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I NTE RP ERS ONAL
COMMUNI CATION
S KI LLS FOR S P E CI AL
P OP ULATION
P RE S ENTED BY :
NOURHANDAHS HAN
Introduction
Interpersonal communication involves
the information, ideas, and feelings
being exchanged verbally or non-
verbally between two or more people.
Face-to-face communication often
involves hearing, seeing, and feeling
body language, facial expressions, and
Definition of communication
•It is a two way complex process of
sending a message (ideas, information,
values, feelings or attitudes)
between two or more persons. Through
the spoken or written words, symbols, or
gestures
Importance of Communication process
❑It is impossible to live in our everyday world
without communicating with other
❑There is a certain need to communicate
❑It help in identifying and solving problems
❑Human need to communicate because we are
social creatures by nature
❑It help in feeling expression
Characteristics of good
communicator
▪ Respect and empathy for the client.
▪ Good communication skills.
▪ Tolerance of values and beliefs different from
one’s own.
▪ Unbiased attitudes.
▪ Patience.
▪ Possession of technical knowledge and skills.
Types of Interpersonal Communication
Verbal: In other words, speaking. This
term covers the words you use, how
persuasively you speak, the language
you use, which words you emphasize,
and even the use of affirmative sounds
and short phrases like “Yup” or “Uh-
huh.”
Types of Interpersonal Communication
Non-Verbal: This final type covers body
language, facial expressions, tone of
voice, and gestures. Again, it’s essential
that the listener picks up and correctly
interprets non-verbal cues.
Types of Interpersonal
Communication
Listening: You can make a good case for
listening as the most important interpersonal
communication skill. It covers the ability to
listen attentively, whether you’re using your
ears to listen “in-person” or some other
means, say, over the Internet. Listening also
includes special techniques like reflection
and clarification. The best listeners are
people who can focus their attention on the
Communication
The Written Word: Thanks to the Internet age
and situations requiring isolation (e.g., the
pandemic), good written communication
skills have become an asset. Whether you’re
on social media, in the workplace, or even
texting on your phone, you must know how
to get your point across in writing. This type
includes emojis, grammar, clarity, tone, and
even punctuation. After all, there’s a vast
How to Build Interpersonal
Communication Skills
1-Practice active listening: One of the most
important aspects of interpersonal communication
is active listening. This involves fully concentrating
on what the other person is saying, without
interrupting or judging them. You can practice
active listening by maintaining eye contact,
nodding, and asking questions to clarify their
message.
2-Use clear and concise language:
Communication is most effective when it is
clear and concise. Use simple language and
avoid jargon or technical terms that others
may not understand
3-Be aware of nonverbal communication:
Nonverbal communication, such as body language
and facial expressions, can also convey messages.
Be aware of your own nonverbal cues and try to
read others’ body language to better understand
their message.
4-Show empathy: Empathy involves
understanding and sharing the feelings of
others. When communicating with others, try
to put yourself in their shoes and show
understanding and compassion for their
perspective.
5-Build rapport: Building rapport involves
finding common ground and establishing a
connection with others. This can help to
build trust and enhance communication.
Look for common interests or experiences,
and use humor or other forms of positive
reinforcement to build a positive relationship.
6-Be open to feedback: Be open to
constructive criticism and feedback from
others, and use it as an opportunity to learn
and grow.
8-Factors affect Communication
Communication Techniques
A. Therapeutically communication (effective).
B. Non therapeutically communication
(ineffective).
A.Therapeutically communication
(effective).
Medical Dictionary, therapeutic communication can be
defined as “a
process in which the nurse consciously influences a client
or helps the client to a better understanding through
verbal or nonverbal communication.((An interaction
between a health care professional and a patient that aims
to enhance the patient’s comfort, safety, trust, or health
and well-being”)) - This is more important in patients with
chronic diseases or those requiring long-term care
A.Therapeutic Communication
Techniques
Active Listening– Being attentive to what the client is
saying, verbally and non-verbally.
• Sharing Observations– Making observations by
commenting on how the other person looks, sounds, or acts.
Example:” you look tired” or “I haven’t seen you eating
anything today”.
•Silence: Time for the nurse and client to observe one
another, sort out feelings, think of how to say things, and
consider what has been verbally communicated. The
nurse should allow the client to break the silence. Help to
arrange ideas, to improve communication
• Using Touch: Most potent form of communication.
Comfort touch such as holding a hand, is especially
important for vulnerable clients who are experiencing
severe illness.
Sharing Empathy– The ability to understand
and accept another person’s reality, to accurately
perceive feelings, and to communicate
understanding. Example “It must be very
frustrating to know what you want and not be
able to do it”. Sharing Humor– Contributes to
feelings of togetherness, closeness and
friendliness. Promotes positive communication in
the following ways; prevention, perception,
Paraphrasing: repeating the spoken words in
the same meaning using another words e.g.
Patient “I cannot sleep, I stay awake all the
night” nurse” You have difficulty in sleeping“
• Providing Information– Relevant information
is important to make decisions, experience less
anxiety, and feel safe and secure.
• Clarifying–used to clarify vague
communication e.g. “Tell me more about that” or
“What do you mean
Sharing Feelings–Nurses can help clients
express emotions by making observations,
acknowledging feelings, and encouraging
communication, giving permission to express
“negative” feelings and modeling healthy anger.
Focusing–make stress on important points, it is
useful when person jump from topic to another.
An example is “On a scale of 0 to 10 tell me the
level of the pain you are experiencing in your
• Asking Relevant Questions– To seek information
needed for decision making. Asking only one question
at a time and fully exploring one topic before moving to
another area.
• Open-ended questions allows for taking the
conversational lead and introducing pertinent
information about a topic. For example
“What is your biggest problem at the moment?” or
“How has your pain affected your life at home?”
Reflection:reflect what he said e.g. “ my money
stolen yesterday”
Nurse “This causes you to feel anger
• Restatement:repeating the spoken words in the
same words as it is.
Summarizing–Gives a client a sense you
understand.
❖It is a concise review of key aspects of an
interaction. Summarizing brings a sense of closure.
B.Non therapeutically communication
(ineffective).
• Non-therapeutic communication negatively affects
both the patient
and the nurse in various ways.
• Non-therapeutic communication : involves various
words ,actions ,phrases and tones that make a
patient feel uncomfortable and increase their stress
and worsen their overall mental and perhaps
even physical , wellbeing.
B.Non-therapeutic Technique
• Asking personal questions – Asking person questions
that are not relevant to the situation, is not professional or
appropriate.
• Giving personal opinions– Giving personal opinions,
takes away decision-making for the client. Remember the
problem and the
solution belongs to the patient and not the nurse.
• Changing the subject– Changing the subject when
someone is trying to communicate with you is rude and
• False Reassurance– “Don’t worry, everything will be all right.”
When a client is seriously ill or distressed, the nurse may be
tempted to offer hope to the client with statements such as
“you’ll be fine.” When a patient is reaching for understanding
these phrases that are not
based on fact or based on reality can do more harm than good.
• Sympathy– Sympathy focuses on the nurse’s feelings rather
than the
client’s. Saying “I’m so sorry about your amputation, it must be
terrible to lose a leg.” This shows concern but more sorrow and
pity than trying to understand how the client feels.
Giving advice :telling the client what to do, giving
opinions or making decisions for the client.
•Internal validation :making an assumption about the
meaning of someone else’s behavior that is not
validated by the other person (jumping into conclusion).
• Overloading :talking rapidly, changing subjects too
often, and asking for more information than can be
absorbed at one time.
Definition of Special populations
• Special populations
▪ Some groups in the general population may require special study within the
clinical development process:
➢elderly
➢disability
➢pregnant women
➢breast feeding women
➢children
➢ethnic sub-groups
➢ a disability is ongoing condition that inhibits everyday life and activities. A
disability may be physical, sensory, intellectual, psychiatric, neurological, or
.Characteristics of disability
Hearing – deaf or serious difficulty hearing.
• Vision – blind or serious difficulty seeing even when
wearing glasses.
• Cognitive – serious difficulty concentrating,
remembering, or making decisions due to a physical,
mental, or emotional condition.
• Ambulatory – serious difficulty walking or climbing
stairs.
• Self-Care – difficulty dressing or bathing.
Challenge for communication for special
disabled population
A communication barrier results when people are unable to hear,
speak, read, write or understand information as it is available to them.
People with visual
impairments may need large-print text, Braille versions of written
material, or screen readers.
• challenge for communication for elderly
• Generational Gaps
• Generational gaps make discussions difficult, but not impossible.
Sure, over time, words evolve, meanings change, and communication
styles change.
Challenge for communication for special
disabled population
Speech Impairments
• Conditions such as aphasia, dysarthria, or apraxia that are
caused by stroke and other medical conditions can make it
difficult for the
elderly to speak
• Terms and Language
• A common barrier to communication at any age is a disconnect
between what was said and what was meant.
• Cognitive Deficits
General Tips for Communicating
with People that have a Disability
✓ Look at the person when addressing him or her.
✓ Ask the person about the best way to communicate if
you are unsure.
✓ Speak directly to a person with a disability, even if a
person without a disability accompanies him or her.
✓ If you know the person’s name, address the person by
their name.
✓ Offer assistance if it appears necessary, but don’t
assume a person with a disability needs or will accept it.
Wait for acceptance and instruction before proceeding.
1.Tips for Communicating
with people who are blind or have low vision
• Introduce yourself by name, even if you already
know the person
• Use your natural voice – don’t shout or over-
exaggerate
• Tell the person when you are leaving the room
• Be specific with any verbal directions or instructions
e.g. “slightly to your right”
Do not relocate objects or furniture without telling
the attention to
the person’s response – take your cues from him
or her..
• When preparing printed information for a person
with low vision, it is best to seek their advice for
their preferred format for personal documents.
General information for people with low vision
should be provided in Arial 18 point bold.
2.Tips for Communicating
with People Who are Hearing Impaired
Place yourself where they can see you to gain attention, or
lightly touch their shoulder
• Position yourself to ensure maximum light on your face
• Always face the person – do not turn away or cover your
mouth
• Don’t provide unnecessary detail – keep sentences short
• If necessary use a pen and paper to communicate
• Be flexible – if a person doesn’t understand something
you say, reword it instead of repeating it.
3.Tips for Communicating
with People with physical disability
• Do not shout, speak more slowly or over exaggerate
• Make eye contact and speak directly to the person with
a disability
• Where possible, sit down to speak with a person using
a wheelchair so that you are
• at the same eye level
• Don’t hang onto a person’s wheelchair or tray – the
chair is part of their personal space
4.Tips for Communicating
with People who have a cognitive impairment
Speak directly to the person with the disability, not to the
person who is assisting him or her.
• Use your natural volume and tone and speak clearly
using plain English
• Ask short questions to gather information
• Make instructions clear and brief and try not to get
frustrated if you have to repeat your selfe
• • Use an age-appropriate tone of voice.
• • Be patient. Do not complete sentences for the person.
• Make instructions clear and brief.
• Allow the person time to think and
respond.
• Don’t be afraid to ask the person to
repeat something if you don’t
understand.
• Pay attention
• Write information down or use pictures
5.Tips for Communicatingwith People who have an
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism: is a lifelong developmental disability.
• A person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder has
difficulties in some areas of their development, but other
areas may be unaffected.
• The areas most affected are communication, social
interaction and behaviour.
• Be patient (interaction may take longer than expected).
• Give the person time to process what you are saying
• Use simple and short sentences and closed
questions
• Be aware that body language may not be
understood
• Use words that are flexible
• Use an age-appropriate tone of voice.
6.Tips for Communicatingwith elderly People
Allow extra time for older patients.
• Speak slowly, clearly and loudly.
• Use short, simple words and sentences.
• Stick to one topic at a time
• Use charts, models and pictures
• Frequently summarize the most important points
• Give elderly an opportunity to ask questions and
express themselves
• Minimize visual and auditory distractions.
• Sit face to face with the patient.
• Listen without interrupting the patient
• Use touch to keep the patient relaxed and
focused.
• Say goodbye, to end the visit on a positive
note.

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Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication

  • 1. I NTE RP ERS ONAL COMMUNI CATION S KI LLS FOR S P E CI AL P OP ULATION P RE S ENTED BY : NOURHANDAHS HAN
  • 2. Introduction Interpersonal communication involves the information, ideas, and feelings being exchanged verbally or non- verbally between two or more people. Face-to-face communication often involves hearing, seeing, and feeling body language, facial expressions, and
  • 3. Definition of communication •It is a two way complex process of sending a message (ideas, information, values, feelings or attitudes) between two or more persons. Through the spoken or written words, symbols, or gestures
  • 4. Importance of Communication process ❑It is impossible to live in our everyday world without communicating with other ❑There is a certain need to communicate ❑It help in identifying and solving problems ❑Human need to communicate because we are social creatures by nature ❑It help in feeling expression
  • 5. Characteristics of good communicator ▪ Respect and empathy for the client. ▪ Good communication skills. ▪ Tolerance of values and beliefs different from one’s own. ▪ Unbiased attitudes. ▪ Patience. ▪ Possession of technical knowledge and skills.
  • 6. Types of Interpersonal Communication Verbal: In other words, speaking. This term covers the words you use, how persuasively you speak, the language you use, which words you emphasize, and even the use of affirmative sounds and short phrases like “Yup” or “Uh- huh.”
  • 7. Types of Interpersonal Communication Non-Verbal: This final type covers body language, facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures. Again, it’s essential that the listener picks up and correctly interprets non-verbal cues.
  • 8. Types of Interpersonal Communication Listening: You can make a good case for listening as the most important interpersonal communication skill. It covers the ability to listen attentively, whether you’re using your ears to listen “in-person” or some other means, say, over the Internet. Listening also includes special techniques like reflection and clarification. The best listeners are people who can focus their attention on the
  • 9. Communication The Written Word: Thanks to the Internet age and situations requiring isolation (e.g., the pandemic), good written communication skills have become an asset. Whether you’re on social media, in the workplace, or even texting on your phone, you must know how to get your point across in writing. This type includes emojis, grammar, clarity, tone, and even punctuation. After all, there’s a vast
  • 10. How to Build Interpersonal Communication Skills 1-Practice active listening: One of the most important aspects of interpersonal communication is active listening. This involves fully concentrating on what the other person is saying, without interrupting or judging them. You can practice active listening by maintaining eye contact, nodding, and asking questions to clarify their message.
  • 11. 2-Use clear and concise language: Communication is most effective when it is clear and concise. Use simple language and avoid jargon or technical terms that others may not understand
  • 12. 3-Be aware of nonverbal communication: Nonverbal communication, such as body language and facial expressions, can also convey messages. Be aware of your own nonverbal cues and try to read others’ body language to better understand their message.
  • 13. 4-Show empathy: Empathy involves understanding and sharing the feelings of others. When communicating with others, try to put yourself in their shoes and show understanding and compassion for their perspective.
  • 14. 5-Build rapport: Building rapport involves finding common ground and establishing a connection with others. This can help to build trust and enhance communication. Look for common interests or experiences, and use humor or other forms of positive reinforcement to build a positive relationship.
  • 15. 6-Be open to feedback: Be open to constructive criticism and feedback from others, and use it as an opportunity to learn and grow.
  • 17. Communication Techniques A. Therapeutically communication (effective). B. Non therapeutically communication (ineffective).
  • 18. A.Therapeutically communication (effective). Medical Dictionary, therapeutic communication can be defined as “a process in which the nurse consciously influences a client or helps the client to a better understanding through verbal or nonverbal communication.((An interaction between a health care professional and a patient that aims to enhance the patient’s comfort, safety, trust, or health and well-being”)) - This is more important in patients with chronic diseases or those requiring long-term care
  • 19. A.Therapeutic Communication Techniques Active Listening– Being attentive to what the client is saying, verbally and non-verbally. • Sharing Observations– Making observations by commenting on how the other person looks, sounds, or acts. Example:” you look tired” or “I haven’t seen you eating anything today”.
  • 20. •Silence: Time for the nurse and client to observe one another, sort out feelings, think of how to say things, and consider what has been verbally communicated. The nurse should allow the client to break the silence. Help to arrange ideas, to improve communication • Using Touch: Most potent form of communication. Comfort touch such as holding a hand, is especially important for vulnerable clients who are experiencing severe illness.
  • 21. Sharing Empathy– The ability to understand and accept another person’s reality, to accurately perceive feelings, and to communicate understanding. Example “It must be very frustrating to know what you want and not be able to do it”. Sharing Humor– Contributes to feelings of togetherness, closeness and friendliness. Promotes positive communication in the following ways; prevention, perception,
  • 22. Paraphrasing: repeating the spoken words in the same meaning using another words e.g. Patient “I cannot sleep, I stay awake all the night” nurse” You have difficulty in sleeping“ • Providing Information– Relevant information is important to make decisions, experience less anxiety, and feel safe and secure. • Clarifying–used to clarify vague communication e.g. “Tell me more about that” or “What do you mean
  • 23. Sharing Feelings–Nurses can help clients express emotions by making observations, acknowledging feelings, and encouraging communication, giving permission to express “negative” feelings and modeling healthy anger. Focusing–make stress on important points, it is useful when person jump from topic to another. An example is “On a scale of 0 to 10 tell me the level of the pain you are experiencing in your
  • 24. • Asking Relevant Questions– To seek information needed for decision making. Asking only one question at a time and fully exploring one topic before moving to another area. • Open-ended questions allows for taking the conversational lead and introducing pertinent information about a topic. For example “What is your biggest problem at the moment?” or “How has your pain affected your life at home?”
  • 25. Reflection:reflect what he said e.g. “ my money stolen yesterday” Nurse “This causes you to feel anger • Restatement:repeating the spoken words in the same words as it is. Summarizing–Gives a client a sense you understand. ❖It is a concise review of key aspects of an interaction. Summarizing brings a sense of closure.
  • 26. B.Non therapeutically communication (ineffective). • Non-therapeutic communication negatively affects both the patient and the nurse in various ways. • Non-therapeutic communication : involves various words ,actions ,phrases and tones that make a patient feel uncomfortable and increase their stress and worsen their overall mental and perhaps even physical , wellbeing.
  • 27. B.Non-therapeutic Technique • Asking personal questions – Asking person questions that are not relevant to the situation, is not professional or appropriate. • Giving personal opinions– Giving personal opinions, takes away decision-making for the client. Remember the problem and the solution belongs to the patient and not the nurse. • Changing the subject– Changing the subject when someone is trying to communicate with you is rude and
  • 28. • False Reassurance– “Don’t worry, everything will be all right.” When a client is seriously ill or distressed, the nurse may be tempted to offer hope to the client with statements such as “you’ll be fine.” When a patient is reaching for understanding these phrases that are not based on fact or based on reality can do more harm than good. • Sympathy– Sympathy focuses on the nurse’s feelings rather than the client’s. Saying “I’m so sorry about your amputation, it must be terrible to lose a leg.” This shows concern but more sorrow and pity than trying to understand how the client feels.
  • 29. Giving advice :telling the client what to do, giving opinions or making decisions for the client. •Internal validation :making an assumption about the meaning of someone else’s behavior that is not validated by the other person (jumping into conclusion). • Overloading :talking rapidly, changing subjects too often, and asking for more information than can be absorbed at one time.
  • 30. Definition of Special populations • Special populations ▪ Some groups in the general population may require special study within the clinical development process: ➢elderly ➢disability ➢pregnant women ➢breast feeding women ➢children ➢ethnic sub-groups ➢ a disability is ongoing condition that inhibits everyday life and activities. A disability may be physical, sensory, intellectual, psychiatric, neurological, or
  • 31. .Characteristics of disability Hearing – deaf or serious difficulty hearing. • Vision – blind or serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses. • Cognitive – serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions due to a physical, mental, or emotional condition. • Ambulatory – serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs. • Self-Care – difficulty dressing or bathing.
  • 32. Challenge for communication for special disabled population A communication barrier results when people are unable to hear, speak, read, write or understand information as it is available to them. People with visual impairments may need large-print text, Braille versions of written material, or screen readers. • challenge for communication for elderly • Generational Gaps • Generational gaps make discussions difficult, but not impossible. Sure, over time, words evolve, meanings change, and communication styles change.
  • 33. Challenge for communication for special disabled population Speech Impairments • Conditions such as aphasia, dysarthria, or apraxia that are caused by stroke and other medical conditions can make it difficult for the elderly to speak • Terms and Language • A common barrier to communication at any age is a disconnect between what was said and what was meant. • Cognitive Deficits
  • 34. General Tips for Communicating with People that have a Disability ✓ Look at the person when addressing him or her. ✓ Ask the person about the best way to communicate if you are unsure. ✓ Speak directly to a person with a disability, even if a person without a disability accompanies him or her. ✓ If you know the person’s name, address the person by their name. ✓ Offer assistance if it appears necessary, but don’t assume a person with a disability needs or will accept it. Wait for acceptance and instruction before proceeding.
  • 35. 1.Tips for Communicating with people who are blind or have low vision • Introduce yourself by name, even if you already know the person • Use your natural voice – don’t shout or over- exaggerate • Tell the person when you are leaving the room • Be specific with any verbal directions or instructions e.g. “slightly to your right”
  • 36. Do not relocate objects or furniture without telling the attention to the person’s response – take your cues from him or her.. • When preparing printed information for a person with low vision, it is best to seek their advice for their preferred format for personal documents. General information for people with low vision should be provided in Arial 18 point bold.
  • 37. 2.Tips for Communicating with People Who are Hearing Impaired Place yourself where they can see you to gain attention, or lightly touch their shoulder • Position yourself to ensure maximum light on your face • Always face the person – do not turn away or cover your mouth • Don’t provide unnecessary detail – keep sentences short • If necessary use a pen and paper to communicate • Be flexible – if a person doesn’t understand something you say, reword it instead of repeating it.
  • 38. 3.Tips for Communicating with People with physical disability • Do not shout, speak more slowly or over exaggerate • Make eye contact and speak directly to the person with a disability • Where possible, sit down to speak with a person using a wheelchair so that you are • at the same eye level • Don’t hang onto a person’s wheelchair or tray – the chair is part of their personal space
  • 39. 4.Tips for Communicating with People who have a cognitive impairment Speak directly to the person with the disability, not to the person who is assisting him or her. • Use your natural volume and tone and speak clearly using plain English • Ask short questions to gather information • Make instructions clear and brief and try not to get frustrated if you have to repeat your selfe • • Use an age-appropriate tone of voice. • • Be patient. Do not complete sentences for the person.
  • 40. • Make instructions clear and brief. • Allow the person time to think and respond. • Don’t be afraid to ask the person to repeat something if you don’t understand. • Pay attention • Write information down or use pictures
  • 41. 5.Tips for Communicatingwith People who have an Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism: is a lifelong developmental disability. • A person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder has difficulties in some areas of their development, but other areas may be unaffected. • The areas most affected are communication, social interaction and behaviour. • Be patient (interaction may take longer than expected). • Give the person time to process what you are saying
  • 42. • Use simple and short sentences and closed questions • Be aware that body language may not be understood • Use words that are flexible • Use an age-appropriate tone of voice.
  • 43. 6.Tips for Communicatingwith elderly People Allow extra time for older patients. • Speak slowly, clearly and loudly. • Use short, simple words and sentences. • Stick to one topic at a time • Use charts, models and pictures • Frequently summarize the most important points • Give elderly an opportunity to ask questions and express themselves
  • 44. • Minimize visual and auditory distractions. • Sit face to face with the patient. • Listen without interrupting the patient • Use touch to keep the patient relaxed and focused. • Say goodbye, to end the visit on a positive note.