SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Health Promotion, risk reduction and disease prevention
for the elderly
Presented to
•Prof Dr/Naglaa Gheida
Dr/Fatma Elsewerky
0utline
• Introduction
• Definition of Health , wellness, and health promotion
• Principles of health promotion
• Objectives of health promotion
• Components of Health Promotion
• Levels of prevention
• Approaches of Health Promotion
• Challenges of health promotion
• Health Promotion modles
• Role of the nurse in health promotion
Introduction
• Health promotion can be defined as activities and
preventive measures that contribute to an individual’s state
of optimal health. Such activities and preventive measure
include immunizations, fitness/exercise programs, breast
self-examination, appropriate nutrition, relaxation, stress
management, social support, prayer, meditation, cultural
practices, and promoting environmental health and safety
Definition of Health
Is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Is a holistic state of wellbeing, which includes soundness
of mind, body, and spirit.
Definition of Wellness:
A balance of the physical, emotional, psychological, social
and spiritual aspects of a person's life. This is a dynamic
state. Wellness behaviors are those that promote healthy
functioning and help prevent illness. These include stress
management, nutritional awareness, and physical fitness.
Definition of Health behavior
• Health behavior, is motivated by stimuli in an individual‘s
environment. The response to such stimuli may or may not
be directly related to health
Definition of health promotion
• Is the process of enabling people to increase control over,
and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on
individual behavior towards a wide range of social and
environmental interventions.
Principles of health promotion
• World Health Organization Principles of Health Promotion
• 1-Empowerment
Health promotion initiatives should enable individuals and
communities to assume more power over the personal, socio-
economic and environmental factors that affect their health.
• 2-Participative
Health promotion initiatives should involve those concerned in all
stages of planning , implementation and evaluation.
• 3-Holistic
Health promotion initiatives should foster physical, mental, social
and spiritual health.
• 4-Inter-sectoral
Health promotion initiatives should involve the collaboration of
agencies from relevant sectors.
• 5-Equitable
Health promotion initiatives should be guided by a concern for
equity and social justice or satisfaction
• 6-Sustainable
Health promotion initiatives should bring about changes that
individuals and communities scan maintain once initial funding
has ended.
• 7-Multi-strategy
Health promotion initiatives should use a variety of approaches in
combination with one another, including policy development,
organizational change, community development, legislation,
advocacy, education and communication.
Objectives of health promotion
• Increase quality and years of healthy life
• Maintain function
• Eliminate health disparities and independency
• Improve (enhance) quality of life
• Extend life expectancy → ↓ premature mortality caused by
chronic& acute diseases
Components of Health Promotion
1) Health protection.
2) Health education.
3) Disease prevention
• Health Protection:
• Health protection includes public policies that address fair access to
housing, employment, education, and health care.
• Promotes healthy policies in all sectors (e.g. healthy workplaces,
schools, homes, buildings and communities).
• Health Policies should also emphasize the promotion and prevention.
• Health education
• Is defined by the (WHO Centre for Health Development, 2014),
as any combination of learning experiences designed to help
individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing
their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.
• Steps of health education:
 To know (knowledge)
 To feel importance to health (attitude)
 To change (practice)
• 3.Disease Prevention
• Actions aimed at eradicating, eliminating or minimizing the
impact of feasible, delaying the progress of disease and
disability.
Subjects of health promotion
• Exercise
• Nutrition
• Rest & sleep
• Spiritual well-being
• Psychosocial well-being
Exercise
• Physical benefits of exercise:
Consumption of body fat
Improve cardio-vascular capacity( by↑ blood flow----- keep tissue healthy
Control hypertension& blood sugar
Improve respiratory function
Improve joint flexibility
Improve pattern of sleep & rest
↑ independency
Improve sense of well –being & relaxation
Maintain mind’s function
Promote sense of normality
Peristaltic movement
• Psychological benefits of exercise
• Improve mood state
• Improve self-image
• Reduce stress
• Enhance sleep
• Improve depressive state of elderly
• Social benefits of exercise
• Improve social interaction & relation with other
• Nurse role:-
• I- Assessment done at the beginning of exercise program include:
• History & physical examination ( musculoskeletal & neurological system)
• Renal & liver function tests
• ECG,& exercise stress test
• Assess range of motion & use of assistive devices.
• Assess environmental hazards
• II-Set a regular time to exercise each day
• III- Before starting exercise the nurse should advice the elderly about:
• Document baseline resting function status (ht &resp rate, bl.sugar)
• 10 minutes warms up stretching exercise
• Drink water before and after exercise is important as water will be lost during exercise
• Clothes worn during exercise should allow for easy movement and perspiration.
• Outdoor exercise should be avoided in extremely hot or cold weather.
Nutrition
•It is neglected especially those living alone or
with low income.
•Factors affecting nutritional status:
• Age related changes
• Psychosocial factors
• Economic factors
• Cultural factors
• Age related changes
• ↓ Taste & smell
• ↓ Visual acuity
• Loss of teeth & poor fitting denture
• ↓ Gastric secretion→ influence in absorption of B12, folic acid& iron.
• Food remain longer time in stomach + ↓ gastric secretion will lead to
indigestion &feeling of fullness
• Psychosocial factors
• Depression is common ( losses, death, retirement, change of body
appearance, impaired vision &poor physical fitness) this will lead to
lack of interest in eating& anorexia and ↓ food intake.
• Living alone also will lead to lack of incentive to cook &eat.
• Economic Factors
• Low income
• Limited access to food and food choices
• Inadequate facilities to food storage and preparation
• Cultural factors
• Eating habits may miss certain food group as vegetarians.
•
Nutritional requirement of elderly
• 1- Calories
• Caloric requirement diminished by 10% in age 51-75 years and by 20-
25% in age more than 75 years.
• 2- Protein requirement
• 0.8 g/kg body wt
• A balanced diet of a healthy elderly should contain 12-14% of total
caloric intake.
• During infection, stress, trauma protein ↑ to 1.6 or 1.5 g/kg body wt
• Fat requirement
• Fat either saturated or unsaturated
• Total fat intake limited to 30 % or less of total energy intake
• Saturated fat limited to 10-15% of total energy intake
• Dietary cholesterol intake limited to 300mg/ day or less
• 4- Carbohydrates requirement
• CHO is essential for maintaining normal bl. glucose level & preventing
protein break down.
• 50% of total calories---- CHO
• Complex CHO has vit, minerals, fibers which help in bowel
elimination& ↓ bl. cholesterol level
• -Fluid intake
• Elderly at high risk for dehydration due to:
• ↓ Thirst sensation
• Inadequate fluid intake (2000-3000 cc/day) required
• Some medications, such as for high blood pressure or anti-depressants,
and diuretic
• Some medications may cause patients to sweat more
Frail seniors have a harder time getting up to get a drink when they’re
thirsty, or they rely on caregivers who can’t sense that they need fluids
• As we age our bodies lose kidney function and are less able to conserve
fluid (this is progressive from around the age of 50, but becomes more
acute and noticeable over the age of 70)
• Illness, especially one that causes vomiting and/or diarrhea, also can cause
elderly dehydration
• - Vitamins & mineral requirements
• Calcium:---for mineralization of bone &has a role in blood & cardiac
function.
• Daily requirement 1200 mg./day if there is no contraindications
• Vitamin D :------ needed for calcium absorption& metabolism.
• Exposure 15 minutes/day to sun is enough
• Nurse Role
• Assessment involves: nutritional history, physical examination,
anthropometric measurements, biochemical evaluation, cognitive &
mood evaluation
• Health history related to nutrition
• Anthropometric measurement
• Client and family education
• Dietary guideline for old persons
• Eat a variety of food
• Maintain a healthy wt
• Choose a diet low in fat, saturated & cholesterol
• Choose a diet plenty of vegetables, fruits & grain products
• Use sugar & salts in moderate
• Drink 200-3000cc/daily
Rest& sleep
• Person spend 1/3 of his life in sleep
• Sleep is time for cell growth& repair
• Elderly need 5-7 hrs at night
• Importance of Rest& sleep:
• Conserve energy
• Provide organ respite (rest)
• Restore the mental alertness& neurological efficiency
• Relieve tension
• Emerge feeling of well being
• Factors affecting sleeping patterns
• Age related changes in sleep patterns
• Internal factors :Body aches or other pains: Certain pains like muscle
or joint pain
• Anxiety or stress: Our bodies are built in such a manner that they
respond to stressful or dangerous situations by remaining awake.
Same happens in during stress, depression or anxiety
• External factors : such as what we eat and drink, the medications we
take, and the environment in which we sleep can also greatly affect
the quantity and quality of our sleep
• Nurse Role :-
• Engage in exercise program
• Avoid exercise within 3-4 hr. of bedtime.
• Spend time out door in the sunlight each day but avoid period
between 12 Md to 3 PM sunshine exposure.
• Engage in relaxing activities near bedtime.
• Avoid tobacco at bedtime
• Avoid drink any caffeinated beverages before mid afternoon.
• Limit fluid intake after the dinner hour if nocturia is a problem.
• Limit daytime naps to 30 minutes or less.
• Avoid using the bed for watching TV, writing bills, and reading
Spiritual Well- being
• Spiritual well-being is the practice and philosophy of the integral
aspects of mental, emotional and overall wellbeing.
• Signs of spiritual distress:
• Doubt
• Despair
• Guilt
• Boredom
• Expression of anger toward god
• Benefits
• The practice and incorporation of Spiritual Wellbeing into one’s life
influences and includes benefits for ones; Emotional Wellbeing,
Physical Wellbeing, and Mental Wellbeing.
• Some of the measurable benefits that people experience from
spiritual wellbeing counseling and groups include:
A feeling of being more contented with their life’s situation
 Greater enjoyment of self time, finding an inner peace
Greater ability to take control of and resolve their life’s issues
A greater sense of satisfaction in their activities and life situations
Ability to take a more active part in life rather than standing still and
watching it pass by
Ability to build more intimate, loving and lasting relationships
Measures to increase Spiritual well being
Use problem solving to solve any conflict related to spirituality
Meeting with religious man at regular intervals
Presence of religious literatures in the immediate environment such
as Quran on beside table
Reading in religious books & praying
Discuss role of spirituality in one’s life
Psychosocial Well- being
• Psychosocial changes may alter an individual relationship with
others.
• Physical wellbeing depend on:
• Psychosocial wellbeing
• Social structure
• Personal relationships
• In Later years many adjustment are necessary
Levels of prevention
1- primordial level
prevention of the development of risk factors in the first place
with lifestyle only and avoiding the use of medications to treat
risk factors
• Government policy: Increasing taxes on cigarettes; Decreasing
advertisement of tobacco
• Built Environment: Access to safe walking paths; access to
stores with healthy food options
• (2) Primary Prevention
Primary prevention aims to prevent disease or injury before it
ever occurs. This is done by preventing exposures to hazards
that cause disease or injury.
. It includes :
A. Health promotion
Through education about healthy and safe habits (e.g. eating
well, exercising regularly, not smoking)
B. specific protection
1-legislations and enforcement to ban or control the use of
hazardous products or to mandate safe and healthy practices
(e.g. use of seatbelts and bike helmets)
2-immunization against infectious diseases
• 3) Secondary prevention
• Stop or slow the progression of disease and to prevent limit
permanent damage which targeted at sick individuals. It
includes :
A. Early detection
B. Proper / prompt treatment
• 4-Tertiary prevention
• Helping people manage long-term, often-complex health
problems and injuries (e.g. chronic diseases, permanent
impairments) in order to improve as much as possible their
ability to function, their quality of life and their life expectancy
Targeted at people with chronic diseases and disabilities that
can't be cured. It includes:
prevent or limit disability
Rehabilitation
• 5.Quaternary Prevention
• " 'an action taken to protect individuals (persons/patients) from
medical interventions that are likely to cause more harm than
good."
Approaches of Health Promotion
1. Medical.
2. Empowerment.
3. Behavior change.
4. Educational approach.
5. Social change
1. Medical or preventive approach
• Aim: reduce morbidity and premature mortality- To ensure
freedom from disease and disability.
• Methods: uses medical intervention to prevent ill-health or
premature death.
• Example: immunization, screening
2-Empowerment Approach :
• Identify individual or community health needs and gain the
knowledge, skills and attitudes to act upon them through a
program of action
Two types of empowerment :
1. Self-empowerment: based on counseling and aimed at
increasing people‘s control over their own health.
2. Community empowerment: related to community development
to create active , participating communities
Methods:
Counseling, problem solving, community development,
advocacy, public participation.
Evaluation:
Difficult because empowerment is long term , and results are
hard to specify and quantify.
3.Behavior Change :
• Aim: Encourage individuals to adopt “healthy” behaviors, Views
health as the responsibility of individuals.
• Methods: Communication Education Persuasion, motivation
4-Educational Approach
To provide knowledge and information. To develop the necessary
skills for informed choice. The outcome is client's voluntary
choice.
Methods: -
Information‐giving through small groups or mass‐ media, group
discussions role‐plays -Group discussion for sharing and
exploring health attitudes. 18 -Role play for decision- making and
negotiating.
Evaluation:
knowledge, attitude and practice.
.5- Social Change
to bring about changes in physical, social and economic
environment, which enables people to enjoy better health. To
make the healthy choice the easier choice. The focus is on
changing society, not on changing the behavior of individuals.
Methods:
advocacy, policies, fiscal/ financial measures, creating
supportive social and physical environmen
Challenges of health promotion
• 1-Poverty:
• Results in poor living conditions (poor nutrition, poor housing,
environmental degradation) that are major obstacle for improving
health of people.
• 2-Education:
• Low levels of literacy especially health literacy can be an obvious
problem when trying to promote better health behavior among
people.
• 3-Economic priorities:
• Most developing countries have limited resources and many
competing demands for these resources. They are seeking to achieve
rapid economic gains and development by industrialization and food
production that gives priority to foreign markets for earning foreign
exchange
• 4-Political stability:
• Where there is political instability (internal conflict and war), it is
extremely difficult to develop health-promoting environments.
Challenges of health promotion
• 5-Inter-sectoral co-operation:
• Decision- makers in all sectors (even in areas that are indirectly
related to health as agriculture, commerce, education, industry etc.)
must focus on the health implications of their policies.
• 6-Commercial interests:
• Marketing does not necessarily consider health of citizens of
developing countries upper most in their priorities. This often results
in poor health outcomes.
Challenges of health promotion
7-The double burden of disease:
One of the particular challenges that face developing countries is
that the epidemic of non-communicable diseases is developing
before the burden of communicable (infectious disease) has
been dealt with.
8-The speed of change:
Populations in the developing world are increasing at a much
faster rate than countries in the developed world.
Health Promotion modles
1- Health belief model
2- Socio ecological Model
3- Trans theoretical model
4-Pender model of health promotion
5-Tannahill model
Health Belief Model
• The model is used to explain and predict individual changes in
health behaviors.
• It is one of the most widely used models for understanding health
behaviors.
• Key elements of the model focus on individual beliefs about health
conditions, which predict individual health-related behaviors.
Health Belief Model
Constructs of (HBM):
• (1) Perceived susceptibility (a person’s subjective assessment of their risk
of getting the condition, as contrasted with the statistical risk).
• (2) Perceived severity (the seriousness of the condition and its
consequences).
• (3) Perceived benefits Individual’s belief that behavior change will have a
positive impact on health outcomes (potential positive benefits of actions).
• (4) Perceived barriers (both those that interfere with and facilitate
adoption of a behavior such as side effects, time, and inconvenience)
• (5)Cues to action: (events that spur individuals toward action),
Internal Cues ( appearance of symptoms)or External Cues (mass
media)
• (6 )Self-efficacy : (an individual’s confidence that he or she can
successfully carry out the indicated actions).
2- Socio ecological Model
• The model recognize multiple level of influence on health
behaviors, including:
Intrapersonal / individual factors:
(influence behavior) as Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personality.
Interpersonal factors
As interaction with people (provide social support or create barriers to
interpersonal growth that promotes healthy behavior
Institutional and organizational factors
(rules, regulations, policies) constrain or promote healthy behaviors
Community factors:
as formal or informal social norms that exist among individuals, groups
or organizations can limit or enhance healthy behaviors.
 Public policies factors:
(local, state, and federal policies and laws ) regulate or support healthy
actions for disease prevention (detection, control, management).
3- Trans theoretical model
•
This model explains an individual’s readiness to change their behavior.
It describes the process of behavior change as occurring in stages
3- Trans theoretical model
1. Pre-contemplation : there is no intention of taking action.
2. Contemplation: there are intentions to take action and a plan to do so
in the near future.
3. Preparation: there is intention to take action and some steps have
been taken.
4. Action: Behavior has been changed for a short period of time
5. Maintenance: Behavior has been changed and continues to be
maintained for the long term
6. Termination: There is no desire to return to prior negative behaviors
3- Trans theoretical model
Pender Model
Health promotion model that attempts to account for those behaviors that
improve well-being
Health promotion behaviors are determined by:
1.Individual characteristics and experiences:
Prior related behavior :
frequency of the same or similar health behavior in the past.
Personal Factors:
• Personal biological factors: Include variables such as age, gender, body
mass index, pubertal status, aerobic capacity, strength, agility, or balance.
Pender Model
• 2.Behavior-specific cognitions and affect
Perceived Benefits of Action
• Anticipated positive outcomes that will occur from health behavior.
Perceived Barriers to Action
• Anticipated, imagined, and personal costs of understanding a given
behavior.
Pender Model
Perceived Self-Efficacy
• The judgment of personal capability to organize and execute a health-
promoting behavior.
Activity-Related Affect
• Subjective positive or negative feeling occurs before, during, and following
behavior based on the stimulus properties of the behavior itself.
Pender Model
Interpersonal Influences
• Primary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and
healthcare providers.
Situational Influences
• Personal perceptions and cognitions of any given situation or context
can facilitate or impede behavior.
Pender Model
• 3.Behavioral outcomes
Perceived benefits of action
 Immediate competing demands such as family or work
commitments.
 Commitment to a plan of action
5- Tannahill’s Model
5- Tannahill’s Model
• created a model that presented health promotion as three
overlapping spheres of activity:
Health education
Health prevention
Health protection
5- Tannahill’s Model
Role of the nurse in health promotion
o Assessment to his physical health, Psychosocial Well- being, lifestyle pattern
o Assess health needs
o Assess social , environmental & cultural influences on health behaviors
o Nurse role should directed toward helping elderly to cope with his function level -
-----delay disabilities & impairments.
o Nurse identify environmental hazards & make necessary modifications
o Identify social needs & encourage participation & social support groups.
o Nurse should inform elderly & caregivers about aging process, common disorders
& disabilities , different services available
o Encourage elderly to take better care to them, avoid high risk behaviors,& hazards
affecting their health.
o Regular and continuous evaluation is important aspect of nurse’s role
References
• World Health Organization (2019). Phase V (2009–2013) of the WHO European
Healthy Cities Network: goals and requirements.
• Europe: World Health Organization.
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/100989/E92260.pdf
• Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Deaths and mortality. Retrieved from
• www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm
• Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2013). A framework for prevention. Retrieved
• from www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html
• Worldviews Evid Based Nurse. 2016 The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health
Promotion into the 21st Century. HPR/HEP/4ICHP/BR/97.4
Health promotion ,Risk reduction.pptxsct

More Related Content

Similar to Health promotion ,Risk reduction.pptxsct

Good Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptx
Good Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptxGood Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptx
Good Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptx
taruian
 
HOPE 2.pptx
HOPE 2.pptxHOPE 2.pptx
HOPE 2.pptx
SannySumulat1
 
Health presentation ( live healthy)
Health presentation ( live healthy) Health presentation ( live healthy)
Health presentation ( live healthy)
Abdelrahman Mosaad
 
1# (1).pptx
1#  (1).pptx1#  (1).pptx
1# (1).pptx
Silvia Rajesh
 
Foundations of health
Foundations of health Foundations of health
Foundations of health
Cameron Corish
 
HEALTH AND WELLNESS
HEALTH AND WELLNESSHEALTH AND WELLNESS
HEALTH AND WELLNESS
Aishwarya T C
 
Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /
Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /  Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /
Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /
PURBANGSHU CHATTERJEE
 
Food choices and Human health
Food choices and Human healthFood choices and Human health
Food choices and Human health
LakshmiKesari2
 
Health.pptx
Health.pptxHealth.pptx
Health.pptx
LIFESTYLETATTLE
 
ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...
ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...
ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...
study2007
 
Health and wellness for seniors
Health and wellness for seniorsHealth and wellness for seniors
Health and wellness for seniors
AbiodunIsah1
 
Food in relations to nutrition and health
Food in relations to nutrition and healthFood in relations to nutrition and health
Food in relations to nutrition and health
Ashish Chaudhari
 
Nutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food serving
Nutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food servingNutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food serving
Nutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food serving
slideshareacount
 
Principles of nutritionand related problems 4th pitt
Principles of nutritionand related problems 4th pittPrinciples of nutritionand related problems 4th pitt
Principles of nutritionand related problems 4th pitt
Maxine Walters-Pitt
 
Session 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management options
Session 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management optionsSession 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management options
Session 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management options
WHO Regional Office for Europe
 
basic nutrition ppt
basic nutrition pptbasic nutrition ppt
basic nutrition ppt
Vishwamitra Mane
 
NUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptxNUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptx
MrChamp2
 
NUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptxNUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptx
MrChamp2
 
Maintaing a-healthy-body
Maintaing a-healthy-bodyMaintaing a-healthy-body
Maintaing a-healthy-body
Flam14
 
Role of dietician in hospital and community.pptx
Role of dietician in hospital and community.pptxRole of dietician in hospital and community.pptx
Role of dietician in hospital and community.pptx
miityadav
 

Similar to Health promotion ,Risk reduction.pptxsct (20)

Good Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptx
Good Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptxGood Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptx
Good Health & It’s balance for positive mindset.pptx
 
HOPE 2.pptx
HOPE 2.pptxHOPE 2.pptx
HOPE 2.pptx
 
Health presentation ( live healthy)
Health presentation ( live healthy) Health presentation ( live healthy)
Health presentation ( live healthy)
 
1# (1).pptx
1#  (1).pptx1#  (1).pptx
1# (1).pptx
 
Foundations of health
Foundations of health Foundations of health
Foundations of health
 
HEALTH AND WELLNESS
HEALTH AND WELLNESSHEALTH AND WELLNESS
HEALTH AND WELLNESS
 
Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /
Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /  Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /
Nutrition and Wellness / food Supplements /
 
Food choices and Human health
Food choices and Human healthFood choices and Human health
Food choices and Human health
 
Health.pptx
Health.pptxHealth.pptx
Health.pptx
 
ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...
ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...
ch.3 food,nutrition ,health &fitnessclass xi Document from Anita Malhotra (2)...
 
Health and wellness for seniors
Health and wellness for seniorsHealth and wellness for seniors
Health and wellness for seniors
 
Food in relations to nutrition and health
Food in relations to nutrition and healthFood in relations to nutrition and health
Food in relations to nutrition and health
 
Nutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food serving
Nutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food servingNutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food serving
Nutrition, diet, factors, bmr, food serving
 
Principles of nutritionand related problems 4th pitt
Principles of nutritionand related problems 4th pittPrinciples of nutritionand related problems 4th pitt
Principles of nutritionand related problems 4th pitt
 
Session 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management options
Session 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management optionsSession 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management options
Session 6: Advise on health risks of obesity and weight management options
 
basic nutrition ppt
basic nutrition pptbasic nutrition ppt
basic nutrition ppt
 
NUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptxNUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptx
 
NUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptxNUTRITION.pptx
NUTRITION.pptx
 
Maintaing a-healthy-body
Maintaing a-healthy-bodyMaintaing a-healthy-body
Maintaing a-healthy-body
 
Role of dietician in hospital and community.pptx
Role of dietician in hospital and community.pptxRole of dietician in hospital and community.pptx
Role of dietician in hospital and community.pptx
 

More from NameNoordahsh

Bullying عملي.pptx practice school areap
Bullying عملي.pptx practice school areapBullying عملي.pptx practice school areap
Bullying عملي.pptx practice school areap
NameNoordahsh
 
disaster Response final.pptx disaster response
disaster Response final.pptx disaster responsedisaster Response final.pptx disaster response
disaster Response final.pptx disaster response
NameNoordahsh
 
global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666
global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666
global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666
NameNoordahsh
 
Theories of community health nursing finall (1).pptx
Theories of community health nursing finall (1).pptxTheories of community health nursing finall (1).pptx
Theories of community health nursing finall (1).pptx
NameNoordahsh
 
technology in health education.pptx technology
technology in health education.pptx technologytechnology in health education.pptx technology
technology in health education.pptx technology
NameNoordahsh
 
Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication
Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communicationPresentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication
Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication
NameNoordahsh
 
inter personal.pptx inter personal communication
inter personal.pptx inter personal communicationinter personal.pptx inter personal communication
inter personal.pptx inter personal communication
NameNoordahsh
 
health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp
health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppphealth_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp
health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp
NameNoordahsh
 
technology in health education.pptxtechn
technology in health education.pptxtechntechnology in health education.pptxtechn
technology in health education.pptxtechn
NameNoordahsh
 
principles of first aid and emergency nursing.pptx
principles of first aid and emergency nursing.pptxprinciples of first aid and emergency nursing.pptx
principles of first aid and emergency nursing.pptx
NameNoordahsh
 
disaster response af.ppsxcommunity health
disaster response af.ppsxcommunity healthdisaster response af.ppsxcommunity health
disaster response af.ppsxcommunity health
NameNoordahsh
 
health promotion for elderly.pptx community health
health promotion for elderly.pptx community healthhealth promotion for elderly.pptx community health
health promotion for elderly.pptx community health
NameNoordahsh
 
Theories of Aging that presented again process
Theories of Aging that presented again processTheories of Aging that presented again process
Theories of Aging that presented again process
NameNoordahsh
 
adolescents and young adults health.pptx
adolescents and young adults health.pptxadolescents and young adults health.pptx
adolescents and young adults health.pptx
NameNoordahsh
 

More from NameNoordahsh (14)

Bullying عملي.pptx practice school areap
Bullying عملي.pptx practice school areapBullying عملي.pptx practice school areap
Bullying عملي.pptx practice school areap
 
disaster Response final.pptx disaster response
disaster Response final.pptx disaster responsedisaster Response final.pptx disaster response
disaster Response final.pptx disaster response
 
global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666
global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666
global health11.pptxglopal health 1234556666666
 
Theories of community health nursing finall (1).pptx
Theories of community health nursing finall (1).pptxTheories of community health nursing finall (1).pptx
Theories of community health nursing finall (1).pptx
 
technology in health education.pptx technology
technology in health education.pptx technologytechnology in health education.pptx technology
technology in health education.pptx technology
 
Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication
Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communicationPresentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication
Presentation (28) (4).pptx interpersonal communication
 
inter personal.pptx inter personal communication
inter personal.pptx inter personal communicationinter personal.pptx inter personal communication
inter personal.pptx inter personal communication
 
health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp
health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppphealth_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp
health_education_program2.pptxppppppppppp
 
technology in health education.pptxtechn
technology in health education.pptxtechntechnology in health education.pptxtechn
technology in health education.pptxtechn
 
principles of first aid and emergency nursing.pptx
principles of first aid and emergency nursing.pptxprinciples of first aid and emergency nursing.pptx
principles of first aid and emergency nursing.pptx
 
disaster response af.ppsxcommunity health
disaster response af.ppsxcommunity healthdisaster response af.ppsxcommunity health
disaster response af.ppsxcommunity health
 
health promotion for elderly.pptx community health
health promotion for elderly.pptx community healthhealth promotion for elderly.pptx community health
health promotion for elderly.pptx community health
 
Theories of Aging that presented again process
Theories of Aging that presented again processTheories of Aging that presented again process
Theories of Aging that presented again process
 
adolescents and young adults health.pptx
adolescents and young adults health.pptxadolescents and young adults health.pptx
adolescents and young adults health.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

HEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptx
HEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptxHEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptx
HEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptx
Rommel Luis III Israel
 
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service HyderabadHyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
garge6804
 
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptxSectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
SatvikaPrasad
 
Friendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Friendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanFriendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Friendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Faridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Faridkot
Faridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 FaridkotFaridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Faridkot
Faridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Faridkot
varun0kumar00
 
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPT
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPTNURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPT
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPT
blessyjannu21
 
Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)
Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)
Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)
Aditi Jagtap Pune
 
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in TripuraMonopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
SKG Internationals
 
The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...
The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...
The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...
bkling
 
Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...
Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...
Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...
SGRT Community
 
Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...
Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...
Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...
The Lifesciences Magazine
 
ASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptxASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptx
Rommel Luis III Israel
 
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public HealthResearch, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health
aghedogodday
 
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptxNational Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
Jyoti Chand
 
Types of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatment
Types of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatmentTypes of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatment
Types of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatment
RioGrandeCancerSpeci
 
Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...
rightmanforbloodline
 
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanLuxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
5sj7jxf7
 
FACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVEFACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVE
aditigupta1117
 
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdfVEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
Vedanta A
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptx
HEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptxHEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptx
HEALTH ASSESSMENT IN NURSING USING THE NURSING PROCESSpptx
 
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service HyderabadHyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
 
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptxSectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
 
Friendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Friendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanFriendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Friendly Massage in Ajman - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Faridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Faridkot
Faridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 FaridkotFaridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Faridkot
Faridkot ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Faridkot
 
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPT
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPTNURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPT
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EMPHYSEMA .PPT
 
Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)
Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)
Daughter's of Dr Ranjit Jagtap (Poulami & Aditi)
 
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in TripuraMonopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
 
The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...
The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...
The Importance of Black Women Understanding the Chemicals in Their Personal C...
 
Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...
Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...
Correlation between surface motion and heart-breast distance for breast cance...
 
Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...
Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...
Cyclothymia Test: Diagnosing, Symptoms, Treatment, and Impact | The Lifescien...
 
ASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptxASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE EYE (2)-Health Assessment.pptx
 
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public HealthResearch, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health
 
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptxNational Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
 
Types of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatment
Types of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatmentTypes of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatment
Types of Cancer Treatments | Forms of cancer treatment
 
Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...
Solution manual for managerial accounting 18th edition by ray garrison eric n...
 
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanLuxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
 
FACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVEFACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVE
 
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdfVEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
 

Health promotion ,Risk reduction.pptxsct

  • 1.
  • 2. Health Promotion, risk reduction and disease prevention for the elderly Presented to •Prof Dr/Naglaa Gheida Dr/Fatma Elsewerky
  • 3. 0utline • Introduction • Definition of Health , wellness, and health promotion • Principles of health promotion • Objectives of health promotion • Components of Health Promotion • Levels of prevention • Approaches of Health Promotion • Challenges of health promotion • Health Promotion modles • Role of the nurse in health promotion
  • 4. Introduction • Health promotion can be defined as activities and preventive measures that contribute to an individual’s state of optimal health. Such activities and preventive measure include immunizations, fitness/exercise programs, breast self-examination, appropriate nutrition, relaxation, stress management, social support, prayer, meditation, cultural practices, and promoting environmental health and safety
  • 5. Definition of Health Is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Is a holistic state of wellbeing, which includes soundness of mind, body, and spirit.
  • 6. Definition of Wellness: A balance of the physical, emotional, psychological, social and spiritual aspects of a person's life. This is a dynamic state. Wellness behaviors are those that promote healthy functioning and help prevent illness. These include stress management, nutritional awareness, and physical fitness.
  • 7. Definition of Health behavior • Health behavior, is motivated by stimuli in an individual‘s environment. The response to such stimuli may or may not be directly related to health
  • 8. Definition of health promotion • Is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions.
  • 9. Principles of health promotion • World Health Organization Principles of Health Promotion • 1-Empowerment Health promotion initiatives should enable individuals and communities to assume more power over the personal, socio- economic and environmental factors that affect their health. • 2-Participative Health promotion initiatives should involve those concerned in all stages of planning , implementation and evaluation.
  • 10. • 3-Holistic Health promotion initiatives should foster physical, mental, social and spiritual health. • 4-Inter-sectoral Health promotion initiatives should involve the collaboration of agencies from relevant sectors. • 5-Equitable Health promotion initiatives should be guided by a concern for equity and social justice or satisfaction
  • 11. • 6-Sustainable Health promotion initiatives should bring about changes that individuals and communities scan maintain once initial funding has ended. • 7-Multi-strategy Health promotion initiatives should use a variety of approaches in combination with one another, including policy development, organizational change, community development, legislation, advocacy, education and communication.
  • 12. Objectives of health promotion • Increase quality and years of healthy life • Maintain function • Eliminate health disparities and independency • Improve (enhance) quality of life • Extend life expectancy → ↓ premature mortality caused by chronic& acute diseases
  • 13. Components of Health Promotion 1) Health protection. 2) Health education. 3) Disease prevention
  • 14. • Health Protection: • Health protection includes public policies that address fair access to housing, employment, education, and health care. • Promotes healthy policies in all sectors (e.g. healthy workplaces, schools, homes, buildings and communities). • Health Policies should also emphasize the promotion and prevention.
  • 15. • Health education • Is defined by the (WHO Centre for Health Development, 2014), as any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes. • Steps of health education:  To know (knowledge)  To feel importance to health (attitude)  To change (practice)
  • 16. • 3.Disease Prevention • Actions aimed at eradicating, eliminating or minimizing the impact of feasible, delaying the progress of disease and disability.
  • 17. Subjects of health promotion • Exercise • Nutrition • Rest & sleep • Spiritual well-being • Psychosocial well-being
  • 18. Exercise • Physical benefits of exercise: Consumption of body fat Improve cardio-vascular capacity( by↑ blood flow----- keep tissue healthy Control hypertension& blood sugar Improve respiratory function Improve joint flexibility Improve pattern of sleep & rest ↑ independency Improve sense of well –being & relaxation Maintain mind’s function Promote sense of normality Peristaltic movement
  • 19. • Psychological benefits of exercise • Improve mood state • Improve self-image • Reduce stress • Enhance sleep • Improve depressive state of elderly • Social benefits of exercise • Improve social interaction & relation with other
  • 20. • Nurse role:- • I- Assessment done at the beginning of exercise program include: • History & physical examination ( musculoskeletal & neurological system) • Renal & liver function tests • ECG,& exercise stress test • Assess range of motion & use of assistive devices. • Assess environmental hazards • II-Set a regular time to exercise each day • III- Before starting exercise the nurse should advice the elderly about: • Document baseline resting function status (ht &resp rate, bl.sugar) • 10 minutes warms up stretching exercise • Drink water before and after exercise is important as water will be lost during exercise • Clothes worn during exercise should allow for easy movement and perspiration. • Outdoor exercise should be avoided in extremely hot or cold weather.
  • 21. Nutrition •It is neglected especially those living alone or with low income. •Factors affecting nutritional status: • Age related changes • Psychosocial factors • Economic factors • Cultural factors
  • 22. • Age related changes • ↓ Taste & smell • ↓ Visual acuity • Loss of teeth & poor fitting denture • ↓ Gastric secretion→ influence in absorption of B12, folic acid& iron. • Food remain longer time in stomach + ↓ gastric secretion will lead to indigestion &feeling of fullness
  • 23. • Psychosocial factors • Depression is common ( losses, death, retirement, change of body appearance, impaired vision &poor physical fitness) this will lead to lack of interest in eating& anorexia and ↓ food intake. • Living alone also will lead to lack of incentive to cook &eat. • Economic Factors • Low income • Limited access to food and food choices • Inadequate facilities to food storage and preparation • Cultural factors • Eating habits may miss certain food group as vegetarians. •
  • 24. Nutritional requirement of elderly • 1- Calories • Caloric requirement diminished by 10% in age 51-75 years and by 20- 25% in age more than 75 years. • 2- Protein requirement • 0.8 g/kg body wt • A balanced diet of a healthy elderly should contain 12-14% of total caloric intake. • During infection, stress, trauma protein ↑ to 1.6 or 1.5 g/kg body wt
  • 25. • Fat requirement • Fat either saturated or unsaturated • Total fat intake limited to 30 % or less of total energy intake • Saturated fat limited to 10-15% of total energy intake • Dietary cholesterol intake limited to 300mg/ day or less • 4- Carbohydrates requirement • CHO is essential for maintaining normal bl. glucose level & preventing protein break down. • 50% of total calories---- CHO • Complex CHO has vit, minerals, fibers which help in bowel elimination& ↓ bl. cholesterol level
  • 26. • -Fluid intake • Elderly at high risk for dehydration due to: • ↓ Thirst sensation • Inadequate fluid intake (2000-3000 cc/day) required • Some medications, such as for high blood pressure or anti-depressants, and diuretic • Some medications may cause patients to sweat more Frail seniors have a harder time getting up to get a drink when they’re thirsty, or they rely on caregivers who can’t sense that they need fluids • As we age our bodies lose kidney function and are less able to conserve fluid (this is progressive from around the age of 50, but becomes more acute and noticeable over the age of 70) • Illness, especially one that causes vomiting and/or diarrhea, also can cause elderly dehydration
  • 27. • - Vitamins & mineral requirements • Calcium:---for mineralization of bone &has a role in blood & cardiac function. • Daily requirement 1200 mg./day if there is no contraindications • Vitamin D :------ needed for calcium absorption& metabolism. • Exposure 15 minutes/day to sun is enough
  • 28. • Nurse Role • Assessment involves: nutritional history, physical examination, anthropometric measurements, biochemical evaluation, cognitive & mood evaluation • Health history related to nutrition • Anthropometric measurement • Client and family education • Dietary guideline for old persons • Eat a variety of food • Maintain a healthy wt • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated & cholesterol • Choose a diet plenty of vegetables, fruits & grain products • Use sugar & salts in moderate • Drink 200-3000cc/daily
  • 29. Rest& sleep • Person spend 1/3 of his life in sleep • Sleep is time for cell growth& repair • Elderly need 5-7 hrs at night • Importance of Rest& sleep: • Conserve energy • Provide organ respite (rest) • Restore the mental alertness& neurological efficiency • Relieve tension • Emerge feeling of well being
  • 30. • Factors affecting sleeping patterns • Age related changes in sleep patterns • Internal factors :Body aches or other pains: Certain pains like muscle or joint pain • Anxiety or stress: Our bodies are built in such a manner that they respond to stressful or dangerous situations by remaining awake. Same happens in during stress, depression or anxiety • External factors : such as what we eat and drink, the medications we take, and the environment in which we sleep can also greatly affect the quantity and quality of our sleep
  • 31. • Nurse Role :- • Engage in exercise program • Avoid exercise within 3-4 hr. of bedtime. • Spend time out door in the sunlight each day but avoid period between 12 Md to 3 PM sunshine exposure. • Engage in relaxing activities near bedtime. • Avoid tobacco at bedtime • Avoid drink any caffeinated beverages before mid afternoon. • Limit fluid intake after the dinner hour if nocturia is a problem. • Limit daytime naps to 30 minutes or less. • Avoid using the bed for watching TV, writing bills, and reading
  • 32. Spiritual Well- being • Spiritual well-being is the practice and philosophy of the integral aspects of mental, emotional and overall wellbeing. • Signs of spiritual distress: • Doubt • Despair • Guilt • Boredom • Expression of anger toward god
  • 33. • Benefits • The practice and incorporation of Spiritual Wellbeing into one’s life influences and includes benefits for ones; Emotional Wellbeing, Physical Wellbeing, and Mental Wellbeing. • Some of the measurable benefits that people experience from spiritual wellbeing counseling and groups include: A feeling of being more contented with their life’s situation  Greater enjoyment of self time, finding an inner peace Greater ability to take control of and resolve their life’s issues A greater sense of satisfaction in their activities and life situations Ability to take a more active part in life rather than standing still and watching it pass by
  • 34. Ability to build more intimate, loving and lasting relationships Measures to increase Spiritual well being Use problem solving to solve any conflict related to spirituality Meeting with religious man at regular intervals Presence of religious literatures in the immediate environment such as Quran on beside table Reading in religious books & praying Discuss role of spirituality in one’s life
  • 35. Psychosocial Well- being • Psychosocial changes may alter an individual relationship with others. • Physical wellbeing depend on: • Psychosocial wellbeing • Social structure • Personal relationships • In Later years many adjustment are necessary
  • 36. Levels of prevention 1- primordial level prevention of the development of risk factors in the first place with lifestyle only and avoiding the use of medications to treat risk factors • Government policy: Increasing taxes on cigarettes; Decreasing advertisement of tobacco • Built Environment: Access to safe walking paths; access to stores with healthy food options
  • 37. • (2) Primary Prevention Primary prevention aims to prevent disease or injury before it ever occurs. This is done by preventing exposures to hazards that cause disease or injury. . It includes : A. Health promotion Through education about healthy and safe habits (e.g. eating well, exercising regularly, not smoking)
  • 38. B. specific protection 1-legislations and enforcement to ban or control the use of hazardous products or to mandate safe and healthy practices (e.g. use of seatbelts and bike helmets) 2-immunization against infectious diseases
  • 39. • 3) Secondary prevention • Stop or slow the progression of disease and to prevent limit permanent damage which targeted at sick individuals. It includes : A. Early detection B. Proper / prompt treatment
  • 40. • 4-Tertiary prevention • Helping people manage long-term, often-complex health problems and injuries (e.g. chronic diseases, permanent impairments) in order to improve as much as possible their ability to function, their quality of life and their life expectancy Targeted at people with chronic diseases and disabilities that can't be cured. It includes: prevent or limit disability Rehabilitation
  • 41. • 5.Quaternary Prevention • " 'an action taken to protect individuals (persons/patients) from medical interventions that are likely to cause more harm than good."
  • 42. Approaches of Health Promotion 1. Medical. 2. Empowerment. 3. Behavior change. 4. Educational approach. 5. Social change
  • 43. 1. Medical or preventive approach • Aim: reduce morbidity and premature mortality- To ensure freedom from disease and disability. • Methods: uses medical intervention to prevent ill-health or premature death. • Example: immunization, screening
  • 44. 2-Empowerment Approach : • Identify individual or community health needs and gain the knowledge, skills and attitudes to act upon them through a program of action Two types of empowerment : 1. Self-empowerment: based on counseling and aimed at increasing people‘s control over their own health. 2. Community empowerment: related to community development to create active , participating communities
  • 45. Methods: Counseling, problem solving, community development, advocacy, public participation. Evaluation: Difficult because empowerment is long term , and results are hard to specify and quantify.
  • 46. 3.Behavior Change : • Aim: Encourage individuals to adopt “healthy” behaviors, Views health as the responsibility of individuals. • Methods: Communication Education Persuasion, motivation
  • 47. 4-Educational Approach To provide knowledge and information. To develop the necessary skills for informed choice. The outcome is client's voluntary choice. Methods: - Information‐giving through small groups or mass‐ media, group discussions role‐plays -Group discussion for sharing and exploring health attitudes. 18 -Role play for decision- making and negotiating. Evaluation: knowledge, attitude and practice.
  • 48. .5- Social Change to bring about changes in physical, social and economic environment, which enables people to enjoy better health. To make the healthy choice the easier choice. The focus is on changing society, not on changing the behavior of individuals. Methods: advocacy, policies, fiscal/ financial measures, creating supportive social and physical environmen
  • 49. Challenges of health promotion • 1-Poverty: • Results in poor living conditions (poor nutrition, poor housing, environmental degradation) that are major obstacle for improving health of people. • 2-Education: • Low levels of literacy especially health literacy can be an obvious problem when trying to promote better health behavior among people.
  • 50. • 3-Economic priorities: • Most developing countries have limited resources and many competing demands for these resources. They are seeking to achieve rapid economic gains and development by industrialization and food production that gives priority to foreign markets for earning foreign exchange • 4-Political stability: • Where there is political instability (internal conflict and war), it is extremely difficult to develop health-promoting environments. Challenges of health promotion
  • 51. • 5-Inter-sectoral co-operation: • Decision- makers in all sectors (even in areas that are indirectly related to health as agriculture, commerce, education, industry etc.) must focus on the health implications of their policies. • 6-Commercial interests: • Marketing does not necessarily consider health of citizens of developing countries upper most in their priorities. This often results in poor health outcomes. Challenges of health promotion
  • 52. 7-The double burden of disease: One of the particular challenges that face developing countries is that the epidemic of non-communicable diseases is developing before the burden of communicable (infectious disease) has been dealt with. 8-The speed of change: Populations in the developing world are increasing at a much faster rate than countries in the developed world.
  • 53. Health Promotion modles 1- Health belief model 2- Socio ecological Model 3- Trans theoretical model 4-Pender model of health promotion 5-Tannahill model
  • 54. Health Belief Model • The model is used to explain and predict individual changes in health behaviors. • It is one of the most widely used models for understanding health behaviors. • Key elements of the model focus on individual beliefs about health conditions, which predict individual health-related behaviors.
  • 56. Constructs of (HBM): • (1) Perceived susceptibility (a person’s subjective assessment of their risk of getting the condition, as contrasted with the statistical risk). • (2) Perceived severity (the seriousness of the condition and its consequences). • (3) Perceived benefits Individual’s belief that behavior change will have a positive impact on health outcomes (potential positive benefits of actions). • (4) Perceived barriers (both those that interfere with and facilitate adoption of a behavior such as side effects, time, and inconvenience)
  • 57. • (5)Cues to action: (events that spur individuals toward action), Internal Cues ( appearance of symptoms)or External Cues (mass media) • (6 )Self-efficacy : (an individual’s confidence that he or she can successfully carry out the indicated actions).
  • 58. 2- Socio ecological Model • The model recognize multiple level of influence on health behaviors, including:
  • 59. Intrapersonal / individual factors: (influence behavior) as Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personality. Interpersonal factors As interaction with people (provide social support or create barriers to interpersonal growth that promotes healthy behavior Institutional and organizational factors (rules, regulations, policies) constrain or promote healthy behaviors
  • 60. Community factors: as formal or informal social norms that exist among individuals, groups or organizations can limit or enhance healthy behaviors.  Public policies factors: (local, state, and federal policies and laws ) regulate or support healthy actions for disease prevention (detection, control, management).
  • 62. • This model explains an individual’s readiness to change their behavior. It describes the process of behavior change as occurring in stages 3- Trans theoretical model
  • 63. 1. Pre-contemplation : there is no intention of taking action. 2. Contemplation: there are intentions to take action and a plan to do so in the near future. 3. Preparation: there is intention to take action and some steps have been taken. 4. Action: Behavior has been changed for a short period of time 5. Maintenance: Behavior has been changed and continues to be maintained for the long term 6. Termination: There is no desire to return to prior negative behaviors 3- Trans theoretical model
  • 64. Pender Model Health promotion model that attempts to account for those behaviors that improve well-being Health promotion behaviors are determined by: 1.Individual characteristics and experiences: Prior related behavior : frequency of the same or similar health behavior in the past. Personal Factors: • Personal biological factors: Include variables such as age, gender, body mass index, pubertal status, aerobic capacity, strength, agility, or balance.
  • 65. Pender Model • 2.Behavior-specific cognitions and affect Perceived Benefits of Action • Anticipated positive outcomes that will occur from health behavior. Perceived Barriers to Action • Anticipated, imagined, and personal costs of understanding a given behavior.
  • 66. Pender Model Perceived Self-Efficacy • The judgment of personal capability to organize and execute a health- promoting behavior. Activity-Related Affect • Subjective positive or negative feeling occurs before, during, and following behavior based on the stimulus properties of the behavior itself.
  • 67. Pender Model Interpersonal Influences • Primary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and healthcare providers. Situational Influences • Personal perceptions and cognitions of any given situation or context can facilitate or impede behavior.
  • 68. Pender Model • 3.Behavioral outcomes Perceived benefits of action  Immediate competing demands such as family or work commitments.  Commitment to a plan of action
  • 70. 5- Tannahill’s Model • created a model that presented health promotion as three overlapping spheres of activity: Health education Health prevention Health protection
  • 72. Role of the nurse in health promotion o Assessment to his physical health, Psychosocial Well- being, lifestyle pattern o Assess health needs o Assess social , environmental & cultural influences on health behaviors o Nurse role should directed toward helping elderly to cope with his function level - -----delay disabilities & impairments. o Nurse identify environmental hazards & make necessary modifications o Identify social needs & encourage participation & social support groups. o Nurse should inform elderly & caregivers about aging process, common disorders & disabilities , different services available o Encourage elderly to take better care to them, avoid high risk behaviors,& hazards affecting their health. o Regular and continuous evaluation is important aspect of nurse’s role
  • 73. References • World Health Organization (2019). Phase V (2009–2013) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network: goals and requirements. • Europe: World Health Organization. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/100989/E92260.pdf • Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Deaths and mortality. Retrieved from • www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm • Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2013). A framework for prevention. Retrieved • from www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html • Worldviews Evid Based Nurse. 2016 The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century. HPR/HEP/4ICHP/BR/97.4