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Health education
program for
community(child,
adolescent, men,
women, and
elderly)
Presented To :
DR / Mai El Ghareeb
Presented by :
Nourhan Dahshan
Outlines
 Introduction
 Definition of health education
 Definition of program
 Health education program steps
-planning
1. information gathering
2.defining and prioritizing problems
3.setting goals and objective
4.identifying and obtaining resources
5.selecting appropriate method
 implementation of program
 Evaluating of program
 Types of program evaluation
 New health program and project of community,
family and child
 Criteria of successful health education program
 Apply health education program for men with high
blood pressure
Introduction
 Planning a health education program is like
planning a journey.
 In planning a journey, you know where you are
and have to decide where to go.
 Then you must decide the best way of getting to
your destination.
 If you do not arrive at the place you wanted to go,
you realize that you are lost
Likewise, the starting point for health situation, e.g.
level of immunization, family education program is
the present health Planning coverage,
malnutrition status, or sanitation, that you would like
to improve to a better level, which is your
destination
 To do this, you must decide on a strategy - the
methods you must use to improve the situation.
 At the end, you evaluate your program to find out
if you have reached your target - or have got lost!
Health education
 is any combination of learning experiences designed
to help individuals and communities improve their
health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing
their attitudes.
Definition of program :
 Is an organized response designed to meet the assessed
needs of individuals , families , groups or communities by
Reducing or eliminating one or more health problems .
 The health education program
 1-planning.
 2- Implementation.
 3-Evaluation.
A. The planning Process
1. information gathering
2.defining and prioritizing problems
3.setting goals and objective
4.identifying and obtaining resources
5.selecting appropriate method
The planning Process
A. Information gathering
 good way of finding out the present situation is to
carry out a community profile or diagnosis.
Following are some types of information, which
may be helpful in understanding the community
and its health problems.
1. The community and its general
physical characteristics:
 The size of the community
 The kind of food, natural resources existing
 The transportation routes
 Localization of existing schools, religious
institutions, market places, recreational
facilities, health facilities and other public and
private services
2. Information on the number of people and
their characteristics :
 May be from available records
 Number of people who live in the area
 Their sex and age group
 Average size of a household
 Average number of pregnancies, children alive,
and children died in the last one year.
 Literacy status of the adults
3. Community groups and their impact on the
health care system
 Learn the existence of various social groups and
the nature of relationships both within and
between those groups. E.g. Ethnic class,
religious group
4. The communication network
 To reach the people in the community, it is
necessary for you to know how information
spread within the community.
5.The family structure
 An understanding of the family structure, the
status of various members of the family and who
is involved in the decision-making process within
the family on all major decisions as well as those
related to health is valuable to work with
community.
6. Religion and its impact on health
 Who the major religious groups in the community,
their leaders & their roles in the community life
7. Health beliefs and practices
 How people define good health and disease
 Some people may believe that prevention of
illness is impossible, or very difficult
8.The political structure in the community
 Explore the basis for leadership and power within
the community.
9. The economy and its impact on health
 Know about businesses, industries, agricultural
conditions, unemployment, family debts, and how
the land is distributed.
B. Defining and prioritizing problems
 What needs to be done to improve their life?
 What are the illnesses most common?
 What is the extent of the problem? How bad is the
situation?
 Which groups or individuals are most affected?
C. Setting goals and Objectives
 For a program to succeed, we must know
clearly what we want to do and how we are
going to do it. After people have decided upon
their priority needs, they must spell out exactly
what they want,
 An Objective : is a statement of proposed
change over a fixed time period.
 It should be measurable, relevant and possible
to achieve.
D . Identifying and Obtaining
Resources
 1-Resources inside the community:
 Places to hold meetings, discussions, and
trainings, such as schools, and halls
 Some people may be able to donate money
to buy materials.
 2-Resources outside the community:
 If resources within are not adequate one
may seek from outside:
 Some agencies and ministries can donate
funds
E. Selecting appropriate
Methods
 a health worker can use many different methods
to encourage a change in that behavior.
 Generally, there are some basic issues to
consider before choosing health education
methods:
 How many people are involved?
 Is the method appropriate to the local culture?
 What combined methods are needed?
 What methods fit the characteristics (age, sex,
religion etc) of the target group?
2-implementing the Program
 Development and implementing a program
 After having analyzed the situation, define
problems, prioritize and set objectives, identify
resources, and design strategy, the health
extension workers and health committee should be
able to develop an action plan.
 A plan of work is a picture or “map” of what
to do, when to do it, who will do it, and at
what cost each step of activities be
accomplished . It will serve as a guide and
will help in
 implementing and evaluating the project
and planning another one.
3. Evaluating the program
 It is a continuous process how the program is
progressing according to a set time table in the
action plan.
 Information for evaluation program would be
obtained from observations, interviews, and
records.
 By the end of the educational activities, you
should be able to measure their successes
by counting how many people are behaving
according to the original objectives: is this
number more than before the program
started?
Types of program evaluation
 There are four types of program
evaluation :
 1-formative evaluation
 2-process evaluation
 3-Impact evaluation
 4-out come evaluation
 Summative evaluation
formative
summative
process
Out come
impact
1-Formative evaluation :
 Evaluate program during it’s development stage
in order to make modification early to help
improve the program
 Assess the strengths and weakness of materials
or campaign strategies before implementation
2- Summative evaluation
 Occur at the end of a program to provide an
assessment of program effectiveness
 The findings are used to help decide whether
program and it’s activities should be continued
or modified or improvement
3- process evaluation :
 Focus on the implementation of training
program to determine if specific strategies and
activities were implemented as intend
 This type of evaluation also can look at the
administrative and organizational aspect of
the program
4- Out come evaluation :
 Focus on the change in knowledge , attitudes and
behavior that result from training program
 It measure what the training participants were
able to do at the end of training
5- Impact evaluation :
 Focus on long term changes on the
performance as result of the delivery of a
training program
 It determine how well the program achieved
it’s learning objectives
New health program and project
of family and child health
 Various national health programs are
currently in operation for the improvement of
family and child health and prevention of
childhood diseases. The brief lists of these
programs are:
 Maternal and child health program(MCH)
 Integrated child development service
scheme(ICDS)
 Child survival and safe motherhood
program(CSSM)
 Reproductive and child health program(RCH)
 Integrated management of neonatal and
childhood illness
National programs related to communicable
disease
 National program of immunization
 Acute respiratory infection control program
 Diarrheal disease control program
 Revised national tuberculosis control
program
 National malaria eradication program
National programs related to control of
non communicable disease
 National school health program
 National mental health program
 National program for control of
blindness
 National cancer control program
 National diabetes control program
 Child welfare program for disabled
children
 National water supply and sanitation
program
 National family welfare program
Local services of family and child
health and nation services
Maternal health care services:
 Prenatal, neonatal and postnatal care
 Labor and delivery services
 Prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality
 Promotion of breastfeeding
 Female education
Reproductive health services:
 Family planning
 Prevention and treatment of sexually
transmitted disease including HIV/AIDS, HPV
 Education on sexual health
Child health care services:
 Education and training to reduce the incidence of
morbidity and mortality of children under the age of
five including:
 Immunization
 Malnutrition prevention
 Lifesaving surgeries to address congenital
problems
 Treatment for measles, malaria, AIDS, diarrheal
diseases and other childhood killers
 Growth monitoring
 Oral rehydration therapy
 Counseling
 Early detection and screening tests
 Supplementing micronutrients
 Food safety
 Support environmental sanitation ,safety
 Provision of some drugs
National services
Health insurance organization
 Covers governmental employee, students,
newly born and private sector employee
 Financed by beneficiaries and taxes
 Mainly curative services and some preventive,
promotive services as:
 Recording of health files
 Screening tests(schools)
 Inpatient and outpatient services are available
 Micronutrient supplement(infants), growth
monitoring, vaccination and health education
 University, teaching hospitals(mainly curative
services)
 Private sector(curative services)
 Military hospitals serve military and public
sectors(all level of care)
 Improve the quality of health services offered to
consumers
 All national resources governmental and non
governmental
Criteria of successful health education
program
 . An effective health education curriculum has the
following characteristics, according to reviews of
effective programs and curricula and experts in the field
of health education
 Focuses on clear health goals and related
behavioral outcomes.
 Is research-based and theory-driven.
 Addresses individual values, attitudes, and beliefs.
 Addresses individual and group norms that support
health-enhancing behaviors.
 Focuses on reinforcing protective factors and
increasing perceptions of personal risk and
harmfulness of engaging in specific unhealthy
practices and behaviors.
 Addresses social pressures and influences.
 Builds personal competence, social competence,
and self efficacy by addressing skills.
 Provides functional health knowledge that is basic,
accurate, and directly contributes to health-
promoting decisions and behaviors.
 Uses strategies designed to personalize
information and engage students.
 Provides age-appropriate and developmentally-
appropriate information, learning strategies,
teaching methods, and materials.
 Incorporates learning strategies, teaching methods,
and materials that are culturally inclusive.
 Provides adequate time for instruction and
learning.
 Provides opportunities to reinforce skills and
positive health behaviors.
 Provides opportunities to make positive
connections with influential others.
 Includes teacher information and plans for
professional development and training that
enhance effectiveness of instruction and student
learning.
Apply health education program for
men with high blood pressure:
Applying health education program on group of men
with hypertension age between 45 to 55 have a family
history of hypertension
A-PLanning
1-Gather information
 collection of detailed information concerning the
community under the study
 Assessing general health status ,the health care system
and the social assistance
 The major problem in this area are men with high blood
pressure
 determining the relationship between health status and
health care in the community
 An estimated 1.13 billion people worldwide have
hypertension, most (two-thirds) living in low- and
middle-income countries.
 1 in 4 men and 1 in 5 women had hypertension.
 Fewer than 1 in 5 people with hypertension have
the problem under control.
 Hypertension is a major cause of premature death
worldwide.
2-Stating the goals:
 Long term goals :reduce mortality from
hypertension
 Short –term goal :Reduce sedentary
behaviors by providing an exercise
stating objectives
 specific knowledge ,attitude and behavior change
needed to achieve the goal .
 -participants will state the numerical range for normal
blood pressure and high blood pressure.(knowledge)
 -participants will accurately use digital blood pressure
monitor.(behavior)
 -participants will appreciate the importance of taking
high blood pressure medication as prescribed (Attitude).
3-Identifying resources and barriers:
 Specific resources in the target community to
bring about change
 Barriers are the forces that are expected to
work against the program such as time
,money and place
4-identifying methods and tools:
 These are the means through which the
changes will be made such as :mass
media, video and use tools such as role
playing to develop skills of men with high
blood pressure.
B-Development and implementing a program
 Procedures for promoting the program:
 Recruiting the target audience and
conducting the program activities are
described.
•High blood pressure
Is a common condition in which the long-term
force of the blood against your artery walls is
high enough that it may eventually cause health
problems, such as heart disease
BLOOD
PRESSURE CATEG
ORY
SYSTOLIC mm Hg
(upper number)
DIASTOLIC mm Hg
(lower number)
NORMAL LESS THAN 120 LESS THAN 80
HIGH BLOOD
PRESSURE (HYPE
RTENSION) STAGE
2
140 OR HIGHER 90 OR HIGHER
HYPERTENSIVE
CRISIS (consult your
doctor immediately)
HIGHER THAN 180 HIGHER THAN 120
Causes High Blood Pressure
The exact causes of high blood pressure are not known, but several things
may play a role, including:
Modifiable risk factors
 Smoking
 overweight or obese
 Lack of physical activity
 Too much salt in the diet
 alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day)
 Stress
Non Modifiable risk factors
 Older age
 Genetics
 Chronic kidney disease
 Sex
 race
Symptoms of High Blood Pressure
 Severe headache.
 Fatigue or confusion.
 Vision problems.
 Chest pain.
 Difficulty breathing.
 Irregular heartbeat.
 Blood in the urine.
 Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears.
Health education
 Some types of hypertension can be
managed through lifestyle and dietary
choices, such as engaging in physical
activity, reducing alcohol and tobacco
use, and avoiding a high-sodium diet .
Regular physical exercise
Doctors recommend that patients with
hypertension engage in 30 minutes of
moderate-intensity, dynamic, aerobic
exercise. This can include walking, jogging,
cycling, or swimming on 5 to 7 days of the
week.
Diet
Reducing the amount of salt
 Average salt intake is between 9 grams (g)
and 12 g per day in most countries around the
world.
 The WHO recommends reducing intake
to under 5 g a day, to help decrease the risk of
hypertension and related health problems.
 Eating more fruit and vegetables and less fat
 whole-grain, high-fiber foods
 a variety of fruit and vegetables
 beans, pulses, and nuts
 omega-3-rich fish twice a week
 non-tropical vegetable oils, for example, olive oil
 skinless poultry and fish
 low-fat dairy products
Managing body weight
 Hypertension is closely related to
excess body weight, and weight reduction
is normally followed by a fall in blood
pressure. A healthy, balanced diet with a
calorie intake that matches the individual's
size, sex, and activity level will help.
Stress reduction
 Avoiding stress, or developing strategies for managing
unavoidable stress, can help with blood pressure
control.
 Using alcohol, drugs, smoking, and unhealthy eating
to cope with stress will add to hypertensive problems.
These should be avoided.
 Smoking can raise blood pressure. Giving up smoking
reduces the risk of hypertension, heart conditions, and
other health issues
C-Evaluation the program:
 Evaluation can range from simple to
complex, from consideration of the
most basic elements of the program to
abstract implications .
Reference
World Health Organization
http://www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications
/consumer/en/5keys-en.pdf
Guidelines on Prevention of Communicable
Diseases in
Schools/Kindergartens/Kindergartens-cum-
Child Care Centers/Child Care Center. Center
for Health Protection. June2014
Edition(Revised: January 2019)
Waleed Amen Mohammed, Head department,
community Health Nursing. Communicable
Diseases.
www.slideshare.net
-Public Health Approaches to Infectious
Disease: 3.2
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health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp

  • 2. Presented To : DR / Mai El Ghareeb Presented by : Nourhan Dahshan
  • 3. Outlines  Introduction  Definition of health education  Definition of program  Health education program steps -planning 1. information gathering 2.defining and prioritizing problems 3.setting goals and objective 4.identifying and obtaining resources 5.selecting appropriate method
  • 4.  implementation of program  Evaluating of program  Types of program evaluation  New health program and project of community, family and child  Criteria of successful health education program  Apply health education program for men with high blood pressure
  • 5. Introduction  Planning a health education program is like planning a journey.  In planning a journey, you know where you are and have to decide where to go.  Then you must decide the best way of getting to your destination.  If you do not arrive at the place you wanted to go, you realize that you are lost
  • 6. Likewise, the starting point for health situation, e.g. level of immunization, family education program is the present health Planning coverage, malnutrition status, or sanitation, that you would like to improve to a better level, which is your destination  To do this, you must decide on a strategy - the methods you must use to improve the situation.  At the end, you evaluate your program to find out if you have reached your target - or have got lost!
  • 7. Health education  is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.
  • 8. Definition of program :  Is an organized response designed to meet the assessed needs of individuals , families , groups or communities by Reducing or eliminating one or more health problems .
  • 9.  The health education program  1-planning.  2- Implementation.  3-Evaluation.
  • 10. A. The planning Process 1. information gathering 2.defining and prioritizing problems 3.setting goals and objective 4.identifying and obtaining resources 5.selecting appropriate method
  • 11. The planning Process A. Information gathering  good way of finding out the present situation is to carry out a community profile or diagnosis. Following are some types of information, which may be helpful in understanding the community and its health problems.
  • 12. 1. The community and its general physical characteristics:  The size of the community  The kind of food, natural resources existing  The transportation routes  Localization of existing schools, religious institutions, market places, recreational facilities, health facilities and other public and private services
  • 13. 2. Information on the number of people and their characteristics :  May be from available records  Number of people who live in the area  Their sex and age group  Average size of a household  Average number of pregnancies, children alive, and children died in the last one year.  Literacy status of the adults
  • 14. 3. Community groups and their impact on the health care system  Learn the existence of various social groups and the nature of relationships both within and between those groups. E.g. Ethnic class, religious group 4. The communication network  To reach the people in the community, it is necessary for you to know how information spread within the community.
  • 15. 5.The family structure  An understanding of the family structure, the status of various members of the family and who is involved in the decision-making process within the family on all major decisions as well as those related to health is valuable to work with community. 6. Religion and its impact on health  Who the major religious groups in the community, their leaders & their roles in the community life
  • 16. 7. Health beliefs and practices  How people define good health and disease  Some people may believe that prevention of illness is impossible, or very difficult 8.The political structure in the community  Explore the basis for leadership and power within the community.
  • 17. 9. The economy and its impact on health  Know about businesses, industries, agricultural conditions, unemployment, family debts, and how the land is distributed.
  • 18. B. Defining and prioritizing problems  What needs to be done to improve their life?  What are the illnesses most common?  What is the extent of the problem? How bad is the situation?  Which groups or individuals are most affected?
  • 19. C. Setting goals and Objectives  For a program to succeed, we must know clearly what we want to do and how we are going to do it. After people have decided upon their priority needs, they must spell out exactly what they want,  An Objective : is a statement of proposed change over a fixed time period.  It should be measurable, relevant and possible to achieve.
  • 20. D . Identifying and Obtaining Resources  1-Resources inside the community:  Places to hold meetings, discussions, and trainings, such as schools, and halls  Some people may be able to donate money to buy materials.  2-Resources outside the community:  If resources within are not adequate one may seek from outside:  Some agencies and ministries can donate funds
  • 21. E. Selecting appropriate Methods  a health worker can use many different methods to encourage a change in that behavior.  Generally, there are some basic issues to consider before choosing health education methods:
  • 22.  How many people are involved?  Is the method appropriate to the local culture?  What combined methods are needed?  What methods fit the characteristics (age, sex, religion etc) of the target group?
  • 23. 2-implementing the Program  Development and implementing a program  After having analyzed the situation, define problems, prioritize and set objectives, identify resources, and design strategy, the health extension workers and health committee should be able to develop an action plan.
  • 24.  A plan of work is a picture or “map” of what to do, when to do it, who will do it, and at what cost each step of activities be accomplished . It will serve as a guide and will help in  implementing and evaluating the project and planning another one.
  • 25. 3. Evaluating the program  It is a continuous process how the program is progressing according to a set time table in the action plan.  Information for evaluation program would be obtained from observations, interviews, and records.
  • 26.  By the end of the educational activities, you should be able to measure their successes by counting how many people are behaving according to the original objectives: is this number more than before the program started?
  • 27. Types of program evaluation  There are four types of program evaluation :  1-formative evaluation  2-process evaluation  3-Impact evaluation  4-out come evaluation  Summative evaluation
  • 29. 1-Formative evaluation :  Evaluate program during it’s development stage in order to make modification early to help improve the program  Assess the strengths and weakness of materials or campaign strategies before implementation
  • 30. 2- Summative evaluation  Occur at the end of a program to provide an assessment of program effectiveness  The findings are used to help decide whether program and it’s activities should be continued or modified or improvement
  • 31. 3- process evaluation :  Focus on the implementation of training program to determine if specific strategies and activities were implemented as intend  This type of evaluation also can look at the administrative and organizational aspect of the program
  • 32. 4- Out come evaluation :  Focus on the change in knowledge , attitudes and behavior that result from training program  It measure what the training participants were able to do at the end of training
  • 33. 5- Impact evaluation :  Focus on long term changes on the performance as result of the delivery of a training program  It determine how well the program achieved it’s learning objectives
  • 34. New health program and project of family and child health  Various national health programs are currently in operation for the improvement of family and child health and prevention of childhood diseases. The brief lists of these programs are:  Maternal and child health program(MCH)  Integrated child development service scheme(ICDS)  Child survival and safe motherhood program(CSSM)  Reproductive and child health program(RCH)  Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness
  • 35. National programs related to communicable disease  National program of immunization  Acute respiratory infection control program  Diarrheal disease control program  Revised national tuberculosis control program  National malaria eradication program National programs related to control of non communicable disease  National school health program  National mental health program
  • 36.  National program for control of blindness  National cancer control program  National diabetes control program  Child welfare program for disabled children  National water supply and sanitation program  National family welfare program
  • 37. Local services of family and child health and nation services Maternal health care services:  Prenatal, neonatal and postnatal care  Labor and delivery services  Prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality  Promotion of breastfeeding  Female education Reproductive health services:  Family planning  Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted disease including HIV/AIDS, HPV
  • 38.  Education on sexual health Child health care services:  Education and training to reduce the incidence of morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five including:  Immunization  Malnutrition prevention  Lifesaving surgeries to address congenital problems  Treatment for measles, malaria, AIDS, diarrheal diseases and other childhood killers
  • 39.  Growth monitoring  Oral rehydration therapy  Counseling  Early detection and screening tests  Supplementing micronutrients  Food safety  Support environmental sanitation ,safety  Provision of some drugs
  • 40. National services Health insurance organization  Covers governmental employee, students, newly born and private sector employee  Financed by beneficiaries and taxes  Mainly curative services and some preventive, promotive services as:  Recording of health files  Screening tests(schools)  Inpatient and outpatient services are available
  • 41.  Micronutrient supplement(infants), growth monitoring, vaccination and health education  University, teaching hospitals(mainly curative services)  Private sector(curative services)  Military hospitals serve military and public sectors(all level of care)  Improve the quality of health services offered to consumers  All national resources governmental and non governmental
  • 42. Criteria of successful health education program  . An effective health education curriculum has the following characteristics, according to reviews of effective programs and curricula and experts in the field of health education  Focuses on clear health goals and related behavioral outcomes.  Is research-based and theory-driven.  Addresses individual values, attitudes, and beliefs.  Addresses individual and group norms that support health-enhancing behaviors.  Focuses on reinforcing protective factors and increasing perceptions of personal risk and harmfulness of engaging in specific unhealthy practices and behaviors.
  • 43.  Addresses social pressures and influences.  Builds personal competence, social competence, and self efficacy by addressing skills.  Provides functional health knowledge that is basic, accurate, and directly contributes to health- promoting decisions and behaviors.  Uses strategies designed to personalize information and engage students.  Provides age-appropriate and developmentally- appropriate information, learning strategies, teaching methods, and materials.
  • 44.  Incorporates learning strategies, teaching methods, and materials that are culturally inclusive.  Provides adequate time for instruction and learning.  Provides opportunities to reinforce skills and positive health behaviors.  Provides opportunities to make positive connections with influential others.  Includes teacher information and plans for professional development and training that enhance effectiveness of instruction and student learning.
  • 45. Apply health education program for men with high blood pressure: Applying health education program on group of men with hypertension age between 45 to 55 have a family history of hypertension A-PLanning 1-Gather information  collection of detailed information concerning the community under the study  Assessing general health status ,the health care system and the social assistance  The major problem in this area are men with high blood pressure  determining the relationship between health status and health care in the community
  • 46.  An estimated 1.13 billion people worldwide have hypertension, most (two-thirds) living in low- and middle-income countries.  1 in 4 men and 1 in 5 women had hypertension.  Fewer than 1 in 5 people with hypertension have the problem under control.  Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide.
  • 47. 2-Stating the goals:  Long term goals :reduce mortality from hypertension  Short –term goal :Reduce sedentary behaviors by providing an exercise
  • 48. stating objectives  specific knowledge ,attitude and behavior change needed to achieve the goal .  -participants will state the numerical range for normal blood pressure and high blood pressure.(knowledge)  -participants will accurately use digital blood pressure monitor.(behavior)  -participants will appreciate the importance of taking high blood pressure medication as prescribed (Attitude).
  • 49. 3-Identifying resources and barriers:  Specific resources in the target community to bring about change  Barriers are the forces that are expected to work against the program such as time ,money and place
  • 50. 4-identifying methods and tools:  These are the means through which the changes will be made such as :mass media, video and use tools such as role playing to develop skills of men with high blood pressure.
  • 51. B-Development and implementing a program  Procedures for promoting the program:  Recruiting the target audience and conducting the program activities are described.
  • 52. •High blood pressure Is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease BLOOD PRESSURE CATEG ORY SYSTOLIC mm Hg (upper number) DIASTOLIC mm Hg (lower number) NORMAL LESS THAN 120 LESS THAN 80 HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HYPE RTENSION) STAGE 2 140 OR HIGHER 90 OR HIGHER HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS (consult your doctor immediately) HIGHER THAN 180 HIGHER THAN 120
  • 53. Causes High Blood Pressure The exact causes of high blood pressure are not known, but several things may play a role, including: Modifiable risk factors  Smoking  overweight or obese  Lack of physical activity  Too much salt in the diet  alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day)  Stress Non Modifiable risk factors  Older age  Genetics  Chronic kidney disease  Sex  race
  • 54. Symptoms of High Blood Pressure  Severe headache.  Fatigue or confusion.  Vision problems.  Chest pain.  Difficulty breathing.  Irregular heartbeat.  Blood in the urine.  Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears.
  • 55. Health education  Some types of hypertension can be managed through lifestyle and dietary choices, such as engaging in physical activity, reducing alcohol and tobacco use, and avoiding a high-sodium diet .
  • 56. Regular physical exercise Doctors recommend that patients with hypertension engage in 30 minutes of moderate-intensity, dynamic, aerobic exercise. This can include walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming on 5 to 7 days of the week.
  • 57. Diet Reducing the amount of salt  Average salt intake is between 9 grams (g) and 12 g per day in most countries around the world.  The WHO recommends reducing intake to under 5 g a day, to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems.
  • 58.  Eating more fruit and vegetables and less fat  whole-grain, high-fiber foods  a variety of fruit and vegetables  beans, pulses, and nuts  omega-3-rich fish twice a week  non-tropical vegetable oils, for example, olive oil  skinless poultry and fish  low-fat dairy products
  • 59. Managing body weight  Hypertension is closely related to excess body weight, and weight reduction is normally followed by a fall in blood pressure. A healthy, balanced diet with a calorie intake that matches the individual's size, sex, and activity level will help.
  • 60. Stress reduction  Avoiding stress, or developing strategies for managing unavoidable stress, can help with blood pressure control.  Using alcohol, drugs, smoking, and unhealthy eating to cope with stress will add to hypertensive problems. These should be avoided.  Smoking can raise blood pressure. Giving up smoking reduces the risk of hypertension, heart conditions, and other health issues
  • 61. C-Evaluation the program:  Evaluation can range from simple to complex, from consideration of the most basic elements of the program to abstract implications .
  • 62. Reference World Health Organization http://www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications /consumer/en/5keys-en.pdf Guidelines on Prevention of Communicable Diseases in Schools/Kindergartens/Kindergartens-cum- Child Care Centers/Child Care Center. Center for Health Protection. June2014 Edition(Revised: January 2019) Waleed Amen Mohammed, Head department, community Health Nursing. Communicable Diseases. www.slideshare.net -Public Health Approaches to Infectious Disease: 3.2