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Disaster Response
Presented by:nourhan Dahshan
IBS Hyderabad 1
Objectives
 Aim of Disaster Response
 Evacuation, Migration, administrating first-aid,
transportation of affected people to hospital
 Discuss the restoration of essential services.
 Rescue work
 Ideal Command Centre
 Modern and traditional methods of response
2
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
 The mission of the response phase is to meet
the basic needs of the people until more
permanent and sustainable solutions are
formulated.
 There is growing awareness of costs
associated with improper management of
disasters and hence communities and
government are trying hard to improve the first
responder efforts.
3
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
4
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
 Mitigation and preparedness are the first two
phases of Disaster Management Cycle.
 The third phase of this cycle is the response
phase.
 It deals with the immediate reaction of the
individuals, communities and agencies
working for disaster management immediately
following a disaster.
5
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
 Disaster response is aimed at providing instant
support to maintain life and health of the
affected population.
 There is a wide array of response activities
carried out after disaster like first-aid,
transportation, shelter and food, initial repairs
to damaged infrastructure.
6
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
 The level & kind of disaster response depends
on a number of factors – the scale of disaster,
the nature and number of affected people and
site-specific conditions.
 Response comprises the decisions and
actions taken to deal with an urgent situation
that has adversely affected life and property.
7
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
 It calls for collaboration, coordination and
communication between agencies involved in
administrating rescue and relief operations.
 The main aim of response is to save and
protect human life.
 The other aims of response are-
1. To guarantee the continued existence of the
maximum possible number of affected population
and ensuring that they are in the best possible
physical and mental health in the circumstances.
8
IBS Hyderabad
Aims of Response
 The other aims of response are-
2. To reinstate critical services and provide food,
clothing and water.
3. To restore or replace demolished or damaged
infrastructure. To make alternate housing
arrangements in camps.
4. To help in relieving suffering.
5. To protect the health and safety of responding
personnel.
9
IBS Hyderabad
Steps of disaster response
• 1-Evacuation
The immediate and urgent movement
away from a threat or hazard
1: Immediate Evacuation:
• An evacuation resulting from a hazard
impact, that forces immediate action,
thereby allowing little action or no warning
and limited preparation time.
IBS Hyderabad 10
Examples:
• • Hazardous material accidents, air crash
,wildfires and earthquakes
are examples of events that require
immediate action.
IBS Hyderabad 11
• 2: Pre-warned evacuation:
• An evacuation resulting from an event
that provides adequate
warning and does not unduly limit
preparation time.
• Examples :
• floods, cyclones and storm surge.
IBS Hyderabad 12
Types of disaster Evacuation
1. STAY IN PLACE
• The first type of evacuation that you should know about
is a “stay in place” or “shelter in place.” A stay in place
evacuation is meant for situations when leaving the
premises could put the health and safety of occupants at
risk
• As in Dangerous weather, like flash floods, tornadoes
and winter
storms.
• Chemical attacks or spills outside of the building.
IBS Hyderabad 13
Types of disaster Evacuation
2. BUILDING EVACUATION
• The second type of evacuation is a
building evacuation. A building
evacuation is necessary when staying
inside the building poses a direct threat to
the occupants. This applies to any type of
building,
• As in Fires, Gas leaks, Structural
problems
IBS Hyderabad 14
Types of disaster Evacuation
3-COMMUNITY EVACUATION
• A community evacuation is when the occupants of a
specific area, like a
neighborhood or a university campus, need to evacuate
as soon as possible to ensure their safety.
• As in Fire, Threats of violence. For instance, when a
bomb threat is made against the premises, Oncoming
severe weather. For instance, areas located on local
flood plains
IBS Hyderabad 15
Types of disaster Evacuation
4. CITY EVACUATION
• A city-wide evacuation (also known as a mass
evacuation) is when citizens are encouraged to evacuate
their city and seek shelter in a safer location as soon as
possible.
IBS Hyderabad 16
steps of disaster response
2- Search and Rescue:
• Disaster response activities begin with the detection of
the crisis and end with the normalization of the situation
following impact.
• The response activities entail triggering search and
rescue mechanism to find the injured, providing
emergency medical care and transferring them to safe
places.
IBS Hyderabad 17
4-steps of disaster response
• 3- Staging Area
• The staging area is the on-site incident command station. Disaster
responders should report to this area to “check in” so that everyone
is accounted for and can be given an assignment. This arrangement
allows for the most effective use of the skills and abilities of those
responding. No one should go to the disaster site unless directed to
do so by the staging area commander. The staging area is also
where the authority rests for decisions as to the need for additional
resources to manage the disaster incident
IBS Hyderabad 18
4-steps of disaster response
4- Disaster Triage
Triage is identifying and separating individuals quickly
according to injury severity and treatment needed.
Disaster triage focuses on sorting the greatest number of
people as fast as possible.
Triage:
is the process of determining the priority of patients’
treatments by the severity of their condition or likelihood
of recovery with and without treatment
IBS Hyderabad 19
Control Process and Measurement
 Controlling is a systematic efforts by which it is
ensured that plans are strictly followed and
actual performance is measured and
compared with that standard performance.
 At the planning level, the tasks and roles are
clearly stated and responders are made aware
of their responsibilities.
 This helps them to control their behavior and
priorities their tasks.
20
IBS Hyderabad
Control Process and Measurement
 The control process is a three step process-
1. Setting performance standards.
2. Measuring actual performance.
3. Comparing actual performance with standards.
21
IBS Hyderabad
Security Issues
 It is vital to ensure the security of the most
vulnerable population that is women, children
and the elderly.
 Generally, it is seen that security is not always
a priority issue after a disaster because rescue
and relief operations are considered
paramount.
 Along with police, military personnel are also
deployed to respond to a disaster.
22
IBS Hyderabad
Security Issues
 Given the state of vulnerabilities of the
affected community, physical security and
public order in the disaster-affected areas
should be established.
 It helps prevent the public order from turning
into an undesirable state of panic and chaos.
23
IBS Hyderabad
Profile of an Effective crises leader
 Disasters are situations where leaders can
work wonders.
 They can be really effective in managing the
disasters and controlling situations.
 Certain pre-requisites of an effective crisis
leader are as follows:
24
IBS Hyderabad
Profile of an Effective crises leader
1. Understanding
2. Truthful
3. Patient
4. Suave in conduct - be tactful in dealing with
victims.
5. Composed
6. Should be willing to delegate
7. Committed to selfless services
8. Decision maker
25
IBS Hyderabad
Leading at the time of Crisis:
Competencies and Challenges
 Crisis management is the process by which a
major disastrous event is brought under
control.
 There are two elements of crisis –
1. They are shocking incidents that take individuals
by surprise.
2. There is very little time to make decision.
 While dealing with these situations, a leader
should make timely, decisive and correct
decision individually and collectively.
26
IBS Hyderabad
Leading at the time of Crisis:
Competencies and Challenges
 The three challenges of crisis situation are:
1. Unpredictability.
2. General mood of affected people.
3. Misinformation.
 The competency required for attaining this is
very simple: It is faith.
 The leader should instil confidence and faith
in his or her co-workers.
27
IBS Hyderabad
Evacuation and Migration
 Evacuation involves the relocation of
individuals and members of the affected
community from risk-zone to a safer location.
 Evacuation can help individual and
communities avoid the aftermath of disasters
such as building collapse, outbreak of
diseases, etc.
28
IBS Hyderabad
Evacuation and Migration
 People are reluctant to evacuate even in the
most dangerous situations because of
inadequate social or economical resources.
 The three pre-requisites of effective
evacuation are:
1. A Plan of action and place to relocate the
evacuees.
2. Clear identification of escape routes.
3. A timely and accurate warning system to inform
about the exact turn of events.
29
IBS Hyderabad
Evacuation and Migration
 Evacuation is immediate and urgent
movement of people away from the threat or
actual occurrence of a rapid onset of a
disaster.
 This type of migration is temporary in nature
and after the crisis is over the families return to
their homes.
30
IBS Hyderabad
Administering First-Aid
 The process of addressing the needs of a
person who is physically injured or is
psychologically distressed is referred to as
first-aid.
 Though first-aid is not substitute for
professional medical help, but still it can make
a difference between life and death.
31
IBS Hyderabad
Administering First-Aid
 When addressing the first-aid after disasters,
there are certain aspects that need to be taken
care of –
1. Check the surroundings.
2. Seek help whenever necessary.
3. Remain with the victim.
4. Stay Calm.
5. Determine responsiveness.
6. Help to stop bleeding first.
7. Psychological support.
32
IBS Hyderabad
Administering First-Aid
 Training in first-aid should be made
compulsory at school level.
 The kind of first-aid differs according to the
nature of disaster.
 First-aid training must be packaged in a way
that ‘clearly outlines its aims, mechanism,
when it is used, where it can be applied and
who benefits from its use, who can deliver it’.
33
IBS Hyderabad
Handling of Injured at Hospitals:
Challenges and Issues
 Colored – coded tagging systems are used to
identify those with minor injuries, moderate
injuries or severe injuries.
 The black tag is used for the dead, red tag for
those needing immediate resuscitation, yellow
tag for those suffering from potentially life-
threatening injuries and green tag for minor
injuries or wounded.
34
IBS Hyderabad
Handling of Injured at Hospitals:
Challenges and Issues
 It is imperative that after a disaster, the health-
care providers should do what they have
expertise in.
 The physician and nurse with special field
training should be in the field.
 Specialized medical aid should be provided to
the victims.
35
IBS Hyderabad
Mobilization and Restoration of
Essential Services
 To ensure effective command and control of
an emergency situation, it is crucial that
essential services are organized.
1. Telephone Lines
2. Electricity and power supply
3. Drinking water supply & non-perishable food
4. Alternate roads
36
IBS Hyderabad
Search and rescue Work
 Disaster response activities begin with the
detection of the crisis and end with the
normalization of the situation following impact.
 The response activities entail triggering search
and rescue mechanism to find the injured,
providing emergency medical care and
transferring them to safe places.
37
IBS Hyderabad
Search and rescue Work
 The response phase differs from other phases
of disaster management in the sense that
there are two important aspects namely,
uncertainty and urgency.
 The emergency response actions should be
well coordinated with disaster recovery as they
form the foundation for carrying out recovery
activities.
38
IBS Hyderabad
Modern and Traditional Methods of
Response
 The responses to disasters may utilize a mix
of methods from traditional to modern.
 The situation and nature of the affected
population play a decisive role in choosing an
effective response mechanism.
 Traditional methods of response have been
used since long and they are the most
common and practical methods of response.
39
IBS Hyderabad
Modern and Traditional Methods of
Response
 They entail assistant provided in the form of
food, shelter materials, blankets, etc.
 Money is also provided so that affected people
can buy things according to their needs.
 Charitable organizations offer help to
communities that have suffered a disaster.
 New technologies can be very useful and
powerful in disaster response.
40
IBS Hyderabad
Modern and Traditional Methods of
Response
 These basically form the basis of the modern
methods of disaster response.
 Mobile phones can act as warning devices.
 SMS provided by operators can prove to be
useful medium to send warning signals of
immediate threat.
 GPS for tracing location of victims.
41
IBS Hyderabad
Modern and Traditional Methods of
Response
 The disaster management team also uses the
potential of mapping technologies, such as
geographic information system (GIS), remote
sensing (satellite imagery) and global
positioning system (GPS), to aid emergency
response operations.
42
IBS Hyderabad
Modern and Traditional Methods of
Response
1. Remote Sensing: the scanning of the earth
by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to
obtain information about it.
1. Visible and Reflective Infrared remote sensing.
2. Thermal Infrared Remote sensing.
3. Microwave Remote sensing.
2. GIS – GIS is a system that collects, displays,
manages and analyzes geographic
information.
3. Other Methods – Social Media & Social
networking.
43
IBS Hyderabad
A Model of an Ideal Command Centre
 Incident command center is a standardized,
on-scene, all-hazard incident management
concept.
 The primary role of this center is the
coordination of efforts for effective and efficient
management of incident.
 When any disastrous event occurs, they first
identify and assess the situation.
44
IBS Hyderabad
A Model of an Ideal Command Centre
 The functions of an Incident Command Centre
are:
1. Development of objectives.
2. Preparation of Incident Action Plan to meet
incident objectives, collection and evaluation
of information.
45
IBS Hyderabad
A Model of an Ideal Command Centre
 The functions of an Incident Command Centre
are:
3. Maintenance of resource status and incident
documentation.
4. Providing logistics support to meet
operational objectives.
5. Financial administration to monitor costs,
accounting, procurement and cost analysis.
46
IBS Hyderabad
Role of nurse in disaster
response
Triage & Initial Care
When the demand for medical services is
overwhelming the immediate available
capacity, one of the most important tasks
is performing triage. Triage is the process
of sorting patients into different priority
levels, to do the most good for the most
people with a limited amount of resources.
IBS Hyderabad 47
Records & Documentation
Accurately recording each patient’s
information is essential when people are
receiving first aid at the site of a disaster
before they’re transported elsewhere for
additional care. Maintaining continuity of
care becomes more challenging in disaster
scenarios, so “triage tags” are commonly
used to record important details about
each patient and their condition.
IBS Hyderabad 48
Mental Health First Aid
People who live through traumatic events
like disasters can experience severe
emotional and psychological distress.
Another primary responsibility of nurses in
disaster response efforts is providing
mental health support to people in need.
Nurses are trained to recognize the signs
of distress and offer psychological first aid
to victims of large-scale disasters
IBS Hyderabad 49
Public Health Efforts In disaster situations,
nurses are also called upon to help with a
variety of public health initiatives. This could
mean dispensing vaccines at pop-up clinics
during a pandemic, or educating people on
disease prevention when safe water or
reliable plumbing are in short supply. It could
also mean helping with decontamination
efforts after large numbers of people are
exposed to hazardous materials.
IBS Hyderabad 50
Challenges Faced by Nurses in
Disaster Response
Short-Staffing and Long Hours
In the wake of a major disaster, nurses are
often pushed to their limits. Long hours are
common, whether volunteering with a
disaster relief organization or working in a
healthcare facility that sees a sudden,
massive spike in patient volumes.
Emergency care is also physically
demanding due to its fast-paced
environment. IBS Hyderabad 51
IBS Hyderabad 52
Emotional Fatigue
Responding to disasters as a nurse can also be
very emotionally fatiguing. Disaster nurses often
treat people on the worst day of their lives, and
are sometimes exposed to more traumatic and
gruesome injuries than usual. Seeing so much
human suffering in one place can definitely take
a toll, so it’s important for nurses working in
disaster response to maintain good self-care
habits.
IBS Hyderabad 53
Limited Resources & Unconventional
Environments
In disaster situations, nurses are frequently
administering care in non-traditional
environments. People usually need
immediate first aid at disaster sites, which
are far from a sterile clinical environment.
Beyond the triage phase, emergency
response organizations sometimes take
over open spaces like gyms or sports
arenas to accommodate large numbers of
people who need ongoing care.
IBS Hyderabad 54
Ethical Considerations
Working triage can also put
nurses in challenging ethical
situations. They may have to
make the difficult choice to
withhold life-saving care from
severely injured people who
will most likely die, even with
medical help.
IBS Hyderabad 55
Cultural & Linguistic Barriers
Large-scale disasters transcend
political differences and geographic
borders. Still, when nurses respond
to catastrophes in other parts of the
country—or on the other side of the
world—there can be challenges with
language barriers or cultural
differences.
Thank You!
56
IBS Hyderabad

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disaster response af.ppsxcommunity health

  • 1. Disaster Response Presented by:nourhan Dahshan IBS Hyderabad 1
  • 2. Objectives  Aim of Disaster Response  Evacuation, Migration, administrating first-aid, transportation of affected people to hospital  Discuss the restoration of essential services.  Rescue work  Ideal Command Centre  Modern and traditional methods of response 2 IBS Hyderabad
  • 3. Aims of Response  The mission of the response phase is to meet the basic needs of the people until more permanent and sustainable solutions are formulated.  There is growing awareness of costs associated with improper management of disasters and hence communities and government are trying hard to improve the first responder efforts. 3 IBS Hyderabad
  • 5. Aims of Response  Mitigation and preparedness are the first two phases of Disaster Management Cycle.  The third phase of this cycle is the response phase.  It deals with the immediate reaction of the individuals, communities and agencies working for disaster management immediately following a disaster. 5 IBS Hyderabad
  • 6. Aims of Response  Disaster response is aimed at providing instant support to maintain life and health of the affected population.  There is a wide array of response activities carried out after disaster like first-aid, transportation, shelter and food, initial repairs to damaged infrastructure. 6 IBS Hyderabad
  • 7. Aims of Response  The level & kind of disaster response depends on a number of factors – the scale of disaster, the nature and number of affected people and site-specific conditions.  Response comprises the decisions and actions taken to deal with an urgent situation that has adversely affected life and property. 7 IBS Hyderabad
  • 8. Aims of Response  It calls for collaboration, coordination and communication between agencies involved in administrating rescue and relief operations.  The main aim of response is to save and protect human life.  The other aims of response are- 1. To guarantee the continued existence of the maximum possible number of affected population and ensuring that they are in the best possible physical and mental health in the circumstances. 8 IBS Hyderabad
  • 9. Aims of Response  The other aims of response are- 2. To reinstate critical services and provide food, clothing and water. 3. To restore or replace demolished or damaged infrastructure. To make alternate housing arrangements in camps. 4. To help in relieving suffering. 5. To protect the health and safety of responding personnel. 9 IBS Hyderabad
  • 10. Steps of disaster response • 1-Evacuation The immediate and urgent movement away from a threat or hazard 1: Immediate Evacuation: • An evacuation resulting from a hazard impact, that forces immediate action, thereby allowing little action or no warning and limited preparation time. IBS Hyderabad 10
  • 11. Examples: • • Hazardous material accidents, air crash ,wildfires and earthquakes are examples of events that require immediate action. IBS Hyderabad 11
  • 12. • 2: Pre-warned evacuation: • An evacuation resulting from an event that provides adequate warning and does not unduly limit preparation time. • Examples : • floods, cyclones and storm surge. IBS Hyderabad 12
  • 13. Types of disaster Evacuation 1. STAY IN PLACE • The first type of evacuation that you should know about is a “stay in place” or “shelter in place.” A stay in place evacuation is meant for situations when leaving the premises could put the health and safety of occupants at risk • As in Dangerous weather, like flash floods, tornadoes and winter storms. • Chemical attacks or spills outside of the building. IBS Hyderabad 13
  • 14. Types of disaster Evacuation 2. BUILDING EVACUATION • The second type of evacuation is a building evacuation. A building evacuation is necessary when staying inside the building poses a direct threat to the occupants. This applies to any type of building, • As in Fires, Gas leaks, Structural problems IBS Hyderabad 14
  • 15. Types of disaster Evacuation 3-COMMUNITY EVACUATION • A community evacuation is when the occupants of a specific area, like a neighborhood or a university campus, need to evacuate as soon as possible to ensure their safety. • As in Fire, Threats of violence. For instance, when a bomb threat is made against the premises, Oncoming severe weather. For instance, areas located on local flood plains IBS Hyderabad 15
  • 16. Types of disaster Evacuation 4. CITY EVACUATION • A city-wide evacuation (also known as a mass evacuation) is when citizens are encouraged to evacuate their city and seek shelter in a safer location as soon as possible. IBS Hyderabad 16
  • 17. steps of disaster response 2- Search and Rescue: • Disaster response activities begin with the detection of the crisis and end with the normalization of the situation following impact. • The response activities entail triggering search and rescue mechanism to find the injured, providing emergency medical care and transferring them to safe places. IBS Hyderabad 17
  • 18. 4-steps of disaster response • 3- Staging Area • The staging area is the on-site incident command station. Disaster responders should report to this area to “check in” so that everyone is accounted for and can be given an assignment. This arrangement allows for the most effective use of the skills and abilities of those responding. No one should go to the disaster site unless directed to do so by the staging area commander. The staging area is also where the authority rests for decisions as to the need for additional resources to manage the disaster incident IBS Hyderabad 18
  • 19. 4-steps of disaster response 4- Disaster Triage Triage is identifying and separating individuals quickly according to injury severity and treatment needed. Disaster triage focuses on sorting the greatest number of people as fast as possible. Triage: is the process of determining the priority of patients’ treatments by the severity of their condition or likelihood of recovery with and without treatment IBS Hyderabad 19
  • 20. Control Process and Measurement  Controlling is a systematic efforts by which it is ensured that plans are strictly followed and actual performance is measured and compared with that standard performance.  At the planning level, the tasks and roles are clearly stated and responders are made aware of their responsibilities.  This helps them to control their behavior and priorities their tasks. 20 IBS Hyderabad
  • 21. Control Process and Measurement  The control process is a three step process- 1. Setting performance standards. 2. Measuring actual performance. 3. Comparing actual performance with standards. 21 IBS Hyderabad
  • 22. Security Issues  It is vital to ensure the security of the most vulnerable population that is women, children and the elderly.  Generally, it is seen that security is not always a priority issue after a disaster because rescue and relief operations are considered paramount.  Along with police, military personnel are also deployed to respond to a disaster. 22 IBS Hyderabad
  • 23. Security Issues  Given the state of vulnerabilities of the affected community, physical security and public order in the disaster-affected areas should be established.  It helps prevent the public order from turning into an undesirable state of panic and chaos. 23 IBS Hyderabad
  • 24. Profile of an Effective crises leader  Disasters are situations where leaders can work wonders.  They can be really effective in managing the disasters and controlling situations.  Certain pre-requisites of an effective crisis leader are as follows: 24 IBS Hyderabad
  • 25. Profile of an Effective crises leader 1. Understanding 2. Truthful 3. Patient 4. Suave in conduct - be tactful in dealing with victims. 5. Composed 6. Should be willing to delegate 7. Committed to selfless services 8. Decision maker 25 IBS Hyderabad
  • 26. Leading at the time of Crisis: Competencies and Challenges  Crisis management is the process by which a major disastrous event is brought under control.  There are two elements of crisis – 1. They are shocking incidents that take individuals by surprise. 2. There is very little time to make decision.  While dealing with these situations, a leader should make timely, decisive and correct decision individually and collectively. 26 IBS Hyderabad
  • 27. Leading at the time of Crisis: Competencies and Challenges  The three challenges of crisis situation are: 1. Unpredictability. 2. General mood of affected people. 3. Misinformation.  The competency required for attaining this is very simple: It is faith.  The leader should instil confidence and faith in his or her co-workers. 27 IBS Hyderabad
  • 28. Evacuation and Migration  Evacuation involves the relocation of individuals and members of the affected community from risk-zone to a safer location.  Evacuation can help individual and communities avoid the aftermath of disasters such as building collapse, outbreak of diseases, etc. 28 IBS Hyderabad
  • 29. Evacuation and Migration  People are reluctant to evacuate even in the most dangerous situations because of inadequate social or economical resources.  The three pre-requisites of effective evacuation are: 1. A Plan of action and place to relocate the evacuees. 2. Clear identification of escape routes. 3. A timely and accurate warning system to inform about the exact turn of events. 29 IBS Hyderabad
  • 30. Evacuation and Migration  Evacuation is immediate and urgent movement of people away from the threat or actual occurrence of a rapid onset of a disaster.  This type of migration is temporary in nature and after the crisis is over the families return to their homes. 30 IBS Hyderabad
  • 31. Administering First-Aid  The process of addressing the needs of a person who is physically injured or is psychologically distressed is referred to as first-aid.  Though first-aid is not substitute for professional medical help, but still it can make a difference between life and death. 31 IBS Hyderabad
  • 32. Administering First-Aid  When addressing the first-aid after disasters, there are certain aspects that need to be taken care of – 1. Check the surroundings. 2. Seek help whenever necessary. 3. Remain with the victim. 4. Stay Calm. 5. Determine responsiveness. 6. Help to stop bleeding first. 7. Psychological support. 32 IBS Hyderabad
  • 33. Administering First-Aid  Training in first-aid should be made compulsory at school level.  The kind of first-aid differs according to the nature of disaster.  First-aid training must be packaged in a way that ‘clearly outlines its aims, mechanism, when it is used, where it can be applied and who benefits from its use, who can deliver it’. 33 IBS Hyderabad
  • 34. Handling of Injured at Hospitals: Challenges and Issues  Colored – coded tagging systems are used to identify those with minor injuries, moderate injuries or severe injuries.  The black tag is used for the dead, red tag for those needing immediate resuscitation, yellow tag for those suffering from potentially life- threatening injuries and green tag for minor injuries or wounded. 34 IBS Hyderabad
  • 35. Handling of Injured at Hospitals: Challenges and Issues  It is imperative that after a disaster, the health- care providers should do what they have expertise in.  The physician and nurse with special field training should be in the field.  Specialized medical aid should be provided to the victims. 35 IBS Hyderabad
  • 36. Mobilization and Restoration of Essential Services  To ensure effective command and control of an emergency situation, it is crucial that essential services are organized. 1. Telephone Lines 2. Electricity and power supply 3. Drinking water supply & non-perishable food 4. Alternate roads 36 IBS Hyderabad
  • 37. Search and rescue Work  Disaster response activities begin with the detection of the crisis and end with the normalization of the situation following impact.  The response activities entail triggering search and rescue mechanism to find the injured, providing emergency medical care and transferring them to safe places. 37 IBS Hyderabad
  • 38. Search and rescue Work  The response phase differs from other phases of disaster management in the sense that there are two important aspects namely, uncertainty and urgency.  The emergency response actions should be well coordinated with disaster recovery as they form the foundation for carrying out recovery activities. 38 IBS Hyderabad
  • 39. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response  The responses to disasters may utilize a mix of methods from traditional to modern.  The situation and nature of the affected population play a decisive role in choosing an effective response mechanism.  Traditional methods of response have been used since long and they are the most common and practical methods of response. 39 IBS Hyderabad
  • 40. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response  They entail assistant provided in the form of food, shelter materials, blankets, etc.  Money is also provided so that affected people can buy things according to their needs.  Charitable organizations offer help to communities that have suffered a disaster.  New technologies can be very useful and powerful in disaster response. 40 IBS Hyderabad
  • 41. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response  These basically form the basis of the modern methods of disaster response.  Mobile phones can act as warning devices.  SMS provided by operators can prove to be useful medium to send warning signals of immediate threat.  GPS for tracing location of victims. 41 IBS Hyderabad
  • 42. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response  The disaster management team also uses the potential of mapping technologies, such as geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (satellite imagery) and global positioning system (GPS), to aid emergency response operations. 42 IBS Hyderabad
  • 43. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response 1. Remote Sensing: the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it. 1. Visible and Reflective Infrared remote sensing. 2. Thermal Infrared Remote sensing. 3. Microwave Remote sensing. 2. GIS – GIS is a system that collects, displays, manages and analyzes geographic information. 3. Other Methods – Social Media & Social networking. 43 IBS Hyderabad
  • 44. A Model of an Ideal Command Centre  Incident command center is a standardized, on-scene, all-hazard incident management concept.  The primary role of this center is the coordination of efforts for effective and efficient management of incident.  When any disastrous event occurs, they first identify and assess the situation. 44 IBS Hyderabad
  • 45. A Model of an Ideal Command Centre  The functions of an Incident Command Centre are: 1. Development of objectives. 2. Preparation of Incident Action Plan to meet incident objectives, collection and evaluation of information. 45 IBS Hyderabad
  • 46. A Model of an Ideal Command Centre  The functions of an Incident Command Centre are: 3. Maintenance of resource status and incident documentation. 4. Providing logistics support to meet operational objectives. 5. Financial administration to monitor costs, accounting, procurement and cost analysis. 46 IBS Hyderabad
  • 47. Role of nurse in disaster response Triage & Initial Care When the demand for medical services is overwhelming the immediate available capacity, one of the most important tasks is performing triage. Triage is the process of sorting patients into different priority levels, to do the most good for the most people with a limited amount of resources. IBS Hyderabad 47
  • 48. Records & Documentation Accurately recording each patient’s information is essential when people are receiving first aid at the site of a disaster before they’re transported elsewhere for additional care. Maintaining continuity of care becomes more challenging in disaster scenarios, so “triage tags” are commonly used to record important details about each patient and their condition. IBS Hyderabad 48
  • 49. Mental Health First Aid People who live through traumatic events like disasters can experience severe emotional and psychological distress. Another primary responsibility of nurses in disaster response efforts is providing mental health support to people in need. Nurses are trained to recognize the signs of distress and offer psychological first aid to victims of large-scale disasters IBS Hyderabad 49
  • 50. Public Health Efforts In disaster situations, nurses are also called upon to help with a variety of public health initiatives. This could mean dispensing vaccines at pop-up clinics during a pandemic, or educating people on disease prevention when safe water or reliable plumbing are in short supply. It could also mean helping with decontamination efforts after large numbers of people are exposed to hazardous materials. IBS Hyderabad 50
  • 51. Challenges Faced by Nurses in Disaster Response Short-Staffing and Long Hours In the wake of a major disaster, nurses are often pushed to their limits. Long hours are common, whether volunteering with a disaster relief organization or working in a healthcare facility that sees a sudden, massive spike in patient volumes. Emergency care is also physically demanding due to its fast-paced environment. IBS Hyderabad 51
  • 52. IBS Hyderabad 52 Emotional Fatigue Responding to disasters as a nurse can also be very emotionally fatiguing. Disaster nurses often treat people on the worst day of their lives, and are sometimes exposed to more traumatic and gruesome injuries than usual. Seeing so much human suffering in one place can definitely take a toll, so it’s important for nurses working in disaster response to maintain good self-care habits.
  • 53. IBS Hyderabad 53 Limited Resources & Unconventional Environments In disaster situations, nurses are frequently administering care in non-traditional environments. People usually need immediate first aid at disaster sites, which are far from a sterile clinical environment. Beyond the triage phase, emergency response organizations sometimes take over open spaces like gyms or sports arenas to accommodate large numbers of people who need ongoing care.
  • 54. IBS Hyderabad 54 Ethical Considerations Working triage can also put nurses in challenging ethical situations. They may have to make the difficult choice to withhold life-saving care from severely injured people who will most likely die, even with medical help.
  • 55. IBS Hyderabad 55 Cultural & Linguistic Barriers Large-scale disasters transcend political differences and geographic borders. Still, when nurses respond to catastrophes in other parts of the country—or on the other side of the world—there can be challenges with language barriers or cultural differences.