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By:
Dr.Lavanya.S.A
2nd Year PG Scholar
Dept of RS & BK
T.G.A.M.C, Ballari
Under the guidance of :
Dr.M.S.Doddamani
HOD & Professor
Dept of RS & BK
T.G.A.M.C, Ballari
INTRODUCTION
In-order to provide standard value ,to provide quality control, safety
and efficacy of Ayurvedic formulations standardization is an essential tool.
Certain parameters are necessary for raw drugs, procedures and end
products to provide quality assurance.
Analytical standards are the dimensions to evaluate a product. In case
of drugs and formulations, analytical standards or parameters are more
essential.
The formulations may be single drug preparation or a compound
preparation the analytical parameters are must. However, parameters required
for different preparation may be different. It is compulsory to describe a
product by analytical standards since these standards speak of quality,
authenticity and purity of the product.
Brief Intro about Kshara Kalpana:
Kshara are the substances obtained from the ashes of drugs of
animals, minerals and plant origin, where alkaline portion is extracted from the
ashes of these substances.
Importance of Kshara:
• The diseases which are difficult to treat can be cured by kshara.
• Various types of skin ailments cane be cured due to its lekhana property.
• In Rasashastra, kshara plays its own role in different pharmaceutical
procedures like shodhana, marana, jarana etc..
• Used in testing bhasma i.e. tankana is one among the mitrapanchaka which
is used to do apunarbhava test.
• Kshara acts as an antidote. Ex:- Tanakana acts as an antidote for Vatsanabha
Classification of Kshara:
1. Based on Origin:
Vanaspatijanya – Apamarga Kshara
Pranijanya - Shankha, kapardika etc.
Khanijajanya - Tankana.
2. Based on the season pf preparation:
Uttama – Prepared in Greeshma rutu.
Madhyama – Prepared in Sharad rutu.
Adhama - Prepared in Varsha rutu.
3. Based on their use:
Paniya kshara
Pratisaraniya kshara
4. Based on the Tikshnata of Kshara:
Mrudu
Madhyama
Tikshna
General Method of Preparation:
• The panchanga of the plant is collected and dried. It is then
burnt into ashes.
• The ash obtained is mixed with 6 parts of water and stirred well.
Then it is kept undisturbed for whole night.
• Next day morning the mixture is filtered for 21 times using a
clean cloth.
• Then the filtrate obtained which is called as Ksharodaka is
heated until the watery content is evaporated.
• The obtained dry powder is called as kshara.
Opinions of Diff author’s in Preparation of Kshara
Su.Su.11 Sha.ma.11 Ra.Ta
Parts of water 6 4 4
Duration - Whole night 3 hours
Layers of
cloth for
filteration
Not specified Not
mentioned
3 layers
No of
Filteration
21 times Not specified Not specified
Properties of kshara:
नैवातििीक्ष्णो न मृदुुः शुक्लुः श्लक्ष्णोऽथ पिच्छिलुः।
अपवष्यच्दद शशवुः शीघ्रुःक्षारो ह्यष्टगुणुः स्मृिुः॥
Indication of kshara:
Paniya kshara:
Gara visha, arochaka, anaha, visha, udararoga, krimi, gulma, arsha,
agnimandya, ashmari, ajirna, bhaganadara.
Pratisaraneeya kshara:
Kushta, Arsha, visha, Kitibha, dushta vrana, dadru, Mukharoga, krimi,
arbuda, bhagandara.
Contra-indications of kshara:
Raktapitta, timira, ruksha, murccha, diseases occuring at the site of
marma, snayu, sira, sandhi, dhamani.
Organoleptic Characters:
Colour : Usually white/light grey.
Odour : Pleasant.
Touch : Soft.
Taste : Salty.
pH
Defined as the common logarithm of the reciprocal of the
hydrogen ion concentration expressed in g per liter.
pH value fundamentally represents the value of hydrogen
ion activity in solutions, i.e to know whether the solution is acid
or base.
It can be determined potentiometrically by means of the
glass electrode, a reference electrode and a pH meter either of
the digital or analogue type.
Loss on drying at 105
It is widely used test method to determine the
moisture content of a sample, although occasionally it may
refer to the loss of any volatile matter from the sample.
Method:
One gram of sample is taken in a Silica crucible and
accurately weighed, heated on electric air oven up to 1050C
for 3 hrs. Again weighed, the difference in weight was
calculated.
0
• Determination of Total Ash:
The total ash method is designed to measure the
total amount of material remaining after ignition.
This includes both “ physiological ash”, which is
derived from the plant tissue itself, and “ non-physiological”
ash, which is the residue of the extraneous matter (e.g.
sand and soil) adhering to the plant surface.
• Method:
Incinerate about 2 to 3 g accurately weighed, of the
ground drug in a tared platinum or silica dish at a temperature not
exceeding 450c until free from carbon, cool and weigh. If a
carbon free ash cannot be obtained in this way, exhaust the
charred mass with hot water, collect the residue on an ash less
filter paper, incinerate the residue and filter , add the filtrate,
evaporate to dryness, and ignite at a temperature not exceeding
450. Calculate the percentage of ash with reference to the air-
dried drug.
• Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash:
Acid – Insoluble ash is the residue obtained after
boiling the total ash with dilute HCl, and igniting the
remaining insoluble matter.
This measures the amount of silica present,
especially as sand and siliceous earth.
• Method:
To the crucible containing total ash, add 25 ml of dilute
hydrochloric acid. Collect the insoluble matter on an ashless filter
paper (Whatman 41) and wash with hot water until the filtrate is
neutral. Transfer the filter paper containing the insoluble matter to
the original crucible, dry on a hot-plate and ignite to constant
weight. Allow the residue to cool in a suitable desiccator for 30
minutes and weigh without delay. Calculate the content of acid-
insoluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug.
• Determination of Water soluble ash:
Water soluble ash is the difference in weight between the total ash
and the residue after treatment of the total ash with water.
It is a good indicator of either previous extraction of water soluble
salts in the drug or incorrect preparation.
Method:
Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25 ml of water; collect insoluble
matter in a Gooch crucible or on an ashless filter paper, wash with hot water,
and ignite for 15 minutes at a temperature not exceeding 450. Subtract the
weight of the insoluble matter from the weight of the ash; the difference in
weight represents the water-soluble ash. Calculate the percentage of water-
soluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug.
Water & Alcohol soluble extractive:
It plays an important role in evaluation of crude
drugs. Less extractive value indicates addition of
exhausted material, adulteration or incorrect process
during drying, or storage or formulating.
Alcohol Soluble Extractive:
Macerate 5 g of the air dried drug, coarsely powdered, with
100 ml of Alcohol of the specified strength in a closed flask for twenty-
four hours, shaking frequently during six hours and allowing to stand
for eighteen hours. Filter rapidly, taking precautions against loss of
solvent, evaporate 25 ml of the filtrate to dryness in a tared flat
bottomed shallow dish, and dry at 105º, to constant weight and weigh.
Calculate the percentage of alcohol-soluble extractive with reference
to the air-dried drug.
Water Soluble Extractive:
Proceed as directed for the determination of Alcohol-soluble
extractive, using chloroform water instead of ethanol.
Total alkalis
Estimate the total alkalis as carbonate in the
Kshara by titrating a known volume of the aqueous
solution prepared for determination of pH, with N/25
hydrochloric acid using pH meter to an end point pH of
3.6. Calculate percentage of total alkali as carbonate
using the titre value.
MICROBIAL LIMIT TEST:
Limit test is defined as quantitative or semi-quantitative test designed to
identify and control small quantities of impurity which is likely to be present
in the substance.
Limit test is generally carried out to determine the inorganic impurities
present in the compound
Permissible limits of heavy metals:
Sl No Parameters Permissible limits
1 Staphylococcus aureus Absent
2 Salmonella Absent
3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Absent
4 Escherichia coli Absent
5 Total microbial plate count 105/ g
6 Total yeast and mould 105/ g
A pesticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used
for killing pests: organisms dangerous to plants or animals.
Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain
on or in the plant material after they are applied to the plant.
Many of these chemical residues, especially derivatives
of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bio-accumulation which could
build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the
environment.
Maximum limit of pesticide residues for medicinal plant
materials:
Substance Limit (mg/kg)
Alachlor 0.02
Aldrin and Dieldrin (sum of) 0.05
Azinphos-methy1 1.0
Bromopropylate 3.0
Chlordane (sum of cis-, trans – and
Oxythlordane)
0.05
Chlorfenvinphos 0.5
Chlorpyrifos 0.2
Deltamethrin 0.5
Etc…
Limit test is defined as quantitative or semi-quantitative test designed to
identify and control small quantities of impurity which is likely to be present
in the substance.
Limit test is generally carried out to determine the inorganic impurities
present in the compound
Permissible limits of heavy metals:
LIMIT TEST:
Sl No Heavy metal contents Permissible limits
1 Lead 10ppm
2 Arsenic 3ppm
3 Cadmium 0.3ppm
4 Maercury 1ppm
A traditional & simple method for determining Na & K
involves the technique of Flame photometry.
Prinicple:
An alkali drawn into a non-luminous flame will ionise,
absorb energy from the flame and then emit light of a
characteristic wavelength as the excited atoms decay to the
unexcited ground state . The intensity of emission is proportional
to the concentration of the element in the solution.
A photocell detects the emitted light and converts it to a
voltage, which can be recorded. Since Na & K emit light of
different wavelength by using appropriate coloured filters the
emission due to Na & K can be specifically measured in the same
sample.
One drawback of Flame photometer is that they respond
linearly to ion concentration over a rather narrow concentration
range, so suitable dilutions usually have to be prepared.
Method:
Prepare separate stock solution of sodium / potassium
(500 mEq) by dissolving2.9230 g sodium chloride / 3.7280 g
potassium chloride in 100 ml triple distilled water.
Prepare separate working standard solutions containing
0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mEq of sodium/potassium from the
respective standard stock solutions.
Using flame photometer with appropriate filters,
calibrate the standard solutions and prepare separate calibration
plots respectively for sodium/potassium.
Take 0.1 g of Kshara add 15 ml of triple distilled
water in 50 ml of volumetric flask and shake vigorously
and make the volume up to the mark.
Filter the solution and choosing sodium and
potassium filter, calculate the content of the sodium/
potassium respectively in the coated material of Kshara
by interpolation from the calibration plot.
PHYSICAL TEST CHEMICAL TEST
Length Loss on drying
Weight Water soluble extractive
Diameter n-Hexane soluble extractive
Tensile strength pH
Sodium & Potassium
Total alkalis
Turmeric
Curcumin
Sulphated ash
Euphol
Physical tests:
Length:
Length is the distance from end to end of the thread, and
measured as follows:
Fix a standard meter scale on a table. Place the thread
with one cut end exactly coinciding with a division on the scale.
Applying just enough tension to keep the thread straight, place
the other cut end on the scale, and note the division on the scale
with which it coincides. Read the length and record it to a mm on
the meter scale, (which should be marked in mm). Repeat the
test on four more threads belonging to the same batch. The
average is taken as the length of the thread
Weight:
Record the weight of each thread used in
the test for Length, on a balance of sensitivity
0.1 mg.(0.0001 g) The average is the weight of
the thread.
Diameter:
Determine the diameter on a measuring instrument of the dial
gauge type, with a sensitivity of 0.0025 mm. The table of the dial
gauge is about 5 cm in diameter, with a pressor foot of about 12.5 mm.
The total load applied by the foot when in use shall be 200 g ± 15 g.
Take the thread to be measured from its tube and expose it to
room temperature for about half an hour. Hold the thread across the
gauge table with just the tension required to keep it straight, and allow
the pressor foot to touch it. Record the reading on the dial gauge as
the thickness of the thread at that point.
Three readings are to be taken for each thread,
one at mid point, and two at equidistance on either
side of the midpoint. No point should be within 3 cm of
either end of the thread.
The test is repeated with four more threads of
the same batch. The average is taken as the diameter of
the thread
Tensile strength:
This is expressed as the breaking load in kg when tested as
given below. The thread under test is tied to a hook suspended from a
stand. A weighing pan of 250 g is attached to the other end of the
thread, and a weight of 2 kg is placed on the pan. Weights are added
to the pan in increments of 50 g, allowing five seconds between such
additions.
At the time the thread breaks, the total weights in the pan and
weight of the pan itself is recorded as the breaking load of the thread.
If the breakage occurs within 1 cm from either ends, the test should be
repeated on a fresh thread. The average of five tests is recorded as the
breaking load of one batch.
Total alkalis
CHEMICAL TESTS:
Estimate the total alkalis as carbonate in the
Kshara by titrating a known volume of the aqueous
solution prepared for determination of pH, with N/25
hydrochloric acid using pH meter to an end point pH of
3.6. Calculate percentage of total alkali as carbonate
using the titre value.
Turmeric:
Moisten 0.2 g of coated material of Ksharasutra and 0.05
g Turmeric, each separately, with 0.5 ml % v /v hydrochloric acid
for 5 minutes. Extract each separately with 4 x 5 ml acetone by
vortexing for 30 seconds, at 0,5th and 10th minutes. Pool the
respective extracts, filter and make up the volume to 25 ml using
acetone. Read the absorbance of the each extract after suitable
dilution, at 418 nm against acetone Blank. Calculate the
percentage of Turmeric in the coated material of Ksharasutra
using the absorbance of Reference Turmeric.
Curcumin:
Moisten 0.2 g of coated material of Ksharasutra with 0.5
ml % v/v hydrochloric acid for 5 minutes. Extract the mixture with
4 x 5 ml acetone by vortexing for 30 seconds, each at 0, 5th and
10th minute. Pool the extracts, filter and make up the volume to
25 ml using acetone. Take 10 ml of the solution, evaporate at
room temperature to about 0.1 ml.
Apply quantitatively 0.1 ml of sample solution, 15 μl (1
mg/ml) solution of Reference Curcumin in acetone and 50 μl of
acetone as Blank on a chromatoplate. Develop the Plate in
chloroform: methanol (49:1).
Mark the yellow coloured Curcumin zone in
reference, test sample and blank .
Separate the spots and extract each with 5 x 4 ml
methanol and make up the volume to 25 ml in each case.
Read the absorbance of methanol solution of coated
material of Ksharasutra and Curcumin after suitable dilution
against blank at 418 nm.
Calculate the percentage of Curcumin in the sample
with respect to the Reference Curcumin.
Sulphated Ash
Heat silica crucible to redness for 10 minute, allow to
cool in a desiccator and weigh. Take 3 Ksharasutras, in the
crucible and weigh accurately. Ignite gently at first, until the
substance is thoroughly charred. Cool, moisten the residue with
1 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid, heat gently until white fumes are no
longer evolved and ignite at 8000 until all black particles have
disappeared (conduct the ignition in a place protected from air
currents). Allow the crucible to cool, add a few drops of conc.
sulphuric acid and heat. Ignite as before, allow to cool and weigh
to constant weight. Calculate the percentage of Sulphated ash.
Euphol
Extract 0.2 g of coated material of Ksharasutra with 5 x 5 ml n-
hexane by vortexing for 30 seconds, each at 0, 5th ,10th ,15th and 20th
minute. Pool the extracts, filter and recover the solvent under reduced
pressure and re dissolve the residue in 1 ml chloroform: methanol (3:2).
Apply quantitatively 100 μl of the above solution, 100 μl (5 mg
/ml) solution of Reference Euphol in n-hexane and 100 μl of n-hexane as
Blank on a chromatogram plate. Develop the plate in chloroform: n-
hexane (4:1). Mark the Euphol zones in sample, Reference Euphol and
Blank by visualizing in iodine chamber. Remove the iodine by vaporizing
in an oven at 500 for 20 minutes.
Separate the zones individually, extract each with 5 x 4 ml n-
hexane and make up the volume to 25 ml in each case. Take 2 ml from
each extract separately in a test tube and dry on a boiling water bath.
Cool the residue to the room temperature and add 4 ml of acetic
anhydride to each and cool further in an ice bath for 15 minutes. Add
0.05ml cold conc. sulphuric acid carefully to each tube and mix
thoroughly and set aside in a dark cupboard for exactly 1.5 hours and
read the absorbance at 281 nm against Blank. Calculate the percentage
of Euphol in the coated material of Ksharasutra with respect to the
Reference Euphol.
Pharmacopoeial standards
Organoleptic characters:
Colour - Gray
Smell - Pleasant
Touch - Mridu
Taste - Salty
Quantitative Estimation:
Sulphate - Not < 9.610%w/w
Not > 38.512%
Phosphate - Not < 9.27%
Not > 10.14
Iron as Ferrous - Not > 1.93%
Iron as Fe2O3 - Not < 3.92%
Not > 4.19
Aluminium - Not > 3.02%
Calcium - Not < 0.986%
Not > 2.170%
Magnesium - Not > 3.07%
Potassium - Not < 27.994%
Not > 40.410%
Carbonate - Not > 9.668%
Chloride - Not > 7.053%
Sodium - Traces
pH - Not < 11.2
Not > 11.8
Therapeutic indication :Gulma,
agnimandya, pleeha, ashmari.
Dose – 500-1000mg
PALASHA KSHARA
RESEARCH ARTICLE:
1. Pharmaceutical standardization of Apamarga Kshara
Hasmukh.R.Jadav, Galib.R, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
Parameter APK-1 APK-2 APK-3 API
Loss on Drying at 105 (%w/w) 1.30 1.50 1.40 Not more than
4%
Ash Value (%w/w) 94.65 95.30 95.10 -
Acid insoluble ash (%w/w) 0.88 0.94 0.92 Not more than
1%
Solubility in water (%w/w) 97.26 96.72 97.35 -
pH 10.61 11.12 10.72 10-11
Sodium ions % 2.07 5.12 6.19 Not <4%
Potassium ions % 38.24 47.49 66.66 Not < 29%
Arsenic 0.205 0.401 0.393 -
Parameters APK-1 APK-2 APK-3 API
Lead ND ND ND -
Mercury ND ND ND -
Cadmium ND ND ND -
Silica 116.349 110.614 105.238 -
Iron 0.036 0.038 0.571 -
Sodium >1737.26 >1982.50 >2025.64 Not <4%
Potassium >1334.11 >1492.80 >1528.00 Not < 29%
Calcium 7.569 12.383 15.236 -
Magnesium 1.833 0.493 6.331 -
Conclusion:
The residues after a first wash should never be
discarded, they are to be processed further twice to
obtain more kshara. After three washes, maximum
35.38% yield was obtained.
CONCLUSION
No doubt that analytical parameters are last step in
standardization of pharmaceutical preparations, but standardization of
raw material by pharmacognostical methods and following the
standard methods of preparation are the prior steps which play an
important role in the quality of the end product.
The therapeutic effect depends on the quality of the drug
administered. To obtain the expected outcome after administration on
particular disease, especially a combined drug formula all ingredients
should be present in it, this can be confirmed with the help of these
analytical parameters.

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Dr.Lavanya.S.A - Analytical parameters of kshara kalpana

  • 1. By: Dr.Lavanya.S.A 2nd Year PG Scholar Dept of RS & BK T.G.A.M.C, Ballari Under the guidance of : Dr.M.S.Doddamani HOD & Professor Dept of RS & BK T.G.A.M.C, Ballari
  • 2. INTRODUCTION In-order to provide standard value ,to provide quality control, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic formulations standardization is an essential tool. Certain parameters are necessary for raw drugs, procedures and end products to provide quality assurance. Analytical standards are the dimensions to evaluate a product. In case of drugs and formulations, analytical standards or parameters are more essential. The formulations may be single drug preparation or a compound preparation the analytical parameters are must. However, parameters required for different preparation may be different. It is compulsory to describe a product by analytical standards since these standards speak of quality, authenticity and purity of the product.
  • 3. Brief Intro about Kshara Kalpana: Kshara are the substances obtained from the ashes of drugs of animals, minerals and plant origin, where alkaline portion is extracted from the ashes of these substances. Importance of Kshara: • The diseases which are difficult to treat can be cured by kshara. • Various types of skin ailments cane be cured due to its lekhana property. • In Rasashastra, kshara plays its own role in different pharmaceutical procedures like shodhana, marana, jarana etc.. • Used in testing bhasma i.e. tankana is one among the mitrapanchaka which is used to do apunarbhava test. • Kshara acts as an antidote. Ex:- Tanakana acts as an antidote for Vatsanabha
  • 4. Classification of Kshara: 1. Based on Origin: Vanaspatijanya – Apamarga Kshara Pranijanya - Shankha, kapardika etc. Khanijajanya - Tankana. 2. Based on the season pf preparation: Uttama – Prepared in Greeshma rutu. Madhyama – Prepared in Sharad rutu. Adhama - Prepared in Varsha rutu.
  • 5. 3. Based on their use: Paniya kshara Pratisaraniya kshara 4. Based on the Tikshnata of Kshara: Mrudu Madhyama Tikshna
  • 6. General Method of Preparation: • The panchanga of the plant is collected and dried. It is then burnt into ashes. • The ash obtained is mixed with 6 parts of water and stirred well. Then it is kept undisturbed for whole night. • Next day morning the mixture is filtered for 21 times using a clean cloth. • Then the filtrate obtained which is called as Ksharodaka is heated until the watery content is evaporated. • The obtained dry powder is called as kshara.
  • 7. Opinions of Diff author’s in Preparation of Kshara Su.Su.11 Sha.ma.11 Ra.Ta Parts of water 6 4 4 Duration - Whole night 3 hours Layers of cloth for filteration Not specified Not mentioned 3 layers No of Filteration 21 times Not specified Not specified
  • 8. Properties of kshara: नैवातििीक्ष्णो न मृदुुः शुक्लुः श्लक्ष्णोऽथ पिच्छिलुः। अपवष्यच्दद शशवुः शीघ्रुःक्षारो ह्यष्टगुणुः स्मृिुः॥ Indication of kshara: Paniya kshara: Gara visha, arochaka, anaha, visha, udararoga, krimi, gulma, arsha, agnimandya, ashmari, ajirna, bhaganadara. Pratisaraneeya kshara: Kushta, Arsha, visha, Kitibha, dushta vrana, dadru, Mukharoga, krimi, arbuda, bhagandara. Contra-indications of kshara: Raktapitta, timira, ruksha, murccha, diseases occuring at the site of marma, snayu, sira, sandhi, dhamani.
  • 9.
  • 10. Organoleptic Characters: Colour : Usually white/light grey. Odour : Pleasant. Touch : Soft. Taste : Salty.
  • 11. pH Defined as the common logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in g per liter. pH value fundamentally represents the value of hydrogen ion activity in solutions, i.e to know whether the solution is acid or base. It can be determined potentiometrically by means of the glass electrode, a reference electrode and a pH meter either of the digital or analogue type.
  • 12. Loss on drying at 105 It is widely used test method to determine the moisture content of a sample, although occasionally it may refer to the loss of any volatile matter from the sample. Method: One gram of sample is taken in a Silica crucible and accurately weighed, heated on electric air oven up to 1050C for 3 hrs. Again weighed, the difference in weight was calculated. 0
  • 13. • Determination of Total Ash: The total ash method is designed to measure the total amount of material remaining after ignition. This includes both “ physiological ash”, which is derived from the plant tissue itself, and “ non-physiological” ash, which is the residue of the extraneous matter (e.g. sand and soil) adhering to the plant surface.
  • 14. • Method: Incinerate about 2 to 3 g accurately weighed, of the ground drug in a tared platinum or silica dish at a temperature not exceeding 450c until free from carbon, cool and weigh. If a carbon free ash cannot be obtained in this way, exhaust the charred mass with hot water, collect the residue on an ash less filter paper, incinerate the residue and filter , add the filtrate, evaporate to dryness, and ignite at a temperature not exceeding 450. Calculate the percentage of ash with reference to the air- dried drug.
  • 15. • Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash: Acid – Insoluble ash is the residue obtained after boiling the total ash with dilute HCl, and igniting the remaining insoluble matter. This measures the amount of silica present, especially as sand and siliceous earth.
  • 16. • Method: To the crucible containing total ash, add 25 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid. Collect the insoluble matter on an ashless filter paper (Whatman 41) and wash with hot water until the filtrate is neutral. Transfer the filter paper containing the insoluble matter to the original crucible, dry on a hot-plate and ignite to constant weight. Allow the residue to cool in a suitable desiccator for 30 minutes and weigh without delay. Calculate the content of acid- insoluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug.
  • 17. • Determination of Water soluble ash: Water soluble ash is the difference in weight between the total ash and the residue after treatment of the total ash with water. It is a good indicator of either previous extraction of water soluble salts in the drug or incorrect preparation. Method: Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25 ml of water; collect insoluble matter in a Gooch crucible or on an ashless filter paper, wash with hot water, and ignite for 15 minutes at a temperature not exceeding 450. Subtract the weight of the insoluble matter from the weight of the ash; the difference in weight represents the water-soluble ash. Calculate the percentage of water- soluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug.
  • 18. Water & Alcohol soluble extractive: It plays an important role in evaluation of crude drugs. Less extractive value indicates addition of exhausted material, adulteration or incorrect process during drying, or storage or formulating.
  • 19. Alcohol Soluble Extractive: Macerate 5 g of the air dried drug, coarsely powdered, with 100 ml of Alcohol of the specified strength in a closed flask for twenty- four hours, shaking frequently during six hours and allowing to stand for eighteen hours. Filter rapidly, taking precautions against loss of solvent, evaporate 25 ml of the filtrate to dryness in a tared flat bottomed shallow dish, and dry at 105º, to constant weight and weigh. Calculate the percentage of alcohol-soluble extractive with reference to the air-dried drug. Water Soluble Extractive: Proceed as directed for the determination of Alcohol-soluble extractive, using chloroform water instead of ethanol.
  • 20. Total alkalis Estimate the total alkalis as carbonate in the Kshara by titrating a known volume of the aqueous solution prepared for determination of pH, with N/25 hydrochloric acid using pH meter to an end point pH of 3.6. Calculate percentage of total alkali as carbonate using the titre value.
  • 21. MICROBIAL LIMIT TEST: Limit test is defined as quantitative or semi-quantitative test designed to identify and control small quantities of impurity which is likely to be present in the substance. Limit test is generally carried out to determine the inorganic impurities present in the compound Permissible limits of heavy metals: Sl No Parameters Permissible limits 1 Staphylococcus aureus Absent 2 Salmonella Absent 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Absent 4 Escherichia coli Absent 5 Total microbial plate count 105/ g 6 Total yeast and mould 105/ g
  • 22. A pesticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing pests: organisms dangerous to plants or animals. Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in the plant material after they are applied to the plant. Many of these chemical residues, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bio-accumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment.
  • 23. Maximum limit of pesticide residues for medicinal plant materials: Substance Limit (mg/kg) Alachlor 0.02 Aldrin and Dieldrin (sum of) 0.05 Azinphos-methy1 1.0 Bromopropylate 3.0 Chlordane (sum of cis-, trans – and Oxythlordane) 0.05 Chlorfenvinphos 0.5 Chlorpyrifos 0.2 Deltamethrin 0.5 Etc…
  • 24. Limit test is defined as quantitative or semi-quantitative test designed to identify and control small quantities of impurity which is likely to be present in the substance. Limit test is generally carried out to determine the inorganic impurities present in the compound Permissible limits of heavy metals: LIMIT TEST: Sl No Heavy metal contents Permissible limits 1 Lead 10ppm 2 Arsenic 3ppm 3 Cadmium 0.3ppm 4 Maercury 1ppm
  • 25. A traditional & simple method for determining Na & K involves the technique of Flame photometry. Prinicple: An alkali drawn into a non-luminous flame will ionise, absorb energy from the flame and then emit light of a characteristic wavelength as the excited atoms decay to the unexcited ground state . The intensity of emission is proportional to the concentration of the element in the solution.
  • 26. A photocell detects the emitted light and converts it to a voltage, which can be recorded. Since Na & K emit light of different wavelength by using appropriate coloured filters the emission due to Na & K can be specifically measured in the same sample. One drawback of Flame photometer is that they respond linearly to ion concentration over a rather narrow concentration range, so suitable dilutions usually have to be prepared.
  • 27. Method: Prepare separate stock solution of sodium / potassium (500 mEq) by dissolving2.9230 g sodium chloride / 3.7280 g potassium chloride in 100 ml triple distilled water. Prepare separate working standard solutions containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mEq of sodium/potassium from the respective standard stock solutions. Using flame photometer with appropriate filters, calibrate the standard solutions and prepare separate calibration plots respectively for sodium/potassium.
  • 28. Take 0.1 g of Kshara add 15 ml of triple distilled water in 50 ml of volumetric flask and shake vigorously and make the volume up to the mark. Filter the solution and choosing sodium and potassium filter, calculate the content of the sodium/ potassium respectively in the coated material of Kshara by interpolation from the calibration plot.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. PHYSICAL TEST CHEMICAL TEST Length Loss on drying Weight Water soluble extractive Diameter n-Hexane soluble extractive Tensile strength pH Sodium & Potassium Total alkalis Turmeric Curcumin Sulphated ash Euphol
  • 32. Physical tests: Length: Length is the distance from end to end of the thread, and measured as follows: Fix a standard meter scale on a table. Place the thread with one cut end exactly coinciding with a division on the scale. Applying just enough tension to keep the thread straight, place the other cut end on the scale, and note the division on the scale with which it coincides. Read the length and record it to a mm on the meter scale, (which should be marked in mm). Repeat the test on four more threads belonging to the same batch. The average is taken as the length of the thread
  • 33. Weight: Record the weight of each thread used in the test for Length, on a balance of sensitivity 0.1 mg.(0.0001 g) The average is the weight of the thread.
  • 34. Diameter: Determine the diameter on a measuring instrument of the dial gauge type, with a sensitivity of 0.0025 mm. The table of the dial gauge is about 5 cm in diameter, with a pressor foot of about 12.5 mm. The total load applied by the foot when in use shall be 200 g ± 15 g. Take the thread to be measured from its tube and expose it to room temperature for about half an hour. Hold the thread across the gauge table with just the tension required to keep it straight, and allow the pressor foot to touch it. Record the reading on the dial gauge as the thickness of the thread at that point.
  • 35. Three readings are to be taken for each thread, one at mid point, and two at equidistance on either side of the midpoint. No point should be within 3 cm of either end of the thread. The test is repeated with four more threads of the same batch. The average is taken as the diameter of the thread
  • 36. Tensile strength: This is expressed as the breaking load in kg when tested as given below. The thread under test is tied to a hook suspended from a stand. A weighing pan of 250 g is attached to the other end of the thread, and a weight of 2 kg is placed on the pan. Weights are added to the pan in increments of 50 g, allowing five seconds between such additions. At the time the thread breaks, the total weights in the pan and weight of the pan itself is recorded as the breaking load of the thread. If the breakage occurs within 1 cm from either ends, the test should be repeated on a fresh thread. The average of five tests is recorded as the breaking load of one batch.
  • 37. Total alkalis CHEMICAL TESTS: Estimate the total alkalis as carbonate in the Kshara by titrating a known volume of the aqueous solution prepared for determination of pH, with N/25 hydrochloric acid using pH meter to an end point pH of 3.6. Calculate percentage of total alkali as carbonate using the titre value.
  • 38. Turmeric: Moisten 0.2 g of coated material of Ksharasutra and 0.05 g Turmeric, each separately, with 0.5 ml % v /v hydrochloric acid for 5 minutes. Extract each separately with 4 x 5 ml acetone by vortexing for 30 seconds, at 0,5th and 10th minutes. Pool the respective extracts, filter and make up the volume to 25 ml using acetone. Read the absorbance of the each extract after suitable dilution, at 418 nm against acetone Blank. Calculate the percentage of Turmeric in the coated material of Ksharasutra using the absorbance of Reference Turmeric.
  • 39. Curcumin: Moisten 0.2 g of coated material of Ksharasutra with 0.5 ml % v/v hydrochloric acid for 5 minutes. Extract the mixture with 4 x 5 ml acetone by vortexing for 30 seconds, each at 0, 5th and 10th minute. Pool the extracts, filter and make up the volume to 25 ml using acetone. Take 10 ml of the solution, evaporate at room temperature to about 0.1 ml. Apply quantitatively 0.1 ml of sample solution, 15 μl (1 mg/ml) solution of Reference Curcumin in acetone and 50 μl of acetone as Blank on a chromatoplate. Develop the Plate in chloroform: methanol (49:1).
  • 40. Mark the yellow coloured Curcumin zone in reference, test sample and blank . Separate the spots and extract each with 5 x 4 ml methanol and make up the volume to 25 ml in each case. Read the absorbance of methanol solution of coated material of Ksharasutra and Curcumin after suitable dilution against blank at 418 nm. Calculate the percentage of Curcumin in the sample with respect to the Reference Curcumin.
  • 41. Sulphated Ash Heat silica crucible to redness for 10 minute, allow to cool in a desiccator and weigh. Take 3 Ksharasutras, in the crucible and weigh accurately. Ignite gently at first, until the substance is thoroughly charred. Cool, moisten the residue with 1 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid, heat gently until white fumes are no longer evolved and ignite at 8000 until all black particles have disappeared (conduct the ignition in a place protected from air currents). Allow the crucible to cool, add a few drops of conc. sulphuric acid and heat. Ignite as before, allow to cool and weigh to constant weight. Calculate the percentage of Sulphated ash.
  • 42. Euphol Extract 0.2 g of coated material of Ksharasutra with 5 x 5 ml n- hexane by vortexing for 30 seconds, each at 0, 5th ,10th ,15th and 20th minute. Pool the extracts, filter and recover the solvent under reduced pressure and re dissolve the residue in 1 ml chloroform: methanol (3:2). Apply quantitatively 100 μl of the above solution, 100 μl (5 mg /ml) solution of Reference Euphol in n-hexane and 100 μl of n-hexane as Blank on a chromatogram plate. Develop the plate in chloroform: n- hexane (4:1). Mark the Euphol zones in sample, Reference Euphol and Blank by visualizing in iodine chamber. Remove the iodine by vaporizing in an oven at 500 for 20 minutes.
  • 43. Separate the zones individually, extract each with 5 x 4 ml n- hexane and make up the volume to 25 ml in each case. Take 2 ml from each extract separately in a test tube and dry on a boiling water bath. Cool the residue to the room temperature and add 4 ml of acetic anhydride to each and cool further in an ice bath for 15 minutes. Add 0.05ml cold conc. sulphuric acid carefully to each tube and mix thoroughly and set aside in a dark cupboard for exactly 1.5 hours and read the absorbance at 281 nm against Blank. Calculate the percentage of Euphol in the coated material of Ksharasutra with respect to the Reference Euphol.
  • 44. Pharmacopoeial standards Organoleptic characters: Colour - Gray Smell - Pleasant Touch - Mridu Taste - Salty Quantitative Estimation: Sulphate - Not < 9.610%w/w Not > 38.512% Phosphate - Not < 9.27% Not > 10.14 Iron as Ferrous - Not > 1.93% Iron as Fe2O3 - Not < 3.92% Not > 4.19 Aluminium - Not > 3.02% Calcium - Not < 0.986% Not > 2.170% Magnesium - Not > 3.07% Potassium - Not < 27.994% Not > 40.410% Carbonate - Not > 9.668% Chloride - Not > 7.053% Sodium - Traces pH - Not < 11.2 Not > 11.8 Therapeutic indication :Gulma, agnimandya, pleeha, ashmari. Dose – 500-1000mg PALASHA KSHARA
  • 45. RESEARCH ARTICLE: 1. Pharmaceutical standardization of Apamarga Kshara Hasmukh.R.Jadav, Galib.R, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati Parameter APK-1 APK-2 APK-3 API Loss on Drying at 105 (%w/w) 1.30 1.50 1.40 Not more than 4% Ash Value (%w/w) 94.65 95.30 95.10 - Acid insoluble ash (%w/w) 0.88 0.94 0.92 Not more than 1% Solubility in water (%w/w) 97.26 96.72 97.35 - pH 10.61 11.12 10.72 10-11 Sodium ions % 2.07 5.12 6.19 Not <4% Potassium ions % 38.24 47.49 66.66 Not < 29% Arsenic 0.205 0.401 0.393 -
  • 46. Parameters APK-1 APK-2 APK-3 API Lead ND ND ND - Mercury ND ND ND - Cadmium ND ND ND - Silica 116.349 110.614 105.238 - Iron 0.036 0.038 0.571 - Sodium >1737.26 >1982.50 >2025.64 Not <4% Potassium >1334.11 >1492.80 >1528.00 Not < 29% Calcium 7.569 12.383 15.236 - Magnesium 1.833 0.493 6.331 -
  • 47. Conclusion: The residues after a first wash should never be discarded, they are to be processed further twice to obtain more kshara. After three washes, maximum 35.38% yield was obtained.
  • 48. CONCLUSION No doubt that analytical parameters are last step in standardization of pharmaceutical preparations, but standardization of raw material by pharmacognostical methods and following the standard methods of preparation are the prior steps which play an important role in the quality of the end product. The therapeutic effect depends on the quality of the drug administered. To obtain the expected outcome after administration on particular disease, especially a combined drug formula all ingredients should be present in it, this can be confirmed with the help of these analytical parameters.

Editor's Notes

  1. The analytical study reveals the chemical composition of the formulations as well as their concentration. By this it helps to ensure safety limits and accuracy of the drug. Physico-chemical analyses of the drugs are carried out by using current analytical methodologies for understanding and interpretation of physico-chemical changes occurring during and after pharmaceutical processing.
  2. In Afi – 6 parts of water – kept overnight – decanted through 3 layered cloth-repeated till colourless liquid is obtained-heated
  3. Tarangini- panchanga like yava etc and in case of palasha kshara kashta should be taken
  4. Strong acid 1-3, weak acid – 4-6, strong base – 11-14, weak base – 8-10
  5. Sodium excess cause – hypernitraemia, potassium – hyperkalemia Sodium intake per day is 2,3oo, potassium -4700 mg
  6. Measuring the alkalinity is important in determining the ability to neutralize the acid.
  7. Vortexing – circular motion creating a vaccum in the centre
  8. Euphol is an alcohol tetracyclic triterpene and considered to have anti-inflammatory action.
  9. Api-part2-vol2 -appendix – ksharasutra parameters API – Apamarga kshara – part2 volume 1 appendix 9
  10. 4 TIMES OF WATER = undisturbed for 3 hrs- filtered through 3 layered cloth. The residual ash was again mashed with 6 ltr of water and kept undisturbed for next 3 hrs followed by collection of second filterate. For third time also the same method was followed.