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ADOLESCENT HEALTH
Presented by nourhan Dahshan
Out lines
• Introduction
• Definition of adolescent and young adult
• Stages of adolescence
• Factors Affecting Child and Adolescent Health
• Problems and needs facing adolescents
• Behaviors That Contribute to Unintentional Injuries
• Interventions to protect and promote health
Outlines
Community and Public Health Strategies for Improving the
health of Adolescents and Young Adults
• Promoting adolescent health and development in Egypt
• Healthy people 2030
• Public Health Programs Targeted to Children and Adolescents
• Community Health Nurse’s Role
Introduction
Adolescence is the phase of life between childhood and
adulthood, from ages 10 to 19. It is a unique stage of
human development and an important time for laying
the foundations ofgood health.Adolescents experience
rapid physical, cognitive and psychosocial growth. This
affects how they feel, think, make decisions, and interact
with the world around them.
Introduction
Despite being thought of as a healthy stage of life, there is
significant death, illness and injury in the adolescent years.
Much of this is preventable or treatable. During this phase,
adolescents
establish patterns of behaviour – for instance, related to
diet, physical activity, substance use,
and sexual activity – that can protect their health and the
health of others around them, or put their health at risk
now and in the future.
DEFINITION OF ADOLESCENT AND
YOUNG ADULT
WHO defines ‘Adolescents’ as individuals in the
10-19 years age group
and ‘Youth’ as the 15-24 year agegroup
While ‘Young People’ covers the age range 10-24
years
STAGES OF ADOLESCENCE
• Adolescence is the time in a young person’s life when they
transition
from childhood into young adulthood and experience physical,
behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social developmental changes.
• There are three primary developmental stages of adolescence
1. Early adolescence (10 to 13 years
2. Middle adolescence (14 to 17 years)
3. Late adolescence/young adulthood (18 to 21 years and beyond)
EARLY ADOLESCENCE (10 TO 13 YEARS
Puberty begins in this stage
• Children experience considerable physical growth and increased sexual
interest
• Body changes such as hair growth under the arms and near the
genitals, breast development in females and enlargement of the testicles
in males, starts to occur
• these changes can start as early as age 8 for females and age nine for
males
• Girls may start their period around age 12
• Body changes can cause both curiosity and anxiety
•Cognitive development at this stage
• Intellectual interests expand, and early adolescents develop
deeper moral thinking
• Pre-teens also feel an increased need for privacy
They explore how to be independent from their family and
may
push boundaries and react strongly when limits are enforced
•Middle adolescence (14 to 17 years)
Puberty changes for both males and females continue
• Males may have a growth spurt and some voice
cracking as their voices lower
• Physical growth for females slows and most have
regular menstrual periods by this time
• Interest in romantic and sexual relationships may
start and teens may question and explore their sexual
identity; masturbation may be a part of this sexual
exploration and getting to know their body
•Arguments with parents may increase as teens strive for more
independence
• Less time is spent with family and more time is spent with friends
• Teens become more self-involved, appearances areimportant,
and peer pressure can peak at this stage
• The brain continues to mature and there is a growing capacity for
abstract thought, though emotions often drive decision-making and
they may act on impulse without thinking things through
• During this stage, children may start to set long-term goals and
become interested in the meaning of life and moral reasoning
•Late adolescence/young adulthood (18 to 21 years and beyond)
• This phase usually encompasses less physical development and more cognitive
developments
• Most have grown to their full adult height
• In this stage, young people become able to think about ideas rationally, have impulse
control and can delay gratification, and plan for the future
• They have a stronger sense of identity and individuality and can
identify their own values
• They also experience increased independence, emotional stability,
stability in friendships and romantic relationships, and may also
establish an “adult relationship” with parents, looking to them less as
authority figures and more as peers
Risk Factors that affect child health:
Risks related to mother and baby:
Not in optimal health Poor pregnancy outcome Uncontrolled
medical conditions Low birth weight with serious medical
conditions Exposure to drug, alcohol, tobacco, poor nutrition
Chronic conditions that affect health and well-beingUnsafe
environment (second-hand smoke, lead-based paint)
Risks to Children No preventive health care and immunizations
preventable diseases or chronic conditions in life
Growth of adolescents
PHYSICAL GROWTH SKELETAL Growth Secondary growth spurt – 25%
•of adult height BODY COMPOSITION –Weight gain – Increase in adipose tissue in
girls –Increase muscle mass in boys Digestive, circulatory and responding system fully
develops Body tissues, skeleton starts growing Tissues other than bones continue
to develop Physical growth
PSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH Less interest in parental activities. Mood swings.
•Intense relationship with same & opposite sex friends. Increased cognition. Increased
need for privacy. Lack of impulse control. Increased intellectual ability. Risk- taking
behavior.
Emotional development This period is heightened emotions, glands function
comes under socials pressure Problem related to romance Easily excited and
explode emotionally( 14 years) Temper tantrums, mood swing Intense self-
consciousness Day dreaming in common Adolescent exhibits alternating and
recurrent episodes of disturbed behavior with periods of quite one. He may
become hostile or ready to fight, complain or resist everything.
Intellectual or mental growth • Development of intelligence Increases in span of
attention
Development of memory Development of imagination Widening of interest
Peers • As adolescence approaches, the family‘s influence diminishes • The peer
group becomes an important social force • The need for peer approval can affect
decisions concerning participation in physical
activity positively or negatively
The main health problem Of adolescent
.Injuries
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among
adolescents nearly 100 000 adolescents (10–19 years) died as a result of road
traffic accidents
• Violence
Interpersonal violence is among the leading causes of death in adolescents
and young people globally .Violence during adolescence also increases the
risks of injury, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, mental health
problems, poor school performance
and dropout, early pregnancy, reproductive health problems, and
communicable and uncommunicable diseases.
• Mental health
Depression is one of the leading causes of illness and disability among adolescents,
and suicide is the second leading cause of death in people aged 15–19 years (2).
Mental health conditions account for 16% of the global burden of disease and injury in
people aged 10–19 years.
Many factors have an impact on the well-being and mental health of adolescents.
Violence, poverty, stigma, exclusion, and living in humanitarian and fragile settings
can increase the risk of developing mental health problems.
• Alcohol and drug use
Drinking alcohol among adolescents is a major concern in many countries. It can
reduce self-control and increase risky behaviours, such as unsafe sex or dangerous
driving. It is an underlying cause of injuries (including those due to road traffic
accidents), violence and premature deaths. It can also lead to health problems in later
life and affects life expectancy.
Tobacco use
The vast majority of people using tobacco today began doing so when they
were adolescents.
HIV/AIDS
An estimated 1.7 million adolescents (age 19 –10years) were living with HIV in
2019 with around 90% in the WHO African Region.(3)
Adolescents and young people need to know how to protect themselves from
HIV infection and must also have the means to do so. This includes being able
to obtain access HIV prevention interventions including voluntary medical
male circumcision, condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis, better access to
HIV testing and counselling, and stronger links to HIV treatment services for
those who test HIV positive.
Other infectious diseases
Thanks to improved childhood vaccination, adolescent deaths
and disability from measles have fallen markedly.
Diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia)
are estimated to be among the top 10 causes of death for
adolescents 10–14 years. These two diseases, along with
meningitis, are all among the top 5 causes of adolescent
death in African low- and middle-income countries
Early pregnancy and childbirth
One of the specific targets of the health Sustainable
Development Goal
(SDG 3) is that by 2030, the world should ensure
universal access to sexual and reproductive health-
care services, including for family
planning, information and education, and the
integration of reproductive
health into national strategies and programmes
Nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies
Iron deficiency anaemia was the second leading cause of years lost by
adolescents to death and disability in 2019. Iron and folic acid
supplements are a solution that also helps to promote health before
adolescents become parents. Regular deworming in areas where
intestinal helminths such as hookworm are common is recommended
to prevent micronutrient (including iron) deficiencies.
Developing healthy eating habits in adolescence are foundations for
good health in adulthood. Reducing the marketing of foods high in
saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars, or salt and providing
access to healthy foods are important for all, but especially for children
and adolescents
Undernutrition and obesity
Many boys and girls in developing countries
enter adolescence
undernourished, making them more vulnerable
to disease and early
death. At the other end of the spectrum, the
number of adolescents
who are overweight or obese is increasing in
low-, middle- and high-
income countries.
The adolescents needs
Physical needs
1.Sexul needs
2.Food needs
3.Need for mentaining health and body building
Sexual needs
The needs of adolescents in getting sex education include the need for
sex education materials, including material on reproductive organs,
reproductive hygiene, early puberty, self-preservation, pregnancy out
of wedlock, relationships between the opposite sex,and sexual
diseases. Furthermore, media needs comprise images, videos, and
props.
The last need is a method in sex education consisting of lectures,
discussions, and watching videos. Further, the results of this study are
expected to enable adolescents to prepare early regarding the need for
sex education, making it easier for them to understand sex.education
material and avoid risky sexual behavior that violates norms
Needs for foods
Healthy food for pre-teen and teenage
children includes a
wide variety of fresh foods from the five food
groups:
•vegetables
•fruit
•grain foods
•reduced-fat dairy or dairy-free alternatives
•protein.
NEED FOR MAINTAINING HEALTH AND BODY
BUILDING
Need for maintaining health and body building in
adolescence is
very important need
The excercise in this age and eating protein is very
important
Mental needs
Interventions to protect and promote
health
1- Health education, including comprehensive sexuality education—Adolescence is an
appropriate time to learn about healthy diets, the
consequences of alcohol and substance misuse, resisting peer pressure and bullying,
healthy sexuality
2- Access to and use of integrated health services— As
adolescents become sexually active, they require an integrated package of
services, especially sexual and reproductive health services. This includes
access to an expanded mix of contraceptives, including emergency contraception and
long acting reversible contraceptives
3- Immunization—HPV vaccination for 11-14 year olds protects
them from developing cervical cancer as adults. HPV vaccination is also
an opportunity to reach adolescents with other interventions such as
menstrual hygiene, deworming, and malaria prevention. Other critical
vaccines include tetanus booster, rubella, and hepatitis B (if not
previously vaccinated) measles, and meningococcal disease (depending
on epidemiology)
4- Nutrition—Developing healthy eating and exercise habits at this age
are foundations for good health in adulthood and protect against
overweight and obesity. Nutritional supplementation, particularly iron
and folic acid, is important to prevent anaemia and protect the health
of their future offspring
5- Psychosocial support—Mental health problems in adolescence
should be detected and managed by competent health workers.5
Schools and other community settings can also help in
promoting good mental healthSexual Behaviors That Contribute
to Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Adolescents in the United States continue to experience high
rates of unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV
infection. from 2115show that more than one-third (41.29) of all
high school students have engaged in sexual intercourse
sometime in their lifetime. The prevalence of sexual intercourse
ranged between 21.79 for ninth-grade girls to 59.19for high
school senior boys.
Healthy people 2030
Adolescents — General
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who had a
preventive health care visit in the past year
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who speak
privately with a provider at a preventive medical visit
o Increase the proportion of children living with at least 1
parent who works full time
o Increase the proportion of high school graduates in
college the October after graduating
o Increase the proportion of schools with policies and
practices that promote health and safety
Child and Adolescent Development
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who have an adult
they can talk to about serious problems
o Reduce chronic school absence among early adolescents
o Increase the proportion of trauma-informed early childcare
settings and elementary and secondary schools
o Increase the proportion of adolescents in foster care who
show signs of being ready for adulthood
o Increase the proportion of 8th-graders withreading skills at or
above the proficient level
Chronic Kidney Disease
o Reduce the proportion of adolescents with chronic kidney
disease
o Drug and Alcohol Use
o Reduce the proportion of adolescents who drank alcohol in the
past month
o Reduce the proportion of adolescents who used drugs in the
past month
o Reduce the proportion of adolescents who used marijuana in
the past month
o Reduce the proportion of people under 21 years who engaged
in binge drinking in the past month
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who think substance
abuse is risky
Family Planning
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who use birth control
the first time they have sex
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who get formal sex
education before age 18 years
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who have never had
sex
o Increase the proportion of adolescent females who used
effective birth control the last time they had sex
o Increase the proportion of adolescent males who used a
condom the last time they had sex
o Increase the proportion of adolescent females at risk for
unintended pregnancy who use effective birth control
o Reduce pregnancies in adolescents
Health Care
o Increase use of the oral health care system
o Increase the proportion of children and adolescents
who receive care in a
medical home
o Increase the proportion of children and adolescents
with special health
care needs who have a system of care
o Increase the proportion of adolescents who get support
for their
transition to adult health care
Infectious Disease
Reduce infections of HPV types prevented by the vaccine
in young adults
Public Health Programs Targeted to Children and
Adolescents
A- Health Care Coverage Programs
1- Affordable Care Act
The ACA mandates certain preventive services at no cost, such as vaccinations for
childrenand breastfeeding support. Teens and adults younger than 26 years can
stay insured under their parent’s insurance plan if the plan allows dependent
coverage.
2- Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program
The program’s services far exceed those usually covered by private insurance and
include the following:
• Health, developmental, and nutritional screening
• Physical examinations
• Immunizations
• Vision and hearing screening
• Certain laboratory tests
• Dental services
B- Direct Health Care Delivery Programs
1- Maternal and Child Health Block Grant
These health centers provide comprehensive, culturally competent,
primary and preventive health care to a diverse population including individuals who are
low income, uninsured and experiencing homelessness.
2- School-Based Health Centers
School-based health centers typically provide a combination of screening
and preventive services, primary care, mental health and substance abuse counseling,
dental health, nutrition education, and other health promotion activities
3- Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Established
in
1972, WIC is one of the most successful, popular, and cost-effective public health
programs. Some of the many benefits attributed to WIC include the following:
o Improvements in birth outcomes and health care cost savings
o Improved infant feeding practices, better low-birth-weight rate, and more regular
primary care
o Lower rates of childhood obesity
Community Health Nurse’s Role
Educator:
■ information about issues influencing their health and development;
■ services including health, education, and opportunities for fun and relaxation;
■ a safe and supportive environment, which includes supportive and caring adults and offers
opportunities for participation including the means to influence and make decisions
affecting their lives and their communities (WHO, 1998d, p. 15)
Educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health is an important
part of comprehensive well-woman care
Three components guide practice: recognizing sexual rights, sexuality
education and counseling, and confidential high-quality
services.35 Incorporating these components supports young women in
feeling empowered regarding bodily autonomy and sexual rights.
Information on prevention of STIs is an essential part of adolescent
reproductive and sexual health
researcher
O A researcher for effective strategies to serve women
and children
advocator
o An advocate for improved individual and community
responses to children’s need
Advocate for legislation and policies that promote
adolescent health andstrengtheningof families through
community involvement;
■incorporate evidence-based practice to guide the
care of adolescents.
Collaborator
o A partner with other professionals to improve service collaboration and
coordination
Comunicator
Communication, the foundation of the nurse– patient relationship, is
especially critical when working with an adolescent population. Nurses
must strive to engage in non-judgmental, non-patronizing dialogue with
adolescent patients and to respect their ability to make decisions, accept
responsibility, and problem solve regarding their own health care
). The issue of confidentiality should be routinely addressed especially
when sensitive information must be shared with others. These instances
may vary by state based on regulations related to sexual/phys-ical
abuse, abortion, and contraception.
Other
It is essential that nurses create environments that support adolescents’
rights to
confidential health care and that their practice remains within the limits of
the law
■ use an assets framework when assessing adolescents;
■ create respectful, trusting relationships with adolescents and families
when
developing health care plans;
■ identify the needs of adolescents for safety, privacy, confidentiality,
information, connectedness and support;
■ appreciate the impact of the environment on adolescent health;
■ develop innovative primary health care strategies within the community
to promote adolescent health and to prevent disease;
■ incorporate evidence-based practice to guide the care of adolescents.
REFERENCES
.noitareneg txen eht dna tnempoleveD .2007World Bank. World DevelopmentReport
.2007 ;knaB dlroW :notgnihsaW
4 UNFPA. UNFPA framework for action on adolescents and youth. Opening doors with
.2007keys. New York: UNFPA;
WHO. Strengthening the health sector response to adolescent health & development.
.2009Geneva: WHO;
.2012UNICEF. Progress for children. A report card for adolescents. UNICEF. New York.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-AWHONN position statement: Confidentiality in adolescent health care.
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2010; 39: 127-128https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-
6909.2009.01096.x
American Academy of Nursing [AAN] (2000). Adolescent health task force. Nursing Outlook, 48:42–43.
Brookfield S (1987). Developing critical thinkers: challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and
acting. San Francisco, CA, Jossey Bass.
Cook R, Dickens BM (2000). Recognizing adolescents’ ‘evolving capacities’ to exercise choice in
THANK YOU

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adolescents and young adults health.pptx

  • 2. Out lines • Introduction • Definition of adolescent and young adult • Stages of adolescence • Factors Affecting Child and Adolescent Health • Problems and needs facing adolescents • Behaviors That Contribute to Unintentional Injuries • Interventions to protect and promote health
  • 3. Outlines Community and Public Health Strategies for Improving the health of Adolescents and Young Adults • Promoting adolescent health and development in Egypt • Healthy people 2030 • Public Health Programs Targeted to Children and Adolescents • Community Health Nurse’s Role
  • 4. Introduction Adolescence is the phase of life between childhood and adulthood, from ages 10 to 19. It is a unique stage of human development and an important time for laying the foundations ofgood health.Adolescents experience rapid physical, cognitive and psychosocial growth. This affects how they feel, think, make decisions, and interact with the world around them.
  • 5. Introduction Despite being thought of as a healthy stage of life, there is significant death, illness and injury in the adolescent years. Much of this is preventable or treatable. During this phase, adolescents establish patterns of behaviour – for instance, related to diet, physical activity, substance use, and sexual activity – that can protect their health and the health of others around them, or put their health at risk now and in the future.
  • 6. DEFINITION OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT WHO defines ‘Adolescents’ as individuals in the 10-19 years age group and ‘Youth’ as the 15-24 year agegroup While ‘Young People’ covers the age range 10-24 years
  • 7. STAGES OF ADOLESCENCE • Adolescence is the time in a young person’s life when they transition from childhood into young adulthood and experience physical, behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social developmental changes. • There are three primary developmental stages of adolescence 1. Early adolescence (10 to 13 years 2. Middle adolescence (14 to 17 years) 3. Late adolescence/young adulthood (18 to 21 years and beyond)
  • 8. EARLY ADOLESCENCE (10 TO 13 YEARS Puberty begins in this stage • Children experience considerable physical growth and increased sexual interest • Body changes such as hair growth under the arms and near the genitals, breast development in females and enlargement of the testicles in males, starts to occur • these changes can start as early as age 8 for females and age nine for males • Girls may start their period around age 12 • Body changes can cause both curiosity and anxiety
  • 9. •Cognitive development at this stage • Intellectual interests expand, and early adolescents develop deeper moral thinking • Pre-teens also feel an increased need for privacy They explore how to be independent from their family and may push boundaries and react strongly when limits are enforced
  • 10. •Middle adolescence (14 to 17 years) Puberty changes for both males and females continue • Males may have a growth spurt and some voice cracking as their voices lower • Physical growth for females slows and most have regular menstrual periods by this time • Interest in romantic and sexual relationships may start and teens may question and explore their sexual identity; masturbation may be a part of this sexual exploration and getting to know their body
  • 11. •Arguments with parents may increase as teens strive for more independence • Less time is spent with family and more time is spent with friends • Teens become more self-involved, appearances areimportant, and peer pressure can peak at this stage • The brain continues to mature and there is a growing capacity for abstract thought, though emotions often drive decision-making and they may act on impulse without thinking things through • During this stage, children may start to set long-term goals and become interested in the meaning of life and moral reasoning
  • 12. •Late adolescence/young adulthood (18 to 21 years and beyond) • This phase usually encompasses less physical development and more cognitive developments • Most have grown to their full adult height • In this stage, young people become able to think about ideas rationally, have impulse control and can delay gratification, and plan for the future • They have a stronger sense of identity and individuality and can identify their own values • They also experience increased independence, emotional stability, stability in friendships and romantic relationships, and may also establish an “adult relationship” with parents, looking to them less as authority figures and more as peers
  • 13.
  • 14. Risk Factors that affect child health: Risks related to mother and baby: Not in optimal health Poor pregnancy outcome Uncontrolled medical conditions Low birth weight with serious medical conditions Exposure to drug, alcohol, tobacco, poor nutrition Chronic conditions that affect health and well-beingUnsafe environment (second-hand smoke, lead-based paint) Risks to Children No preventive health care and immunizations preventable diseases or chronic conditions in life
  • 15. Growth of adolescents PHYSICAL GROWTH SKELETAL Growth Secondary growth spurt – 25% •of adult height BODY COMPOSITION –Weight gain – Increase in adipose tissue in girls –Increase muscle mass in boys Digestive, circulatory and responding system fully develops Body tissues, skeleton starts growing Tissues other than bones continue to develop Physical growth PSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH Less interest in parental activities. Mood swings. •Intense relationship with same & opposite sex friends. Increased cognition. Increased need for privacy. Lack of impulse control. Increased intellectual ability. Risk- taking behavior.
  • 16. Emotional development This period is heightened emotions, glands function comes under socials pressure Problem related to romance Easily excited and explode emotionally( 14 years) Temper tantrums, mood swing Intense self- consciousness Day dreaming in common Adolescent exhibits alternating and recurrent episodes of disturbed behavior with periods of quite one. He may become hostile or ready to fight, complain or resist everything. Intellectual or mental growth • Development of intelligence Increases in span of attention Development of memory Development of imagination Widening of interest Peers • As adolescence approaches, the family‘s influence diminishes • The peer group becomes an important social force • The need for peer approval can affect decisions concerning participation in physical activity positively or negatively
  • 17. The main health problem Of adolescent .Injuries Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among adolescents nearly 100 000 adolescents (10–19 years) died as a result of road traffic accidents • Violence Interpersonal violence is among the leading causes of death in adolescents and young people globally .Violence during adolescence also increases the risks of injury, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, poor school performance and dropout, early pregnancy, reproductive health problems, and communicable and uncommunicable diseases.
  • 18. • Mental health Depression is one of the leading causes of illness and disability among adolescents, and suicide is the second leading cause of death in people aged 15–19 years (2). Mental health conditions account for 16% of the global burden of disease and injury in people aged 10–19 years. Many factors have an impact on the well-being and mental health of adolescents. Violence, poverty, stigma, exclusion, and living in humanitarian and fragile settings can increase the risk of developing mental health problems. • Alcohol and drug use Drinking alcohol among adolescents is a major concern in many countries. It can reduce self-control and increase risky behaviours, such as unsafe sex or dangerous driving. It is an underlying cause of injuries (including those due to road traffic accidents), violence and premature deaths. It can also lead to health problems in later life and affects life expectancy.
  • 19. Tobacco use The vast majority of people using tobacco today began doing so when they were adolescents. HIV/AIDS An estimated 1.7 million adolescents (age 19 –10years) were living with HIV in 2019 with around 90% in the WHO African Region.(3) Adolescents and young people need to know how to protect themselves from HIV infection and must also have the means to do so. This includes being able to obtain access HIV prevention interventions including voluntary medical male circumcision, condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis, better access to HIV testing and counselling, and stronger links to HIV treatment services for those who test HIV positive.
  • 20. Other infectious diseases Thanks to improved childhood vaccination, adolescent deaths and disability from measles have fallen markedly. Diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) are estimated to be among the top 10 causes of death for adolescents 10–14 years. These two diseases, along with meningitis, are all among the top 5 causes of adolescent death in African low- and middle-income countries
  • 21. Early pregnancy and childbirth One of the specific targets of the health Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 3) is that by 2030, the world should ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health- care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • 22. Nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies Iron deficiency anaemia was the second leading cause of years lost by adolescents to death and disability in 2019. Iron and folic acid supplements are a solution that also helps to promote health before adolescents become parents. Regular deworming in areas where intestinal helminths such as hookworm are common is recommended to prevent micronutrient (including iron) deficiencies. Developing healthy eating habits in adolescence are foundations for good health in adulthood. Reducing the marketing of foods high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars, or salt and providing access to healthy foods are important for all, but especially for children and adolescents
  • 23. Undernutrition and obesity Many boys and girls in developing countries enter adolescence undernourished, making them more vulnerable to disease and early death. At the other end of the spectrum, the number of adolescents who are overweight or obese is increasing in low-, middle- and high- income countries.
  • 25. Physical needs 1.Sexul needs 2.Food needs 3.Need for mentaining health and body building
  • 26. Sexual needs The needs of adolescents in getting sex education include the need for sex education materials, including material on reproductive organs, reproductive hygiene, early puberty, self-preservation, pregnancy out of wedlock, relationships between the opposite sex,and sexual diseases. Furthermore, media needs comprise images, videos, and props. The last need is a method in sex education consisting of lectures, discussions, and watching videos. Further, the results of this study are expected to enable adolescents to prepare early regarding the need for sex education, making it easier for them to understand sex.education material and avoid risky sexual behavior that violates norms
  • 27. Needs for foods Healthy food for pre-teen and teenage children includes a wide variety of fresh foods from the five food groups: •vegetables •fruit •grain foods •reduced-fat dairy or dairy-free alternatives •protein.
  • 28. NEED FOR MAINTAINING HEALTH AND BODY BUILDING Need for maintaining health and body building in adolescence is very important need The excercise in this age and eating protein is very important
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Interventions to protect and promote health 1- Health education, including comprehensive sexuality education—Adolescence is an appropriate time to learn about healthy diets, the consequences of alcohol and substance misuse, resisting peer pressure and bullying, healthy sexuality 2- Access to and use of integrated health services— As adolescents become sexually active, they require an integrated package of services, especially sexual and reproductive health services. This includes access to an expanded mix of contraceptives, including emergency contraception and long acting reversible contraceptives
  • 37. 3- Immunization—HPV vaccination for 11-14 year olds protects them from developing cervical cancer as adults. HPV vaccination is also an opportunity to reach adolescents with other interventions such as menstrual hygiene, deworming, and malaria prevention. Other critical vaccines include tetanus booster, rubella, and hepatitis B (if not previously vaccinated) measles, and meningococcal disease (depending on epidemiology) 4- Nutrition—Developing healthy eating and exercise habits at this age are foundations for good health in adulthood and protect against overweight and obesity. Nutritional supplementation, particularly iron and folic acid, is important to prevent anaemia and protect the health of their future offspring
  • 38. 5- Psychosocial support—Mental health problems in adolescence should be detected and managed by competent health workers.5 Schools and other community settings can also help in promoting good mental healthSexual Behaviors That Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Adolescents in the United States continue to experience high rates of unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. from 2115show that more than one-third (41.29) of all high school students have engaged in sexual intercourse sometime in their lifetime. The prevalence of sexual intercourse ranged between 21.79 for ninth-grade girls to 59.19for high school senior boys.
  • 39. Healthy people 2030 Adolescents — General o Increase the proportion of adolescents who had a preventive health care visit in the past year o Increase the proportion of adolescents who speak privately with a provider at a preventive medical visit o Increase the proportion of children living with at least 1 parent who works full time o Increase the proportion of high school graduates in college the October after graduating o Increase the proportion of schools with policies and practices that promote health and safety
  • 40. Child and Adolescent Development o Increase the proportion of adolescents who have an adult they can talk to about serious problems o Reduce chronic school absence among early adolescents o Increase the proportion of trauma-informed early childcare settings and elementary and secondary schools o Increase the proportion of adolescents in foster care who show signs of being ready for adulthood o Increase the proportion of 8th-graders withreading skills at or above the proficient level
  • 41. Chronic Kidney Disease o Reduce the proportion of adolescents with chronic kidney disease o Drug and Alcohol Use o Reduce the proportion of adolescents who drank alcohol in the past month o Reduce the proportion of adolescents who used drugs in the past month o Reduce the proportion of adolescents who used marijuana in the past month o Reduce the proportion of people under 21 years who engaged in binge drinking in the past month o Increase the proportion of adolescents who think substance abuse is risky
  • 42. Family Planning o Increase the proportion of adolescents who use birth control the first time they have sex o Increase the proportion of adolescents who get formal sex education before age 18 years o Increase the proportion of adolescents who have never had sex o Increase the proportion of adolescent females who used effective birth control the last time they had sex o Increase the proportion of adolescent males who used a condom the last time they had sex o Increase the proportion of adolescent females at risk for unintended pregnancy who use effective birth control o Reduce pregnancies in adolescents
  • 43. Health Care o Increase use of the oral health care system o Increase the proportion of children and adolescents who receive care in a medical home o Increase the proportion of children and adolescents with special health care needs who have a system of care o Increase the proportion of adolescents who get support for their transition to adult health care Infectious Disease Reduce infections of HPV types prevented by the vaccine in young adults
  • 44. Public Health Programs Targeted to Children and Adolescents A- Health Care Coverage Programs 1- Affordable Care Act The ACA mandates certain preventive services at no cost, such as vaccinations for childrenand breastfeeding support. Teens and adults younger than 26 years can stay insured under their parent’s insurance plan if the plan allows dependent coverage. 2- Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program The program’s services far exceed those usually covered by private insurance and include the following: • Health, developmental, and nutritional screening • Physical examinations • Immunizations • Vision and hearing screening • Certain laboratory tests • Dental services
  • 45. B- Direct Health Care Delivery Programs 1- Maternal and Child Health Block Grant These health centers provide comprehensive, culturally competent, primary and preventive health care to a diverse population including individuals who are low income, uninsured and experiencing homelessness. 2- School-Based Health Centers School-based health centers typically provide a combination of screening and preventive services, primary care, mental health and substance abuse counseling, dental health, nutrition education, and other health promotion activities 3- Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Established in 1972, WIC is one of the most successful, popular, and cost-effective public health programs. Some of the many benefits attributed to WIC include the following: o Improvements in birth outcomes and health care cost savings o Improved infant feeding practices, better low-birth-weight rate, and more regular primary care o Lower rates of childhood obesity
  • 46. Community Health Nurse’s Role Educator: ■ information about issues influencing their health and development; ■ services including health, education, and opportunities for fun and relaxation; ■ a safe and supportive environment, which includes supportive and caring adults and offers opportunities for participation including the means to influence and make decisions affecting their lives and their communities (WHO, 1998d, p. 15) Educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health is an important part of comprehensive well-woman care Three components guide practice: recognizing sexual rights, sexuality education and counseling, and confidential high-quality services.35 Incorporating these components supports young women in feeling empowered regarding bodily autonomy and sexual rights. Information on prevention of STIs is an essential part of adolescent reproductive and sexual health
  • 47. researcher O A researcher for effective strategies to serve women and children advocator o An advocate for improved individual and community responses to children’s need Advocate for legislation and policies that promote adolescent health andstrengtheningof families through community involvement; ■incorporate evidence-based practice to guide the care of adolescents.
  • 48. Collaborator o A partner with other professionals to improve service collaboration and coordination Comunicator Communication, the foundation of the nurse– patient relationship, is especially critical when working with an adolescent population. Nurses must strive to engage in non-judgmental, non-patronizing dialogue with adolescent patients and to respect their ability to make decisions, accept responsibility, and problem solve regarding their own health care ). The issue of confidentiality should be routinely addressed especially when sensitive information must be shared with others. These instances may vary by state based on regulations related to sexual/phys-ical abuse, abortion, and contraception.
  • 49. Other It is essential that nurses create environments that support adolescents’ rights to confidential health care and that their practice remains within the limits of the law ■ use an assets framework when assessing adolescents; ■ create respectful, trusting relationships with adolescents and families when developing health care plans; ■ identify the needs of adolescents for safety, privacy, confidentiality, information, connectedness and support; ■ appreciate the impact of the environment on adolescent health; ■ develop innovative primary health care strategies within the community to promote adolescent health and to prevent disease; ■ incorporate evidence-based practice to guide the care of adolescents.
  • 50. REFERENCES .noitareneg txen eht dna tnempoleveD .2007World Bank. World DevelopmentReport .2007 ;knaB dlroW :notgnihsaW 4 UNFPA. UNFPA framework for action on adolescents and youth. Opening doors with .2007keys. New York: UNFPA; WHO. Strengthening the health sector response to adolescent health & development. .2009Geneva: WHO; .2012UNICEF. Progress for children. A report card for adolescents. UNICEF. New York. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-AWHONN position statement: Confidentiality in adolescent health care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2010; 39: 127-128https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552- 6909.2009.01096.x American Academy of Nursing [AAN] (2000). Adolescent health task force. Nursing Outlook, 48:42–43. Brookfield S (1987). Developing critical thinkers: challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. San Francisco, CA, Jossey Bass. Cook R, Dickens BM (2000). Recognizing adolescents’ ‘evolving capacities’ to exercise choice in