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यन्त्र
Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu)
Assistant Professor
Department of RSBK SSRAMC & H Inchal
• Rasashastra deals with metallic, mineral and poisonous drugs.
• These drugs are pharmaceutically processed and rendered fit for internal administration.
• For the various processing of rasa uparasadi dhatus and for the preparation of medicines,
specific apparatuses called ‘Yantras’ are needed.
• Metals and minerals are required to undergo certain processes like shodhana, jarana,
marana, satwapatana etc before they could be administered into the body and all these
processes could only be achieved with the help of yantras.
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• For exploring and utilizing the knowledge of Rasasastra, a better understanding of yantras
is needed.
• Textbooks of Ayurvediya Rasasastra including Rasatarangini, Rasaratna samuchaya,
Rasarnavam and Rasendra Choodamani have been the sources of literature along with other
published works on Rasasastra.
• Only the yantras used in Rasasastra were considered here and the yantras mentioned in the
context of Salyatantra, Salakya tantra for its use in treatment were excluded.
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**स्वेदाददकर्मदिर्ामतुं वादतमके न्त्रै: प्रयत्ित: ।
यन्त््यते पारदो यस्र्ात्तस्र्ाध्यन्त्रदर्दत स्र्ृतर्् ॥ र.र.स 9/2
Yantras are the instruments which are used for the difficult operations of
controlling parada by performing processes like svedana etc.
DEFINITION OF YANTRA
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रसोपरसलोहाध्या र्ारणाध्यार्मदसद्धये ।
यन्त््यन्त्तेऽिेि यस्र्ात्त तस्र्ाद् यन्त्रुं प्रकीदतमतर्् ॥ र.त 4/1
The different types of apparatus used for various pharmaceutical procedures,
such as swedana (Steaming), Mardana (Trituration), shodhana(Purification),
maarana (incineration), etc on different rasa dravya are called as yantra
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S.N Classical Reference No:of Yantras
1 Rasarnavam (12th cent AD) 5
2 Rasendra Choodamani (12th cent AD) 30
3 RasaRatna Samuchaya (13th cent AD) 32
4 Rasendra Sara sangraha (16th cent AD) 9
5 Rasa Tarangini (20th cent AD) 20
NUMBER OF YANTRAS IN VARIOUS TEXTS
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SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT
1 Dola Yantra + + + + +
2 Damaru Yantra + + +
3 Sthali Yantra + + +
4 Nalika Yantra + + +
5 Lavana Yantra + + +
6 Bhasma Yantra +
7 Swedani Yantra + + +
8 Valuka Yantra + + +
YANTRAS MENTIONED IN RASASASTRA LITERATURE
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SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT
10 Dharvika Yantra +
11 Vidyadhara Yantra + + +
12 Ghata Yantra + +
13 Patana Yantra + + + +
14 AdhapatanaYantra + + + +
15 Tiryakpatana Yantra + + + +
16 Bhudhara Yantra + +
17 Patala Yantra +
18 Kachapa Yantra + + +
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SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT
20 Khalva Yantra + + +
21 Taptakhalva Yantra + + +
22 Ulukhala Yantra +
23 Kanduka Yantra +
24 Somanala Yantra + + +
25 Hamsapaka Yantra + +
26 Jarana Yantra + +
27 Deki Yantra + +
28 Valabhi Yantra + +
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SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT
29 Koshti Yantra + + +
30 Palika Yantra + + +
31 Ishtika Yantra + +
32 Mridanga Yantra +
33 Garbha Yantra + +
34 Grasta Yantra + +
35 Dhupa Yantra + +
36 Nabhi Yantra + +
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NAMING OF YANTRAS
a) Based on their shapes: Damaru yantra, kachapa yantra,Ghata yantra etc
b) Based on their functions: Swedani yantra, jarana yantra, patana yantra
c) Based on materials used: Lavana yantra, valuka yantra, bhasma yantra
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दशाङ्गलन्त्त दवस्तारे तूत्सेधे षोडशाङ्गलर्् ।
रयोदशाङ्गलुं चैव दिम्ित्वेि च सुंदृढर्् ॥
आयसा: दिदर्मतञ्चैव र्ध्येऽदतर्सृणीकृतर्् ।
दवुंशत्यङ्गलदीर्मश्च लोहदण्ड: सशोभि: ॥
उलूखलादभधुं यन्त्रुं बधैरेतत्प्रकीदतमतर्् ।
ताप्यादीिाुं कट्टिार्ं यन्त्रर्ेतत्प्रयज्य्ते ॥
लर्ूदि चार् दीर्ामदण यक्तत्या यन्त्रादण कारयेत् ।
रव्यर्ािािकूल्येि् दवधािज्ञो दभषग्वर: ॥
यन्त्राण्येतादि प्रोक्तादि ददग्दशमितया र्या।
अध्येतृणाुं दशशूिान्त्त सखबोधाय सत्वारर्् ॥ (र त 4/58-62)
उलूखल यन्त्र
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Shape : A deep vessel shaped
Made with : Wood/Stone/Iron
Height : 16 angula
Width : 10 angula
Depth : 13 angula
Structure : Soft , Shiny, Strong
Pestle (Peshini)
Made With : wood/Stone/Iron
length : 20 angula
Usage : Pounding different herbals (Leaves, roots, tubers etc)
Minerals (Rasoparasa and loha)
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खल्व यन्त्र
चषकोपर्र्त्यच्छुं सदृढ दपदच्छलोपर्र्् ।
सदच्छलादवदहतुं पारुं खल्वयन्त्रदर्होच्यते ॥ (र त 4/53)
Shape : Circular or elliptical
Made with : Stone or iron
Structure : bigger, strong (Inner surface – soft & smooth)
Types : Vartulaakaara , Droniroopa
Usage : Pounding or triturating different types of herbal and mineral drugs
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खल्वयन्त्रुं दिधा प्रोक्तुं रसतन्त्रे दवशेषत: ।
प्रर्र्ुं वतमलाकारुं रोणीरुपुं दितीयकर्् ॥ (र.त 4/55)
खल्वयन्त्र - Types
वततुलाकार (Circular) खल्वयन्त्र
द्रोणीरुप (Elliptical) खल्वयन्त्र
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दवस्तारे तपिाङ्गल: सर्तलो िीलाब्जतल्यप्रभ: ।
दिम्ित्वे च िवाङ्गल: सर्सृणो रुराङ्गलोच्छायवाि् ॥
दभत्त्या ियङ्गलसुंदर्त: खल यर्ा चेन्त्राङ्गलो र्षमक: ।
खल्वोऽयुं खल दिगददत: सूतादददसदद्धप्रद: ॥ (R.T 4/56)
वततुल खल्व यन्त्र
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Shape : Circular
Made with : Stone/Iron
Height : 11 angula
Width : 12 angula
Depth
Thickness (wall)
: 09 angula
: 2 inch
Structure : body should be uniform , soft & of neelakamala varna
Pestle (Peshini)
Made With : Stone/Iron
length : 14 angula
Usage : Pounding & trituration
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उत्सेधे तरङ्गागल: खल कलातल्याङ्गल्यश्चायत दवस्तारे तपिाङ्गलश्च र्सृण
दभत्या च वै ियङ्गल: ।
र्षम: सूयमसर्ाङ्गल: सदवशदो लोहादददभदिदर्मत: खल्वोऽयुं
रसदसदद्धकृदन्त्िगाददतो रोणीदिभोऽत्यत्तर्: ।।
द्रोणीरुप खल्व
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Shape : Elliptical
Made with : Stone/Iron
Height
Length
: 7 angula
: 16 angula
Width : 12 angula
Thickness (wall) : 2 inch
Structure : body should be uniform , soft
Pestle (Peshini)
Made With : Stone/Iron
length : 12 angula
Usage : Pounding & trituration
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तप्त खल्व यन्त्र
लोहो िवाङ्गल: खल्लो दिम्ित्वे च षडङ्गल: ।
र्दमकोऽष्टाङ्गलश्चैव तप्तखल्लादभर्ोऽप्ययर्् ॥ (RRS 9/85)
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Shape :
Made with : Iron/carbon steel
Height
Length
: angula
: 9 angula (18cms)
Width & depth : 6 angula (12cms)
Pestle (Peshini)
Made With : Iron / carbon steel
length : 8 angula (16cms)
Usage : Parada shodhana
 This khalva yantra is placed over an iron stand
specially meant to place this yantra .
 While trituration process is carried out, the
‘glowing charcoal’ are placed in a ‘sarava’ &
kept beneath the khalva yantra.
 The heat generates below keeps the yantra warm
the yantra warm and assists
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Dola yantra is an apparatus used for Shodhana process of Rasa aushadha, in
which drug containing pottali to be suspended like dola (swing) in particular
liquid media for specific time.
Use : SWEDANA & SHODHANA of Rasa aushadha
DOLA YANTRA
रवरव्येण भाण्डस्य पूररताधोदकस्य च । र्खस्योभयतो िारियुं कृत्वा प्रयत्ित: ॥
तयोस्त दिदिपेद्दण्डुं तन्त्र्ध्ये रसपोट्टलीर्् । बद्ध्वा त स्वेदयेदेतद्दोलायन्त्रदर्दत स्र्ृतर्् ॥
(RRS 9/3-4)
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• A pot is taken & 2 small holes are made at the neck of the pot
opposite to each other
• So as to insert a rod in these holes to hang or suspend the pottali like
a swing inside the liquid in such a way that it may not touch the
bottom by means of a thread
• Liquid is filled up to the pottali should be immersed properly into it.
• Then mild heat is applied from below just sufficient to maintain
boiling of the liquid inside the pot
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• There is a difference of opinion amongst different scholars regarding
the amount of liquid media filled in the pot.
• Here in this reference (RRS 9/3-4), liquid should be filled half to the
pot & in the commentary of D.A Kulkarni to this verse;
• Liquid should be filled 16 times to the drug
• Though liquid should be filled like that pottali is immersed properly
& maintain the level by adding liquid in between the process.
• This process is carried out in open boiling not covered with lid.
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GHATA YANTRA
The pot which has capacity of 4 prashtha (768mg) liquid & the mouth of pot is 4
angula is known as Ghata yantra or Apyayanaka
Use : For filling any liquid material
चतष्प्प्रस्र्जलाधारश्चतरङ्गदलकाऽऽिि: ।
र्टयन्त्रदर्दुं प्रोक्तुं तदाप्यायिकुं स्र्ृतर्् ॥ (R.R.S 9/51)
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SWEDANI YANTRA
Swedani yantra is an apparatus used for purification or fermentation process of
rasa oushadha in which drug is put over the cloth & to be fermented through
vapours of boiling liquid media for specific time.
साम्बस्र्ालीर्खाबद्धे वस्त्रे पाक्तयुं दिवेशयेत् ।
दपधाय पच्यते यर स्वेदिीयन्त्रर्च्यते ॥ (RRS 9/5)
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• An earthen pot is filled with liquid media & its mouth is covered with
cloth
• Then material is placed on that cloth & closed with sharava.
• That apparatus is subjected for specific time of heating
• Due to boiling of liquid media, drug is fermented through vapors &
gets soften
• Mild heat should be maintained to avoid the liquid media reach up to
the cloth
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PATANA YANTRA
The ‘Patana procedure’ & the ‘Patana yantra’ are the rudimentary forms of
present – day ‘distillation process’ & ‘simple distillation apparatus’.
As per our classics there are 3 types of ‘patana yantra’ as mentioned below :
1. Urdhva Patana Yantra
2. Adhah Patana Yantra
3. Tiryak Patana yantra
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URDHVAPATANA YANTRA
• Urdhva patana yantra is an apparatus used for upper sublimation of
parada in which unequal size of 2 pots are put inversely.
• It is also known as Patana yantra
• 2 unequal sizes of pots are taken
• Among them upper earthen pot has the base of 16 angula size with
10×8×4 (l×b×h) angula size of Toyadhara which is prepared on the
base of this pot
URDHVAPATANA YANTRA
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• Lower pot is taken smaller to the upper pot is inversely put on it.
• The conjoining space of both the pots is sealed with mahisha ksheera,
churna, mandora and phanita.
• Now this set of apparatus is put on fire and filled water in toyadhara.
• As a result of heating, water becomes hot and is replaced constantly
by cold water
• The patana yantra is described by the name of urdhva patina yantra in
the later text like Ayurveda prakasha
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USE – Upward sublimation of
mercury from hingula & patana
samskara of parada
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ADHAH PATANA YANTRA
• Adhah patina yantra is an apparatus used for downward sublimation
of parada in which 2 pots are put inversely
• 2 unequal size of earthen pots are taken
• Water is filled in lower pot & inversely put on lower pot.
• The conjoining space of both the pots is sealed with mud or any
specific material
• Now heating is given to upper pot by means of cow dung cakes and
Hg is obtained in lower pot by considering of Hg vapours in the H2O
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USE – Downward
sublimation of mercury
from hingula & patana
samskara of parada
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TIRYAK PATANA YANTRA
• Tiryak yantra is an apparatus used for transverse sublimation of
parada
• In modern science ‘Tiryak patana’ is described as an independent
process known as ‘Distillation’
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• The paste of Hingula or other material is applied in big earthen pot &
hole is made at the neck of this pot so as to insert a tube in this hole
& connect with the hole of other pot which is kept at lower level in
transverse state.
• Lower small pot is filled with water for condensing
• The mouth of both the pots is sealed with earthen saucer.
• Heat is given to big pot & due to heating vaporized mercury is
collected through the tube by condensation in small pot.
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USE – Transverse sublimation of mercury from hingula & patana samskara
of parada
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DISTILLATION APPARATUS
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DAMARU YANTRA
• Damaru yantra is an apparatus used for sublimation of parada in
which 2 same sizes of earthern pots are put inversely onto each
other.
• Damaru yantra is named as it resembles like the musical instrument
of Lord Shiva
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यन्त्रस्र्ाल्यपरर स्र्ालीं न्त्यब्जाुं दत्त्वा दिरुन्त्ध्येत् ।
यन्त्रुं डर्रुकाख्युं तरसभस्र्कृते दहतर्् ॥ (RRS 9/58)
• From 2 earthen pots, the paste of drugs i.e, Hingula,Somala
(Gouripashana – arsenenious trioxide – As2O3) are applied in the
lower pot with same size is inversely put on it.
• The joint of both the pots are sealed properly with clay
• Now, it is put on fire and condensed upper pot by wet cloth
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USES
• Upper sublimation of mercury, arsenic etc drugs.
• Preparation of Hingulotta parada and rasa bhasma
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STHALI YANTRA
• Sthali Yantra is an apparatus in which the paste of Tamra etc. is
applied in the pot, covered by sharava and applied heat from the
below.
• Sthali (Pot) is used for process, hence it is known as sthali yantra
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स्र्ाल्याुं ताम्रादद दिदिप्य र्ल्लेिाऽऽस्युं दिरुद्धय च ।
पच्यते स्र्ादलकाधस्तात्स्र्ालीयन्त्रदर्दुं स्र्ृतर्् ॥ (RRS 9/67)
• Sthali (earthen pot) containing the paste of tamra, somala etc is
closed by sharava with clay.
• Then this apparatus is place on fire for heating
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USES
• For paka of tamra etc. drugs
• For gandhaka jarana
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PALIKA YANTRA
• Palika yantra is an apparatus used for gandhaka jarana in iron cup
with long curved handle
PALIKA YANTRA
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चषकुं वतमलुं ल हुं दविताग्रोध्वमदण्डकर्् ।
एतादद्ध पादलकायन्त्रुं बदलजारणहेतवे ॥ (RRS 9/50)
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• Loha chashaka (iron cup) is attached to long iron handle with a
curved on its upper end
• Sulphur is put in loha chashaka and melted on fire
USES:
• For Gandhaka jarana, preparation of rasa parpati
• Used in preparation of varatika bhasma (acc.to RSS)
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चषकुं ददवमकाकल्पुं दीधमहस्तकसुंयक्तर्् ।
ददवमकायन्त्रर्ेतदद्ध गन्त्धशोधिसाधकर्् ॥ (R.T 4/39)
DARVIKA YANTRA
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• Darvika yantra is a simple tablespoon used in kitchens but of the
bigger size
• The spoon should be made of iron or steel
• Its head should have a strong, deeper bowl like structure
• Its handle should be strong & long (1 to 1.5 hastha/ 18 to 27 inches)
USES :
• Melting gandhaka, naga, vanga etc during their shodhana
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 63
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 64
BHUDHARA YANTRA
• Mercurial drugs containing closed crucible is kept in a pit and heating
is provided on the surface of the earth through valuka.
• Hence it is known as bhudhara yantra
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 65
वालकागूढसवामङ्गाुं गते र्ूषाुं रसादन्त्वतार्् ।
ददप्तोत्पलै: सुंवृणयाद्यान्त्रुं तद्भूधाराह्यायर्् ॥ (RRS 9/44)
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 66
• A wide and circular earthen vessel of cylindrical bucket like structure
is selected.
• At its base, 2 angula valuka (sand) is spread
• Above that, the tightly enclosed and sealed sharava containing
medicine is firmly placed.
• Above and all sides of the sharava, 2 angula thick sand is filled
• Above this sand the specified no:of dry cow dung cakes are placed and
ignited. This is called as Bhudhara Yantra
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 67
• Instead of using earthen vessel, small sized ‘pit’ may be done in the
ground and the same remaining procedure may be carried out .
• If done so, the name ‘bhudhara yantra’ suits better to this yantra
USES : Preparation of rasa bhasma
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 68
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 69
PATALA YANTRA
• Patala yantra is an apparatus used for extraction for the oil from the
oily substances in the pot which is put under the earth
• Here the finished product (oil) is collected under the earth (patala) , so
it is known as patala yantra
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 70
• A big pot is taken and filled with the material from which oil is to be
extracted
• The opening of the pot is 1st closed with an iron mesh and covered by
the other vessel with tightly sealed
• 1 hastha (18 inc) of garta (pit) is prepared and put this set of apparatus
in such a way that material containing big pot is placed under the earth
• Heat is given to the big pot by cow dung cakes and after self – cooling
oil is to be collected from the lower vessel
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 71
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 72
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 73
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 74
VALUKA YANTRA
• A glass bottle (kacha kupi), which is lengthy with elongated neck,
which has round and firm base with amber colour is selected
• It is covered with 7 layers of wet cloth smeared with mud and dried as
explained in references
• 1/3rd of the bottle is filled with ‘parada’ & other required drugs and
kept ready
• A 12 angula deep and wide strong iron ‘cylindrical bucket’ like vessel
is taken
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 75
• On its outer surface, 2 to b3 layers of wet mud and cloth is put
• At the base of this vessel 2 angula, dry and clean sand is put
• Over this the earlier prepared bottle is firmly placed at the centre of
the vessel
• Later on all sides of the bottle, the sand is carefully filled upto its neck
level
• Now the vessel is carefully placed over ‘Bhatti’ (oven) and the heat of
required intensity is applied for stipulated time.
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 76
• This type of yantra is called as ‘valuka yantra’
• USE :
• Gandhaka jarana, sindoora Kalpana like rasasindoora , makaradwaja,
mallasindoora etc.
• Bhasma like rasa bhasma, tamra bhasma etc
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 77
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 78
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 79
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 80
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 81
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 82
LAVANA YANTRA
लवणस्य च दििेपादेवुं लवणयन्त्रकर्् ।
प्रकीदतमतुं दभषग्वयैर्ृमगाङ्काददरसार्मकर्् ॥ (RT.4/32)
• Lavana yantra is the same as ‘Valuka yantra’ explained
• The only change here in ‘valuka yantra’ is, instead of valuka (sand),
lavana(salt) is filled around the bottle in the cylindrical iron vessel
• All the procedure of heat application is also same
• This is used for ‘mringanka rasa’ and such other preparations
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 83
BHASMA YANTRA
• If bhasma of any dry wood is filled in place of valuka or
lavana in the above yantra, it will be ‘Bhasma Yantra’
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 84
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 85
KACHCHAPA YANTRA
• A wide circular vessel (earthen or of any metal) measuring 15 to 20
angula width is selected
• ½ of the vessel is filled with water
• Another similar vessel comparatively smaller than the earlier one,
which can float in the water of the earlier vessel is selected
• Now, the crucible filled with the medicine (parada or gandhaka etc) is
placed in the middle of the smaller vessel and it is covered inverted
with a strong earthen lid
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 86
• Above by lid on all sides in the small vessel, the charcoal is filled and
ignited
• This yantra is called as kachchapa yantra
• As it is looks like kachchapa (Back portion of tortoise) , it is called as
Kachchapa yantra
• This yantra is prominently used for gandhaka jarana and it is also
called as jala – kurma yantra by some other authors
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 87
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 88
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 89
TULA YANTRA
• 2 even sized vrintaka musha are taken
• At the neck of both theses crucibles, a hole is made on one side and a
thin ‘metal pipe’ of required length is fixed
• The pipe connecting place and the pipe’s outer surface is properly
smeared with met mud and dried
• Now, in one crucible, ‘Sudha gandhaka’ and in another ‘Sudha parada’
are put in desired rations and the vrinthaka musha are closed with their
lids, sealed with wet mud and dried
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 90
• Since the shape of this apparatus appears like that of the physical
balance, it is called as ‘tula yantra’
• Later, this entire apparatus is placed in a ‘valuka yantra’ and subjected
for intense heat
• Here the vapours of Sudha gandhaka travel through the pipe into
another crucible containing ‘Sudha parada’ and will be digested in it.
• This yantra in olden days was used for the purpose of ‘gandhaka
jarana’
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 91
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 92
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 93
VIDHYADHARA YANTRA
चषकुं ददवमकाकल्पुं दीधमहस्तकसुंयक्तर्् ।
ददवमकायन्त्रर्ेतदद्ध गन्त्धशोधिसाधकर्् ॥ R.T 4/39
• Vidhyadhara yantra is an apparatus used for sublimation of parada in
which 2 earthen pots are put in same direction and heating is given by
4 opening hearth
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 94
• The paste of drugs (hingula, somala etc) are applied in lower pot and
put another pot of same size in same direction
• The joint of both the pots are sealed properly with clay
• Keep on 4 opening hearth (chullika) for strong heating
• Upper pot is filled with water
• With intense heat mercury from hingula rises up and adheres at the
base of upper pot in droplet form
• Mercury is collected when its cool on its own . (Hingulottha parada)
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 95
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 96
PUTA YANTRA
• Rasaushadha are closed in sharava samputa and heated for 2 yaama in
karisha agni
• This yantra is known as puta yantra
शरावसम्पटान्त्त:स्र्ुं करीषेष्प्वदग्िर्ािदवत् ।
पचेच्चल्ल्याुं दियार्ुं वा रसुं तत्पटयन्त्रकर्् ॥ (RRS 9/45)
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 97
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 98
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 99
• The material is taken in one sharava , cover it with another and made
sharava samputa
• Keep inside karisha agni for 2 yaama in a furnace (puta)
• It is usually used to apply heat to loha, abhraka and such other drugs
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 100
ELECTRIC MUFFLE FURNACE
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 101
MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL INSTRUMENTS
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 102
ELECTRONIC CHEMICAL BALANCE
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 103
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 104
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 105
KASHAYA VESSEL
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 106
TABLET PUNCHING MACHINE
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 107
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 108
LEHYAM FILLING MACHINE
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 109
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 110
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Long Essays
1. Define Yantra and Write in detail about Vidhyadhara yantra, Tiryak patana yantra,
Dola yantra and ulukhala yantra with specific uses
2. Define Yantra. Enumerate different Yantras explained in Rasashastra texts and
explain any 4 yantras with their utility
3. Explain Yantras required for parada ashta samskaras and write their importance in
each of those ashta samskaras
4. Definition, enumeration and importance of yantra and explain patana yantra
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 111
Short Essays
1. Tiryak Patana Yantra
2. Describe Valuka Yantra
3. Define and explain importance of yantras with an example of damaru yantra
4. Dola yantra
5. Nirmana and upayoga of vidhyadhara yantra
6. Construction of Damaru yantra and its uses
7. Explain in brief regarding patala yantra
5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 112
Short Answers
1. Bhudhara Yantra
2. Damaru Yantra
3. Tapta Khalva
4. Samputa yantra (puta yantra)
5. Vidhyadhara yantra
6. Yantra
7. Use of dola yantra and patana yantra
8. Uses of swedani yantra

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Yantra.pptx

  • 1. यन्त्र Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) Assistant Professor Department of RSBK SSRAMC & H Inchal
  • 2. • Rasashastra deals with metallic, mineral and poisonous drugs. • These drugs are pharmaceutically processed and rendered fit for internal administration. • For the various processing of rasa uparasadi dhatus and for the preparation of medicines, specific apparatuses called ‘Yantras’ are needed. • Metals and minerals are required to undergo certain processes like shodhana, jarana, marana, satwapatana etc before they could be administered into the body and all these processes could only be achieved with the help of yantras. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 2
  • 3. • For exploring and utilizing the knowledge of Rasasastra, a better understanding of yantras is needed. • Textbooks of Ayurvediya Rasasastra including Rasatarangini, Rasaratna samuchaya, Rasarnavam and Rasendra Choodamani have been the sources of literature along with other published works on Rasasastra. • Only the yantras used in Rasasastra were considered here and the yantras mentioned in the context of Salyatantra, Salakya tantra for its use in treatment were excluded. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 3
  • 4. **स्वेदाददकर्मदिर्ामतुं वादतमके न्त्रै: प्रयत्ित: । यन्त््यते पारदो यस्र्ात्तस्र्ाध्यन्त्रदर्दत स्र्ृतर्् ॥ र.र.स 9/2 Yantras are the instruments which are used for the difficult operations of controlling parada by performing processes like svedana etc. DEFINITION OF YANTRA 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 4
  • 5. रसोपरसलोहाध्या र्ारणाध्यार्मदसद्धये । यन्त््यन्त्तेऽिेि यस्र्ात्त तस्र्ाद् यन्त्रुं प्रकीदतमतर्् ॥ र.त 4/1 The different types of apparatus used for various pharmaceutical procedures, such as swedana (Steaming), Mardana (Trituration), shodhana(Purification), maarana (incineration), etc on different rasa dravya are called as yantra 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 5
  • 6. S.N Classical Reference No:of Yantras 1 Rasarnavam (12th cent AD) 5 2 Rasendra Choodamani (12th cent AD) 30 3 RasaRatna Samuchaya (13th cent AD) 32 4 Rasendra Sara sangraha (16th cent AD) 9 5 Rasa Tarangini (20th cent AD) 20 NUMBER OF YANTRAS IN VARIOUS TEXTS 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 6
  • 7. SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT 1 Dola Yantra + + + + + 2 Damaru Yantra + + + 3 Sthali Yantra + + + 4 Nalika Yantra + + + 5 Lavana Yantra + + + 6 Bhasma Yantra + 7 Swedani Yantra + + + 8 Valuka Yantra + + + YANTRAS MENTIONED IN RASASASTRA LITERATURE 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 7
  • 8. SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT 10 Dharvika Yantra + 11 Vidyadhara Yantra + + + 12 Ghata Yantra + + 13 Patana Yantra + + + + 14 AdhapatanaYantra + + + + 15 Tiryakpatana Yantra + + + + 16 Bhudhara Yantra + + 17 Patala Yantra + 18 Kachapa Yantra + + + 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 8
  • 9. SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT 20 Khalva Yantra + + + 21 Taptakhalva Yantra + + + 22 Ulukhala Yantra + 23 Kanduka Yantra + 24 Somanala Yantra + + + 25 Hamsapaka Yantra + + 26 Jarana Yantra + + 27 Deki Yantra + + 28 Valabhi Yantra + + 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 9
  • 10. SN YANTRAS RA R.Chu RRS RSS RT 29 Koshti Yantra + + + 30 Palika Yantra + + + 31 Ishtika Yantra + + 32 Mridanga Yantra + 33 Garbha Yantra + + 34 Grasta Yantra + + 35 Dhupa Yantra + + 36 Nabhi Yantra + + 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 10
  • 11. NAMING OF YANTRAS a) Based on their shapes: Damaru yantra, kachapa yantra,Ghata yantra etc b) Based on their functions: Swedani yantra, jarana yantra, patana yantra c) Based on materials used: Lavana yantra, valuka yantra, bhasma yantra 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 11
  • 12. दशाङ्गलन्त्त दवस्तारे तूत्सेधे षोडशाङ्गलर्् । रयोदशाङ्गलुं चैव दिम्ित्वेि च सुंदृढर्् ॥ आयसा: दिदर्मतञ्चैव र्ध्येऽदतर्सृणीकृतर्् । दवुंशत्यङ्गलदीर्मश्च लोहदण्ड: सशोभि: ॥ उलूखलादभधुं यन्त्रुं बधैरेतत्प्रकीदतमतर्् । ताप्यादीिाुं कट्टिार्ं यन्त्रर्ेतत्प्रयज्य्ते ॥ लर्ूदि चार् दीर्ामदण यक्तत्या यन्त्रादण कारयेत् । रव्यर्ािािकूल्येि् दवधािज्ञो दभषग्वर: ॥ यन्त्राण्येतादि प्रोक्तादि ददग्दशमितया र्या। अध्येतृणाुं दशशूिान्त्त सखबोधाय सत्वारर्् ॥ (र त 4/58-62) उलूखल यन्त्र 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 12
  • 13. Shape : A deep vessel shaped Made with : Wood/Stone/Iron Height : 16 angula Width : 10 angula Depth : 13 angula Structure : Soft , Shiny, Strong Pestle (Peshini) Made With : wood/Stone/Iron length : 20 angula Usage : Pounding different herbals (Leaves, roots, tubers etc) Minerals (Rasoparasa and loha) 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 13
  • 14. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 14
  • 15. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 15
  • 16. खल्व यन्त्र चषकोपर्र्त्यच्छुं सदृढ दपदच्छलोपर्र्् । सदच्छलादवदहतुं पारुं खल्वयन्त्रदर्होच्यते ॥ (र त 4/53) Shape : Circular or elliptical Made with : Stone or iron Structure : bigger, strong (Inner surface – soft & smooth) Types : Vartulaakaara , Droniroopa Usage : Pounding or triturating different types of herbal and mineral drugs 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 16
  • 17. खल्वयन्त्रुं दिधा प्रोक्तुं रसतन्त्रे दवशेषत: । प्रर्र्ुं वतमलाकारुं रोणीरुपुं दितीयकर्् ॥ (र.त 4/55) खल्वयन्त्र - Types वततुलाकार (Circular) खल्वयन्त्र द्रोणीरुप (Elliptical) खल्वयन्त्र 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 17
  • 18. दवस्तारे तपिाङ्गल: सर्तलो िीलाब्जतल्यप्रभ: । दिम्ित्वे च िवाङ्गल: सर्सृणो रुराङ्गलोच्छायवाि् ॥ दभत्त्या ियङ्गलसुंदर्त: खल यर्ा चेन्त्राङ्गलो र्षमक: । खल्वोऽयुं खल दिगददत: सूतादददसदद्धप्रद: ॥ (R.T 4/56) वततुल खल्व यन्त्र 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 18
  • 19. Shape : Circular Made with : Stone/Iron Height : 11 angula Width : 12 angula Depth Thickness (wall) : 09 angula : 2 inch Structure : body should be uniform , soft & of neelakamala varna Pestle (Peshini) Made With : Stone/Iron length : 14 angula Usage : Pounding & trituration 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 19
  • 20. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 20
  • 21. उत्सेधे तरङ्गागल: खल कलातल्याङ्गल्यश्चायत दवस्तारे तपिाङ्गलश्च र्सृण दभत्या च वै ियङ्गल: । र्षम: सूयमसर्ाङ्गल: सदवशदो लोहादददभदिदर्मत: खल्वोऽयुं रसदसदद्धकृदन्त्िगाददतो रोणीदिभोऽत्यत्तर्: ।। द्रोणीरुप खल्व 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 21
  • 22. Shape : Elliptical Made with : Stone/Iron Height Length : 7 angula : 16 angula Width : 12 angula Thickness (wall) : 2 inch Structure : body should be uniform , soft Pestle (Peshini) Made With : Stone/Iron length : 12 angula Usage : Pounding & trituration 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 22
  • 23. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 23
  • 24. तप्त खल्व यन्त्र लोहो िवाङ्गल: खल्लो दिम्ित्वे च षडङ्गल: । र्दमकोऽष्टाङ्गलश्चैव तप्तखल्लादभर्ोऽप्ययर्् ॥ (RRS 9/85) 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 24
  • 25. Shape : Made with : Iron/carbon steel Height Length : angula : 9 angula (18cms) Width & depth : 6 angula (12cms) Pestle (Peshini) Made With : Iron / carbon steel length : 8 angula (16cms) Usage : Parada shodhana  This khalva yantra is placed over an iron stand specially meant to place this yantra .  While trituration process is carried out, the ‘glowing charcoal’ are placed in a ‘sarava’ & kept beneath the khalva yantra.  The heat generates below keeps the yantra warm the yantra warm and assists 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 25
  • 26. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 26
  • 27. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 27 Dola yantra is an apparatus used for Shodhana process of Rasa aushadha, in which drug containing pottali to be suspended like dola (swing) in particular liquid media for specific time. Use : SWEDANA & SHODHANA of Rasa aushadha DOLA YANTRA रवरव्येण भाण्डस्य पूररताधोदकस्य च । र्खस्योभयतो िारियुं कृत्वा प्रयत्ित: ॥ तयोस्त दिदिपेद्दण्डुं तन्त्र्ध्ये रसपोट्टलीर्् । बद्ध्वा त स्वेदयेदेतद्दोलायन्त्रदर्दत स्र्ृतर्् ॥ (RRS 9/3-4)
  • 28. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 28 • A pot is taken & 2 small holes are made at the neck of the pot opposite to each other • So as to insert a rod in these holes to hang or suspend the pottali like a swing inside the liquid in such a way that it may not touch the bottom by means of a thread • Liquid is filled up to the pottali should be immersed properly into it. • Then mild heat is applied from below just sufficient to maintain boiling of the liquid inside the pot
  • 29. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 29
  • 30. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 30 • There is a difference of opinion amongst different scholars regarding the amount of liquid media filled in the pot. • Here in this reference (RRS 9/3-4), liquid should be filled half to the pot & in the commentary of D.A Kulkarni to this verse; • Liquid should be filled 16 times to the drug • Though liquid should be filled like that pottali is immersed properly & maintain the level by adding liquid in between the process. • This process is carried out in open boiling not covered with lid.
  • 31. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 31 GHATA YANTRA The pot which has capacity of 4 prashtha (768mg) liquid & the mouth of pot is 4 angula is known as Ghata yantra or Apyayanaka Use : For filling any liquid material चतष्प्प्रस्र्जलाधारश्चतरङ्गदलकाऽऽिि: । र्टयन्त्रदर्दुं प्रोक्तुं तदाप्यायिकुं स्र्ृतर्् ॥ (R.R.S 9/51)
  • 32. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 32
  • 33. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 33 SWEDANI YANTRA Swedani yantra is an apparatus used for purification or fermentation process of rasa oushadha in which drug is put over the cloth & to be fermented through vapours of boiling liquid media for specific time. साम्बस्र्ालीर्खाबद्धे वस्त्रे पाक्तयुं दिवेशयेत् । दपधाय पच्यते यर स्वेदिीयन्त्रर्च्यते ॥ (RRS 9/5)
  • 34. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 34
  • 35. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 35 • An earthen pot is filled with liquid media & its mouth is covered with cloth • Then material is placed on that cloth & closed with sharava. • That apparatus is subjected for specific time of heating • Due to boiling of liquid media, drug is fermented through vapors & gets soften • Mild heat should be maintained to avoid the liquid media reach up to the cloth
  • 36. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 36 PATANA YANTRA The ‘Patana procedure’ & the ‘Patana yantra’ are the rudimentary forms of present – day ‘distillation process’ & ‘simple distillation apparatus’. As per our classics there are 3 types of ‘patana yantra’ as mentioned below : 1. Urdhva Patana Yantra 2. Adhah Patana Yantra 3. Tiryak Patana yantra
  • 37. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 37 URDHVAPATANA YANTRA • Urdhva patana yantra is an apparatus used for upper sublimation of parada in which unequal size of 2 pots are put inversely. • It is also known as Patana yantra • 2 unequal sizes of pots are taken • Among them upper earthen pot has the base of 16 angula size with 10×8×4 (l×b×h) angula size of Toyadhara which is prepared on the base of this pot URDHVAPATANA YANTRA
  • 38. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 38 • Lower pot is taken smaller to the upper pot is inversely put on it. • The conjoining space of both the pots is sealed with mahisha ksheera, churna, mandora and phanita. • Now this set of apparatus is put on fire and filled water in toyadhara. • As a result of heating, water becomes hot and is replaced constantly by cold water • The patana yantra is described by the name of urdhva patina yantra in the later text like Ayurveda prakasha
  • 39. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 39 USE – Upward sublimation of mercury from hingula & patana samskara of parada
  • 40. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 40 ADHAH PATANA YANTRA • Adhah patina yantra is an apparatus used for downward sublimation of parada in which 2 pots are put inversely • 2 unequal size of earthen pots are taken • Water is filled in lower pot & inversely put on lower pot. • The conjoining space of both the pots is sealed with mud or any specific material • Now heating is given to upper pot by means of cow dung cakes and Hg is obtained in lower pot by considering of Hg vapours in the H2O
  • 41. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 41 USE – Downward sublimation of mercury from hingula & patana samskara of parada
  • 42. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 42 TIRYAK PATANA YANTRA • Tiryak yantra is an apparatus used for transverse sublimation of parada • In modern science ‘Tiryak patana’ is described as an independent process known as ‘Distillation’
  • 43. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 43 • The paste of Hingula or other material is applied in big earthen pot & hole is made at the neck of this pot so as to insert a tube in this hole & connect with the hole of other pot which is kept at lower level in transverse state. • Lower small pot is filled with water for condensing • The mouth of both the pots is sealed with earthen saucer. • Heat is given to big pot & due to heating vaporized mercury is collected through the tube by condensation in small pot.
  • 44. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 44 USE – Transverse sublimation of mercury from hingula & patana samskara of parada
  • 45. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 45
  • 46. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 46 DISTILLATION APPARATUS
  • 47. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 47 DAMARU YANTRA • Damaru yantra is an apparatus used for sublimation of parada in which 2 same sizes of earthern pots are put inversely onto each other. • Damaru yantra is named as it resembles like the musical instrument of Lord Shiva
  • 48. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 48 यन्त्रस्र्ाल्यपरर स्र्ालीं न्त्यब्जाुं दत्त्वा दिरुन्त्ध्येत् । यन्त्रुं डर्रुकाख्युं तरसभस्र्कृते दहतर्् ॥ (RRS 9/58) • From 2 earthen pots, the paste of drugs i.e, Hingula,Somala (Gouripashana – arsenenious trioxide – As2O3) are applied in the lower pot with same size is inversely put on it. • The joint of both the pots are sealed properly with clay • Now, it is put on fire and condensed upper pot by wet cloth
  • 49. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 49
  • 50. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 50
  • 51. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 51
  • 52. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 52
  • 53. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 53 USES • Upper sublimation of mercury, arsenic etc drugs. • Preparation of Hingulotta parada and rasa bhasma
  • 54. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 54 STHALI YANTRA • Sthali Yantra is an apparatus in which the paste of Tamra etc. is applied in the pot, covered by sharava and applied heat from the below. • Sthali (Pot) is used for process, hence it is known as sthali yantra
  • 55. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 55 स्र्ाल्याुं ताम्रादद दिदिप्य र्ल्लेिाऽऽस्युं दिरुद्धय च । पच्यते स्र्ादलकाधस्तात्स्र्ालीयन्त्रदर्दुं स्र्ृतर्् ॥ (RRS 9/67) • Sthali (earthen pot) containing the paste of tamra, somala etc is closed by sharava with clay. • Then this apparatus is place on fire for heating
  • 56. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 56
  • 57. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 57 USES • For paka of tamra etc. drugs • For gandhaka jarana
  • 58. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 58 PALIKA YANTRA • Palika yantra is an apparatus used for gandhaka jarana in iron cup with long curved handle PALIKA YANTRA
  • 59. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 59 चषकुं वतमलुं ल हुं दविताग्रोध्वमदण्डकर्् । एतादद्ध पादलकायन्त्रुं बदलजारणहेतवे ॥ (RRS 9/50)
  • 60. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 60 • Loha chashaka (iron cup) is attached to long iron handle with a curved on its upper end • Sulphur is put in loha chashaka and melted on fire USES: • For Gandhaka jarana, preparation of rasa parpati • Used in preparation of varatika bhasma (acc.to RSS)
  • 61. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 61 चषकुं ददवमकाकल्पुं दीधमहस्तकसुंयक्तर्् । ददवमकायन्त्रर्ेतदद्ध गन्त्धशोधिसाधकर्् ॥ (R.T 4/39) DARVIKA YANTRA
  • 62. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 62 • Darvika yantra is a simple tablespoon used in kitchens but of the bigger size • The spoon should be made of iron or steel • Its head should have a strong, deeper bowl like structure • Its handle should be strong & long (1 to 1.5 hastha/ 18 to 27 inches) USES : • Melting gandhaka, naga, vanga etc during their shodhana
  • 63. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 63
  • 64. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 64 BHUDHARA YANTRA • Mercurial drugs containing closed crucible is kept in a pit and heating is provided on the surface of the earth through valuka. • Hence it is known as bhudhara yantra
  • 65. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 65 वालकागूढसवामङ्गाुं गते र्ूषाुं रसादन्त्वतार्् । ददप्तोत्पलै: सुंवृणयाद्यान्त्रुं तद्भूधाराह्यायर्् ॥ (RRS 9/44)
  • 66. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 66 • A wide and circular earthen vessel of cylindrical bucket like structure is selected. • At its base, 2 angula valuka (sand) is spread • Above that, the tightly enclosed and sealed sharava containing medicine is firmly placed. • Above and all sides of the sharava, 2 angula thick sand is filled • Above this sand the specified no:of dry cow dung cakes are placed and ignited. This is called as Bhudhara Yantra
  • 67. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 67 • Instead of using earthen vessel, small sized ‘pit’ may be done in the ground and the same remaining procedure may be carried out . • If done so, the name ‘bhudhara yantra’ suits better to this yantra USES : Preparation of rasa bhasma
  • 68. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 68
  • 69. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 69 PATALA YANTRA • Patala yantra is an apparatus used for extraction for the oil from the oily substances in the pot which is put under the earth • Here the finished product (oil) is collected under the earth (patala) , so it is known as patala yantra
  • 70. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 70 • A big pot is taken and filled with the material from which oil is to be extracted • The opening of the pot is 1st closed with an iron mesh and covered by the other vessel with tightly sealed • 1 hastha (18 inc) of garta (pit) is prepared and put this set of apparatus in such a way that material containing big pot is placed under the earth • Heat is given to the big pot by cow dung cakes and after self – cooling oil is to be collected from the lower vessel
  • 71. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 71
  • 72. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 72
  • 73. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 73
  • 74. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 74 VALUKA YANTRA • A glass bottle (kacha kupi), which is lengthy with elongated neck, which has round and firm base with amber colour is selected • It is covered with 7 layers of wet cloth smeared with mud and dried as explained in references • 1/3rd of the bottle is filled with ‘parada’ & other required drugs and kept ready • A 12 angula deep and wide strong iron ‘cylindrical bucket’ like vessel is taken
  • 75. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 75 • On its outer surface, 2 to b3 layers of wet mud and cloth is put • At the base of this vessel 2 angula, dry and clean sand is put • Over this the earlier prepared bottle is firmly placed at the centre of the vessel • Later on all sides of the bottle, the sand is carefully filled upto its neck level • Now the vessel is carefully placed over ‘Bhatti’ (oven) and the heat of required intensity is applied for stipulated time.
  • 76. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 76 • This type of yantra is called as ‘valuka yantra’ • USE : • Gandhaka jarana, sindoora Kalpana like rasasindoora , makaradwaja, mallasindoora etc. • Bhasma like rasa bhasma, tamra bhasma etc
  • 77. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 77
  • 78. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 78
  • 79. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 79
  • 80. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 80
  • 81. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 81
  • 82. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 82 LAVANA YANTRA लवणस्य च दििेपादेवुं लवणयन्त्रकर्् । प्रकीदतमतुं दभषग्वयैर्ृमगाङ्काददरसार्मकर्् ॥ (RT.4/32) • Lavana yantra is the same as ‘Valuka yantra’ explained • The only change here in ‘valuka yantra’ is, instead of valuka (sand), lavana(salt) is filled around the bottle in the cylindrical iron vessel • All the procedure of heat application is also same • This is used for ‘mringanka rasa’ and such other preparations
  • 83. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 83 BHASMA YANTRA • If bhasma of any dry wood is filled in place of valuka or lavana in the above yantra, it will be ‘Bhasma Yantra’
  • 84. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 84
  • 85. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 85 KACHCHAPA YANTRA • A wide circular vessel (earthen or of any metal) measuring 15 to 20 angula width is selected • ½ of the vessel is filled with water • Another similar vessel comparatively smaller than the earlier one, which can float in the water of the earlier vessel is selected • Now, the crucible filled with the medicine (parada or gandhaka etc) is placed in the middle of the smaller vessel and it is covered inverted with a strong earthen lid
  • 86. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 86 • Above by lid on all sides in the small vessel, the charcoal is filled and ignited • This yantra is called as kachchapa yantra • As it is looks like kachchapa (Back portion of tortoise) , it is called as Kachchapa yantra • This yantra is prominently used for gandhaka jarana and it is also called as jala – kurma yantra by some other authors
  • 87. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 87
  • 88. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 88
  • 89. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 89 TULA YANTRA • 2 even sized vrintaka musha are taken • At the neck of both theses crucibles, a hole is made on one side and a thin ‘metal pipe’ of required length is fixed • The pipe connecting place and the pipe’s outer surface is properly smeared with met mud and dried • Now, in one crucible, ‘Sudha gandhaka’ and in another ‘Sudha parada’ are put in desired rations and the vrinthaka musha are closed with their lids, sealed with wet mud and dried
  • 90. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 90 • Since the shape of this apparatus appears like that of the physical balance, it is called as ‘tula yantra’ • Later, this entire apparatus is placed in a ‘valuka yantra’ and subjected for intense heat • Here the vapours of Sudha gandhaka travel through the pipe into another crucible containing ‘Sudha parada’ and will be digested in it. • This yantra in olden days was used for the purpose of ‘gandhaka jarana’
  • 91. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 91
  • 92. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 92
  • 93. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 93 VIDHYADHARA YANTRA चषकुं ददवमकाकल्पुं दीधमहस्तकसुंयक्तर्् । ददवमकायन्त्रर्ेतदद्ध गन्त्धशोधिसाधकर्् ॥ R.T 4/39 • Vidhyadhara yantra is an apparatus used for sublimation of parada in which 2 earthen pots are put in same direction and heating is given by 4 opening hearth
  • 94. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 94 • The paste of drugs (hingula, somala etc) are applied in lower pot and put another pot of same size in same direction • The joint of both the pots are sealed properly with clay • Keep on 4 opening hearth (chullika) for strong heating • Upper pot is filled with water • With intense heat mercury from hingula rises up and adheres at the base of upper pot in droplet form • Mercury is collected when its cool on its own . (Hingulottha parada)
  • 95. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 95
  • 96. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 96 PUTA YANTRA • Rasaushadha are closed in sharava samputa and heated for 2 yaama in karisha agni • This yantra is known as puta yantra शरावसम्पटान्त्त:स्र्ुं करीषेष्प्वदग्िर्ािदवत् । पचेच्चल्ल्याुं दियार्ुं वा रसुं तत्पटयन्त्रकर्् ॥ (RRS 9/45)
  • 97. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 97
  • 98. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 98
  • 99. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 99 • The material is taken in one sharava , cover it with another and made sharava samputa • Keep inside karisha agni for 2 yaama in a furnace (puta) • It is usually used to apply heat to loha, abhraka and such other drugs
  • 100. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 100 ELECTRIC MUFFLE FURNACE
  • 101. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 101 MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL INSTRUMENTS
  • 102. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 102 ELECTRONIC CHEMICAL BALANCE
  • 103. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 103
  • 104. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 104
  • 105. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 105 KASHAYA VESSEL
  • 106. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 106 TABLET PUNCHING MACHINE
  • 107. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 107
  • 108. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 108 LEHYAM FILLING MACHINE
  • 109. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 109
  • 110. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 110 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Long Essays 1. Define Yantra and Write in detail about Vidhyadhara yantra, Tiryak patana yantra, Dola yantra and ulukhala yantra with specific uses 2. Define Yantra. Enumerate different Yantras explained in Rasashastra texts and explain any 4 yantras with their utility 3. Explain Yantras required for parada ashta samskaras and write their importance in each of those ashta samskaras 4. Definition, enumeration and importance of yantra and explain patana yantra
  • 111. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 111 Short Essays 1. Tiryak Patana Yantra 2. Describe Valuka Yantra 3. Define and explain importance of yantras with an example of damaru yantra 4. Dola yantra 5. Nirmana and upayoga of vidhyadhara yantra 6. Construction of Damaru yantra and its uses 7. Explain in brief regarding patala yantra
  • 112. 5/18/2022 Yantra's - Dr.Saranya Sasi MD(Ayu) SSRAMC & H Inchal Belgaum 112 Short Answers 1. Bhudhara Yantra 2. Damaru Yantra 3. Tapta Khalva 4. Samputa yantra (puta yantra) 5. Vidhyadhara yantra 6. Yantra 7. Use of dola yantra and patana yantra 8. Uses of swedani yantra