of turf absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releases enough oxygen for a family of four to breathe. 3. REDUCE SOIL EROSION- A dense cover of plants and mulch holds soil in place, keeping sediment out of lakes, streams, storm drains and roads; and reducing flooding, mudslides and dust storms. 4. NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION- By using trees to modify temperatures, the amount of fossil fuels used for cooling and heating is reduced. Properly placed deciduous trees reduce house temperatures in the summer, allowing air conditioning units to run 2 to 4 percent more efficiently. The trees also allow the sun to warm the house in the winter.
  10. 10. • ECONOMICAL BENEFITS- 1.VIEWS OF PLANTS INCREASE JOB SATISFACTION-. Employees with an outside view of plants experience less job pressure and greater job satisfaction than workers viewing man-made objects or having no outside view. They also report fewer headaches and other ailments than workers without the view. 2. NATURE INCREASES WORK PRODUCTIVITY- Psychologists have found that access to plants and green spaces provides a sense of rest and allows workers to be more productive. 3. LANDSCAPE RENEWS BUSINESS DISTRICTS- Greening of business districts increases community pride and positive perception of an area, drawing customers to the businesses. 4. QUALITY LANDSCAPING MEANS QUALITY GOODS-A recent study found that consumers would be willing to pay, on average, a 12% premium for goods purchased in retail establishments that are accompanied by quality landscaping. 5.EMPLOYMENT AND TOURISM BOOST-. Employment opportunities are associated with the creation and long term maintenance of urban open space, as well as tourism dollars of visitors from parks, gardens and civic areas (Woolley 2003).
  11. 11. 6.GREEN SPACE CAN IMPROVE PROPERTY VALUE . 7. FAST GROWTH,MAJOR ECONOMIC GROWTH. 8.PARKS IMPROVE PROPERTY VALUE. 9. GREEN SPACE HELPS DECREASING AIR CONDITIONING COST.
  12. 12. • HEALTH BENEFITS 1.Better health linked to green space regardless of socio-economic status: rich or poor, your health is better. 2. People who use green spaces are more likely to take exercise than those who don’t, and that the attractiveness or quality of green space is important: people don’t want to use neglected parks or open spaces. 3. The more time people spend outdoors the less stressed they feel. 4. Improved mental health and wellbeing for children, young people and adults. 5. increased likelihood of physical activity across all age groups. 6. Reduced violence and aggression. 7. A reduction in anti-social behaviour and incidence of crime in urban areas with green spaces. 8. Improvement in air and noise quality.
  13. 13. • LIFESTYLE BENEFITS 1.PRIVACY AND TRANQUILITY- Well-placed plantings offer privacy and tranquility by screening out busy street noises and reducing glare from headlights. 2. LOWER CRIME AND ENHANCED SELF ESTEEM- Studies over a 30-year period in communities, neighborhoods,housing projects and prisons show that when landscaping projects are promoted there is a definite increase in self esteem and a decrease in vandalism. 3. GOOD LANDSCAPING INCREASES COMMUNITY APPEAL- Parks and street trees have been found to be second only to education in residents’ perceived value of municipal services offered. 4. MOOD ENHANCER- Gardening and yard work contribute to healthy, active living both physically and emotionally. Horticulture therapists have discovered that gardening provides a form of emotional expression and release, and it helps people connect with others. 5. ROAD RAGE REDUCTION- An interesting effect found in recent studies on driving and road stress is called the “immunization effect”—the degree of negative response to a stressful experience is less if a view of nature preceded the stressful situation.
  14. 14. VANCOUVER 2020 A BRIGHT GREEN FUTURE
  15. 15. HISTORY • Vancouver is one of the oldest inhabited areas in the Pacific Northwest. • Native American presence along the Columbia River dates back more than 10,000 years. • The first permanent European settlement in the Northwest was Fort Vancouver, established in 1825. • The City of Vancouver developed around the fort and continued to grow throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. • There were rapid, temporary population influxes with the arrival of industrial workers during the First and Second World Wars. • During the 1990s, the population almost tripled from in-migration and the annexation of Cascade Park, the largest annexation in state history. • Vancouver in 2011 is a thriving and diverse community with a population of 162,000 persons, covering approximately 50 square miles.
  16. 16. An Action Plan for Becoming the World’s greenest city By 2020 Members of the greenest city action team.
  17. 17. • Vancouver’s first comprehensive plan under the Washington Growth Management Act was adopted in 1994. • It established a vision of a liveable urban area with growth tied to the ability to provide services, and a range of residential options, including more intensive development in urban centers. 20 20 ACtion PLAn • The Vancouver Comprehensive Plan was completely rewritten in 2004, following an extensive public process involving Clark County, local cities, stakeholders, and the community at large. • A more modest update was completed in 2011.
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION The city is a green visionary with the ambition to become the greenest city in the world by 2020. An action plan with impressive goals and hundreds of projects has already started to show results. If it succeeds, by 2020 Vancouver will be a carbon neutral city with an ecological footprint reduced by one-third, • where walking, • cycling and • public transit has become the preferred mode of transport, and where everybody lives within a five- minute walk of a green space.
  19. 19. ONE 1.Green economy, green Jobsgreen economy capital: secure Vanco international reputation as a mecca of green e target: create 20,000 new green jobs 2. Climate leadership: eliminate Vancouver’s dependenceon fossil fuels target: reduce greenhouse gas emissions33per cent from 2007 3. Green Buildings: lead the world in green building all new construction carbon neutral; improve efficiency of existing buildings by 20 pe Target :
  20. 20. TWO greener communities •green mobility: make walking, cycling, and public transit preferred transportation options 1.target: Make the majority of trips (over 50 per cent) on foot, bicycle, and public transit •Zero Waste: create zero waste 1.target: reduce solid waste per capita going to landfill or incinerator by 40 per cent •easy Access to nature: Provide incomparable access to green spaces, including the world’s most spectacular urban forest 1.targets: every person lives within a five-minute walk of a park, beach, greenway, or other natural space; plant 150,000 additional trees in the city •lighter footprint: Achieve a one-planet ecological footprint 1.target: reduce per capita ecological footprint by 33 per cent
  21. 21. Three human health •CLEAN WATER: enjoy the best drinking water of any major city in the world 1.target: always meet or beat the strongest of b.c., canada, and World health organization drinking water standards; reduce per capita water consumption by 33 per cent •CLEAN AIR: Breathe the cleanest air of any major city in the world 1.target: always meet or beat World health organization air quality guidelines, which are stronger than canadian guidelines •LOCAL FOOD: Become a global leader in urban food systems 1.targets: reduce the carbon footprint of our food by 33 per cent
  22. 22. Fastest Growing Economy in Canada (Conference Board of Canada) 3rd Most Livable City in the World (Consistently in the Top 3) 3rd Greenest City in the World (Soon to be #1) $31.5B (US$) brand driven by a global reputation for sustainable and green leadership (Brand Finance 2015)
  23. 23. •HUNDREDS OF PROJECTS Only a couple of years into the plan’s implementation, Vancouver is well on its way to reaching its ambitious goals. •In 2013, hundreds of projects had been launched and improvements over the baseline had been achieved in all areas. FOR INSTANCE, THE CITY HAD: • Created 1,305 hectares park space and • 4,021 community garden plots, • and planted 12,500 trees, •Increased city-wide and neighbourhood food assets by 24%, and organized 11 farmers markets, •Reached a 58% residential waste diversion, and a 16% decrease in water consumption, •Reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in existing buildings by 3% and in the whole community by 4%, •Increased the share of trips by foot, bicycle, and public transit from 40% to 44%, •Installed 40 public EV charging stations, with another 40 underway, and •Reduced instances of not meeting air quality standards by 41%.
  24. 24. What? DesignElements VEHICLETURNLANES GREENBUFFER SIGNALS LOADINGZONES
  25. 25. •AMBITIOUS GOALS FOR 2020 Double the number of green jobs and companies and establish a free enterprise zone, •Reduce dependence on fossil fuels with the long term goal of carbon neutrality by, for example, building new neighbourhood-scale renewable energy systems and converting large-scale steam systems to renewable energy, •Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in existing buildings by 20%, and require all buildings constructed from 2020 onward to be carbon neutral in their operations (the city already requires LEED gold for all building rezonings), •Make walking, cycling and public transit the preferred transportation options for over 50% of trips, •Reduce waste to landfill or incineration by 50% from 2008 levels with the
  26. 26. City of towers Capital city of Denmark. The two main visions in Copenhagen: Ecometropolis (2007) A Metropolis for People (2008) Climate Capital More urban life for all World’s best city for cycling More people walk more A green and blue capital city More people staying longer A clean and healthy major city
  27. 27. CLIMATECAPITAL (ECOMETROPOLIS)
  28. 28. MOBILITY
  29. 29. Green city Stockholm
  30. 30. “Sweden’s capitaland largest city is renowned for its beauty, architecture and abundant water and green spaces.” General facts & figures about Stockholm Capital of Sweden 820 000 residents Area: 209 km2 (including 21 km2 of water) Around 40% of the city’s land consists of parks or recreational areas and there are seven nature reserves within city limits.
  31. 31. Green Facts & Figures 1 000 parks Seven nature reserves within city boundaries (and more than 200 in the surrounding area), 1 cultural reserve and 1 city national park 12 000 trees in the city centre 24 official beaches Set to become fossil-fuel free by 2050
  32. 32. Mother Nature’s best Ekoparken: six miles long, the world’s first national city park is a haven for deer, hares, rare birds, butterflies and even grazing cows.  Djurgården: an island close to central Stockholm featuring Skansen open-air museum and zoo. Bergius botanic garden and park: home to an extensive herb garden, Japanese pond and the world’s largest water lily.  Långholmen: an idyllic island popular for picnics, recreation and swimming.
  33. 33. Green city one ofthe world’scleanest andmostbeautifulcities…………….  Nearly every resident (more than 90% of the population) lives within 300 meters of a green area. Facts The green areas – part of a coherent ecological infrastructure – create important habitats for flora and fauna. A good example is the large number of old oaks, estimated to provide a home to more than 1 500 different wildlife species.
  34. 34. “The water is so clean you can fish in the city centre”
  35. 35. The blue city  Water makes up over 10% of Stockholm’s surface area The waste water from Stockholm and some neighbouring areas is treated in two plants that serve a combined population of 1 million. Biogas is produced in the waste-water treatment plant and then upgraded for use in public buses as well as private cars and taxis. 100% of household waste is converted into heating and electricity Waste management One of the many narrow alleys in the Old Town (Gamla Stan) – popular with locals and tourists alike. Car traffic is limited in the inner parts of the Old Town. In Stockholm, all separately collected food waste is recycled as biogas and fertiliser/compost.
  36. 36. separate wastes waste into distinct categories: food, plastic, paper and glass.
  37. 37. Placed outside of buildings on the main commercial street are signs constantly measuring how much power that building is producing at the current moment.
  38. 38. Today, more than 70% of householders have access to district heating, produced partly by energy extracted from waste. Stockholmers are travelling together  Some 90% of Stockholm residents live within 300 metres of public transport with an hourly or more frequent service.  68% of all trips within the city centre are made on foot or by bicycle.  During peak hours, 78% of all trips to the inner city are made by public transport. All rail services are operated with certified renewable electricity, and all city buses run on renewables.
  39. 39. A simple but amazingly effective norm in all of Stockholm; these tracks on almost all stairways allow bikes and strollers to easily move up and down between the many levels of the city. Stockholm’s roads are bike friendly, with full bike lanes on almost every single road within the city. At right, the continuing development of Royal Seaport is done in the most effective manner possible. The buildings are not only sustainable in multiple ways, but are built in a way that creates as little construction waste as possible, leaving as little of a carbon footprint as the community can.

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