SlideShare a Scribd company logo
TOPIC:
Creativity and innovations
Introduction:
Huckleberry Finn suggests that Mark Twain's was very aware of the
difference between his characters in terms
of their social relationships, educational levels, etc., and had a deep
desire to use them with their speakers.
Lafcadio Hearn (d. 1904) referred to in biographical citations as an
American-Japanese author who was born in Greece and used
English to translate Japanese
references and communication features of his time.
The debate over monolingual and monomodal
versus multilingual and proportional interpretations and values is a
matter of ongoing debate.
Which English models are more or less consciously followed and
developed by English users?
Apparently, many authors claim that they do not follow the Western,
inner circle model and have been 'successful' in their work.

Example:
For example, the following is a conversation between him and the
person who broadcasts it in a rickshaw (Hearn, 1925: 103):
O Kurumaya! the throat of Selfishness is dry; water desirable is.”
He, still running, answered:
“The Village of the Long Beach inside of not far a great gush-water
is. There pure august water will be given.”
I cried again:
“O Kurumaya!those little birds as-for, why this way always facing?”
He, running still more swiftly, responded:“All birds wind-to facing
sit.”
Hearn never studied Japanese (Ritchie, 1997: 15) 6),
although he lived in Japan from 1890 until his death in 1904
and married a Japanese man (pp. 269-70). As it turns
out, his efforts to show Japanese conversation and context in
English give his Japanese characters a clearly non-British, non-
American flavor.
The linguistic creativity of bilingual writers, as opposed to a
monolingual-centered idea of an ‘imperfect’ knowledge
of English, is manifested in the use of English internationally.
Background:
The discussion of bilinguals’ creativity and contact literatures begins
in B.Kachru (1986b)With an overview and critique of
the concepts of "centers" of a linguistic nature, which were
standards, sometimes explicit and sometimes implicit, for describing
linguistic types and the literature written on them.
The main theme associated with English language centers is the "ideal
speaker and listener" to describe the language of the "speech
community”.
The concept of "community" acquires a very homogeneous
connotation, since the notion of "ideal" is easily interpreted as the
representation of "a variety".
The problem is that, as many studies and interpretations have
shown, homosexuality and the collective social context are
not universally common or only apply to very limited contexts.
Kachroo states that any variety that we
can identify and tag, has implications and standards.
 The Inner Circle, the English-speaking world, has long recognized two
major "centers" that provide criteria for themselves and other regions:
the United States and England.
The debate over monolingual and monomodal versus multilingual and
proportional interpretations and values is a matter of ongoing debate.
Apparently, many authors claim that they do not follow the Western, inner
circle model and have been 'successful' in their work.
Contact literatures:
The "national identity and linguistic character" of "contact literature"
has been demonstrated in several ways (p. 162). The "connection" is
between asymmetric media in English and new
cultural characteristics, types of discourse, etc., that they are known to
represent.
At the lexical and morphological levels, functions and forms of
elements may change (see examples also in Chapter 14):
 Your behavior tantamount to insubordination.
 It doesn’t worth the price.
In these instances, the lexical categories of
tantamount and worth have been extended to include their functions
as verbs
Governed complement forms may be different from those in Inner-
Circle Englishes, as in:
They insisted to go in spite of my advice.
 And expressions and idioms may arise which are not familiar to
users of other Englishes:
Give me chance/way (‘let me pass’, ‘excuse me’)
Tripathi (1990) gives similar examples from Zambia: the
word boy is usedamong girls with the meaning ‘friend’. Sentence-
fronting and repetition areused for topicalization:A lie he told if that
he told.
According to Simo Bobda (1994), the situation in Cameroon
is further complicated by the addition of another Western language to
the linguistic context. The influence of French can
change the meaning and function of English words in Cameroon. B.
Call subpoenas, give public demonstrations,and support
attendance at ceremonies.
As for the idea of the monocultural foundations of inner
circle literature, a wide range of writers who do not belong to the
"Hellenic-Roman origin" lineage received audience and recognition.
 In the United States, for example, American authors such as Leslie
Marmon Silko and William Least Moon wrote in English, however,
because of their experience and cultural backgrounds, as well
as African American authors suchas Maya Angelou, James Baldwin,
Langston Hughes, and many others who used to do so due to
widespread ethnic / racial prejudices were considered outside the
canon

Multilinguals’ language use:
 multilingual people’s have many expressive resources with which
to present complex situational contexts.
One of the pre-existing resources available to such users is the skill
and relentlessness of mixing and switching, as well as the adoption
of stylistic and contrasting strategies from a full range of verbal and
cultural funds.
Texts are networked - given their regional, national and local roles -
through the appeal of this style and strategy in the specificcontext
of each 'situation' (Appeal. 164). This feature is both formal
and traditional,and depending on how linguistic experiences view it,
the text can be viewed as "limited" or "expanded."
In these senses, the text is ‘extended’, and, by the acceptance of
such creativity intothe world-wide circle of ‘English’, the concept of
world Englishes is further extended.
Any text must bring into account its context of setting — place, time
and participants. Cohesive devices are also nativizing characteristics
of texts, having to do with lexical choices and grammar.
There are various features of that mark it and its represented
situation as being from outside the monolingual Inner Circle of
English.
Rhetorical strategies are a salient feature of text-nativization,
including the use of contextually appropriate figures of speech.
The direct reflection of ‘rhetorical devices for contextualizing and
authenticating speech interaction’ (B. Kachru, 1986b: 167) help in
nativizationof a text.
Other devices include discourse markers, items that have no
independent meaning but that signal solidarity with interlocutors and
are therefore polite. One example is the eh particle in Australian and
New Zealand English.
Third, ‘trans creating proverbs and other idioms’ (more than
just ‘translating’ them) sets the text in its cultural framework
Fourth, ‘culturally dependent speech styles’ (p. 167) are utilized, to
set narrative and conversation in a particular cultural context and to
depict that context authentically and convincingly to the reader.
This notation of texts in the outer circle has a broader look at the
'inherently collaborative features of different English'.B. Kachru (1986b)
y. Kachru (1983) and Panharipande (1983) cite studies,respectively, of
Indian language texts that exhibit ‘spiral’ or ‘circular’ structures that have
a ‘tolerance limit’. … Transmissions added various links to the discourse
paragraph in the spiral structure of the graph (p. 168).
Three-tier Western, Aristotelian cialism, consists of a major five-
stage system (refer to Basham, 1954) as its Indo-cultural counterpart,
with a major premise, minor basis and conclusion: proposition,
reason, example, application and conclusion.
A classic example is quoted from Basham (1954: 501–12):
1.There is fire on the mountain [proposition = Western conclusion ]
2.because there is smoke above it, [reason = Western minor premise]
Reading contact literatures:
B. Kachru argues, there are two sets of criteria which broadly encompass
the adjustments one must make in order to read unfamiliar types of
text in rewarding ways.
The literatures that reflect regional and national identities are ‘specific
and context- bound in bringing identifying features to bear.
Because the nationally identifiable literatures have their
particular characters, they ‘are excellent resources for culture
learning through literature’, if readers take on theresponsibility of
acquiring the necessary ‘appropriate
interpretive methodology and framework
Conclusion
The sense of this subtitle expresses just the proper frame of mind for
addressing differences across varieties of any language. If language is
regarded as something to be learned and replicated from speaker to
speaker, then all deviations are mistakes; the only possible stance on
‘correctness’ is that there are no standards across individuals which
can be rationally defended, since it is patently obvious that no two
people speaking exactly the same ways.
If, on the other hand, each individual user’s mind creates language,
then the variation across speakers is accounted for in a reasonable
way, and the successful functioning of language in a society in spite
of the individual, regional and national differences is observable, and
therefore not very troubling.
Researchers from the English world argue that the diaspora's view of
the spread of theEnglish language and the recognition of its
subsequent dynamic self-sorting into three circles provide a
framework within which English across the world can be
analyzedand used in its own terms - comparable to other English
languages when it may be. itis useful to do so informatively, but
never judging on merit.
 As Pakistani author Bapsi Sidhwa put it, “Its useful language, which
is also rich in literature, is no longer a British monopoly. The
occupied conquered the tongue, hit it on the head and made it their
own! Let the English get angry and angry.

More Related Content

What's hot

Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...
Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...
Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...
Bhe Si
 
3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole
3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole
3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole
Ayu Juwita
 
English 344 session 1
English 344 session 1English 344 session 1
English 344 session 1
lisyaseloni
 
Why should literature be taught in efl classroom
Why should literature be taught in efl classroomWhy should literature be taught in efl classroom
Why should literature be taught in efl classroom
NurindahIhsanNizar
 
Style and register in sociolinguistics
Style and register in sociolinguistics Style and register in sociolinguistics
Style and register in sociolinguistics
Aseel K. Mahmood
 
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptxIsogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Mero Sarade
 
Code Switching and Code Mixing
Code Switching and Code MixingCode Switching and Code Mixing
Code Switching and Code Mixing
Blanca Sosa
 
Style & audience
Style & audienceStyle & audience
Style & audience
munsif123
 
Transactional and Interactional Language
Transactional and Interactional  LanguageTransactional and Interactional  Language
Transactional and Interactional Language
Mero Sarade
 
Corpus Linguistics
Corpus LinguisticsCorpus Linguistics
Corpus Linguistics
Prof.Ravindra Borse
 
Diglossia by Ferguson
Diglossia by FergusonDiglossia by Ferguson
Diglossia by Ferguson
Al Alva
 
REGISTER AND STYLE
REGISTER AND STYLEREGISTER AND STYLE
REGISTER AND STYLE
Fatima Gul
 
Discourse Analysis
Discourse AnalysisDiscourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
The Art of Learning
 
Stylistics
StylisticsStylistics
Outline of a theory of diglossia
Outline of a theory of diglossiaOutline of a theory of diglossia
Outline of a theory of diglossia
Nick Izquierdo
 
343 cr
343 cr343 cr
343 cr
lisyaseloni
 
Translingualism
TranslingualismTranslingualism
Translingualism
schwarzerd
 
Style Register and Dialect
Style Register and DialectStyle Register and Dialect
Style Register and Dialect
Sidra Shahid
 
Grammar, ch2
Grammar, ch2Grammar, ch2
Grammar, ch2
VivaAs
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
Lelly Istiani
 

What's hot (20)

Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...
Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...
Gender and discourse difference= an investigation of discourse markers in per...
 
3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole
3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole
3rd material lingua-franca,pidgin,creole
 
English 344 session 1
English 344 session 1English 344 session 1
English 344 session 1
 
Why should literature be taught in efl classroom
Why should literature be taught in efl classroomWhy should literature be taught in efl classroom
Why should literature be taught in efl classroom
 
Style and register in sociolinguistics
Style and register in sociolinguistics Style and register in sociolinguistics
Style and register in sociolinguistics
 
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptxIsogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
 
Code Switching and Code Mixing
Code Switching and Code MixingCode Switching and Code Mixing
Code Switching and Code Mixing
 
Style & audience
Style & audienceStyle & audience
Style & audience
 
Transactional and Interactional Language
Transactional and Interactional  LanguageTransactional and Interactional  Language
Transactional and Interactional Language
 
Corpus Linguistics
Corpus LinguisticsCorpus Linguistics
Corpus Linguistics
 
Diglossia by Ferguson
Diglossia by FergusonDiglossia by Ferguson
Diglossia by Ferguson
 
REGISTER AND STYLE
REGISTER AND STYLEREGISTER AND STYLE
REGISTER AND STYLE
 
Discourse Analysis
Discourse AnalysisDiscourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
 
Stylistics
StylisticsStylistics
Stylistics
 
Outline of a theory of diglossia
Outline of a theory of diglossiaOutline of a theory of diglossia
Outline of a theory of diglossia
 
343 cr
343 cr343 cr
343 cr
 
Translingualism
TranslingualismTranslingualism
Translingualism
 
Style Register and Dialect
Style Register and DialectStyle Register and Dialect
Style Register and Dialect
 
Grammar, ch2
Grammar, ch2Grammar, ch2
Grammar, ch2
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
 

Similar to Creativity & Innovations

Language and society
Language and societyLanguage and society
Language and society
BOUDJEMAA Lamichi
 
English as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptx
English as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptxEnglish as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptx
English as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptx
JulianaSouzadaSilva4
 
Linguistics identitiES
Linguistics identitiESLinguistics identitiES
Linguistics identitiES
G.P.G.C Mardan
 
Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003
Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003
Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003
Nelly Zafeiriades
 
A Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual Texts In English And Arabic
A Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual  Texts In English And  ArabicA Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual  Texts In English And  Arabic
A Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual Texts In English And Arabic
Dereck Downing
 
Standard language.
Standard language.Standard language.
Standard language.
zahraa Aamir
 
Rhetoric and Composition 2011
Rhetoric and Composition 2011Rhetoric and Composition 2011
Rhetoric and Composition 2011
marymfuchs
 
1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf
1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf
1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf
SistemadeEstudiosMed
 
Discourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdf
Discourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdfDiscourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdf
Discourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdf
Dr.Badriya Al Mamari
 
World Englishes Final
World Englishes FinalWorld Englishes Final
World Englishes Final
tinatonio
 
At the edge of writing and speech The curricular implications of the evolvin...
At the edge of writing and speech  The curricular implications of the evolvin...At the edge of writing and speech  The curricular implications of the evolvin...
At the edge of writing and speech The curricular implications of the evolvin...
Cynthia Velynne
 
Sociolinguistics
SociolinguisticsSociolinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Pamela Sanhueza
 
Tesol2011 pc
Tesol2011 pcTesol2011 pc
Tesol2011 pc
vacurves
 
Lecture 1 ENGL1.pdf
Lecture 1 ENGL1.pdfLecture 1 ENGL1.pdf
Lecture 1 ENGL1.pdf
MohammadKhreisat5
 
Module 1
Module 1Module 1
Sociolinguistics and gender
Sociolinguistics and genderSociolinguistics and gender
Sociolinguistics and gender
Hadile Koubida
 
Culture and Language
Culture  and LanguageCulture  and Language
Culture and Language
Ali Shiri
 
Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...
Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...
Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...
Sujay Rao Mandavilli
 
Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool
Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical toolPractice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool
Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool
YanetUllua
 
Language Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.doc
Language Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.docLanguage Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.doc
Language Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.doc
ssuser90185a
 

Similar to Creativity & Innovations (20)

Language and society
Language and societyLanguage and society
Language and society
 
English as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptx
English as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptxEnglish as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptx
English as a Lingua Franca and the authorship of self.pptx
 
Linguistics identitiES
Linguistics identitiESLinguistics identitiES
Linguistics identitiES
 
Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003
Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003
Critical languagepedagogy kumaravadivelu2003
 
A Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual Texts In English And Arabic
A Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual  Texts In English And  ArabicA Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual  Texts In English And  Arabic
A Contrastive Rhetorical Analysis Of Factual Texts In English And Arabic
 
Standard language.
Standard language.Standard language.
Standard language.
 
Rhetoric and Composition 2011
Rhetoric and Composition 2011Rhetoric and Composition 2011
Rhetoric and Composition 2011
 
1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf
1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf
1. Linguistic Approaches to study the language.pdf
 
Discourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdf
Discourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdfDiscourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdf
Discourse analysis session 1_ 10_10_2021 Introduction to the couse.pdf
 
World Englishes Final
World Englishes FinalWorld Englishes Final
World Englishes Final
 
At the edge of writing and speech The curricular implications of the evolvin...
At the edge of writing and speech  The curricular implications of the evolvin...At the edge of writing and speech  The curricular implications of the evolvin...
At the edge of writing and speech The curricular implications of the evolvin...
 
Sociolinguistics
SociolinguisticsSociolinguistics
Sociolinguistics
 
Tesol2011 pc
Tesol2011 pcTesol2011 pc
Tesol2011 pc
 
Lecture 1 ENGL1.pdf
Lecture 1 ENGL1.pdfLecture 1 ENGL1.pdf
Lecture 1 ENGL1.pdf
 
Module 1
Module 1Module 1
Module 1
 
Sociolinguistics and gender
Sociolinguistics and genderSociolinguistics and gender
Sociolinguistics and gender
 
Culture and Language
Culture  and LanguageCulture  and Language
Culture and Language
 
Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...
Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...
Sujay Rao Mandavilli Sujay On the origin of spoken language final final final...
 
Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool
Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical toolPractice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool
Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool
 
Language Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.doc
Language Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.docLanguage Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.doc
Language Context and Text - Halliday and Hasan.doc
 

More from Laiba Yaseen

Visual Words Recognition
Visual Words RecognitionVisual Words Recognition
Visual Words Recognition
Laiba Yaseen
 
Transitivity Analysis
Transitivity AnalysisTransitivity Analysis
Transitivity Analysis
Laiba Yaseen
 
Social Networking Sites and Terminologies
Social Networking Sites and TerminologiesSocial Networking Sites and Terminologies
Social Networking Sites and Terminologies
Laiba Yaseen
 
Sense Relations
Sense RelationsSense Relations
Sense Relations
Laiba Yaseen
 
Sense Relation & Semantic
Sense Relation & SemanticSense Relation & Semantic
Sense Relation & Semantic
Laiba Yaseen
 
Semantic Priming
Semantic PrimingSemantic Priming
Semantic Priming
Laiba Yaseen
 
Print Media
Print MediaPrint Media
Print Media
Laiba Yaseen
 
Pragmatic Development
Pragmatic DevelopmentPragmatic Development
Pragmatic Development
Laiba Yaseen
 
Politeness & Interaction
Politeness & InteractionPoliteness & Interaction
Politeness & Interaction
Laiba Yaseen
 
Point of View
Point of ViewPoint of View
Point of View
Laiba Yaseen
 
Phonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani English
Phonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani EnglishPhonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani English
Phonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani English
Laiba Yaseen
 
Pakistan Film Industry
Pakistan Film IndustryPakistan Film Industry
Pakistan Film Industry
Laiba Yaseen
 
Organizational Structure of Television
Organizational Structure of TelevisionOrganizational Structure of Television
Organizational Structure of Television
Laiba Yaseen
 
Oedipus Rex as a Tragic Hero
Oedipus Rex as a Tragic HeroOedipus Rex as a Tragic Hero
Oedipus Rex as a Tragic Hero
Laiba Yaseen
 
Love Tale Orpheus & Eurydice
Love Tale Orpheus & EurydiceLove Tale Orpheus & Eurydice
Love Tale Orpheus & Eurydice
Laiba Yaseen
 
LOGICAL OPERATOR
LOGICAL OPERATORLOGICAL OPERATOR
LOGICAL OPERATOR
Laiba Yaseen
 
Washback effect of a Test
Washback effect of a TestWashback effect of a Test
Washback effect of a Test
Laiba Yaseen
 
Authenticity and Objectivity of a Test
Authenticity and Objectivity of a TestAuthenticity and Objectivity of a Test
Authenticity and Objectivity of a Test
Laiba Yaseen
 
Validity of Test
Validity of TestValidity of Test
Validity of Test
Laiba Yaseen
 
Approaches to DA
Approaches to DA Approaches to DA
Approaches to DA
Laiba Yaseen
 

More from Laiba Yaseen (20)

Visual Words Recognition
Visual Words RecognitionVisual Words Recognition
Visual Words Recognition
 
Transitivity Analysis
Transitivity AnalysisTransitivity Analysis
Transitivity Analysis
 
Social Networking Sites and Terminologies
Social Networking Sites and TerminologiesSocial Networking Sites and Terminologies
Social Networking Sites and Terminologies
 
Sense Relations
Sense RelationsSense Relations
Sense Relations
 
Sense Relation & Semantic
Sense Relation & SemanticSense Relation & Semantic
Sense Relation & Semantic
 
Semantic Priming
Semantic PrimingSemantic Priming
Semantic Priming
 
Print Media
Print MediaPrint Media
Print Media
 
Pragmatic Development
Pragmatic DevelopmentPragmatic Development
Pragmatic Development
 
Politeness & Interaction
Politeness & InteractionPoliteness & Interaction
Politeness & Interaction
 
Point of View
Point of ViewPoint of View
Point of View
 
Phonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani English
Phonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani EnglishPhonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani English
Phonological and Phonetic Features of Pakistani English
 
Pakistan Film Industry
Pakistan Film IndustryPakistan Film Industry
Pakistan Film Industry
 
Organizational Structure of Television
Organizational Structure of TelevisionOrganizational Structure of Television
Organizational Structure of Television
 
Oedipus Rex as a Tragic Hero
Oedipus Rex as a Tragic HeroOedipus Rex as a Tragic Hero
Oedipus Rex as a Tragic Hero
 
Love Tale Orpheus & Eurydice
Love Tale Orpheus & EurydiceLove Tale Orpheus & Eurydice
Love Tale Orpheus & Eurydice
 
LOGICAL OPERATOR
LOGICAL OPERATORLOGICAL OPERATOR
LOGICAL OPERATOR
 
Washback effect of a Test
Washback effect of a TestWashback effect of a Test
Washback effect of a Test
 
Authenticity and Objectivity of a Test
Authenticity and Objectivity of a TestAuthenticity and Objectivity of a Test
Authenticity and Objectivity of a Test
 
Validity of Test
Validity of TestValidity of Test
Validity of Test
 
Approaches to DA
Approaches to DA Approaches to DA
Approaches to DA
 

Recently uploaded

Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
monicaaringo1
 
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdfAZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
OlivierLumeau1
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.pptIntroduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Dr. S. Bulomine Regi
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List ScanningOdoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Celine George
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
MJDuyan
 
Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17
Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17
Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Julie Sarpy
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
thanhluan21
 
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptxBRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
kambal1234567890
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Celine George
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
thanhluan21
 
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEWRDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
 
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdfAZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.pptIntroduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
 
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List ScanningOdoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
 
Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17
Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17
Mail Server Configuration Using App passwords in Odoo 17
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
 
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
 
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptxBRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
 
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEWRDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
 

Creativity & Innovations

  • 2. Introduction: Huckleberry Finn suggests that Mark Twain's was very aware of the difference between his characters in terms of their social relationships, educational levels, etc., and had a deep desire to use them with their speakers. Lafcadio Hearn (d. 1904) referred to in biographical citations as an American-Japanese author who was born in Greece and used English to translate Japanese references and communication features of his time.
  • 3. The debate over monolingual and monomodal versus multilingual and proportional interpretations and values is a matter of ongoing debate. Which English models are more or less consciously followed and developed by English users? Apparently, many authors claim that they do not follow the Western, inner circle model and have been 'successful' in their work. 
  • 4. Example: For example, the following is a conversation between him and the person who broadcasts it in a rickshaw (Hearn, 1925: 103): O Kurumaya! the throat of Selfishness is dry; water desirable is.” He, still running, answered: “The Village of the Long Beach inside of not far a great gush-water is. There pure august water will be given.” I cried again: “O Kurumaya!those little birds as-for, why this way always facing?” He, running still more swiftly, responded:“All birds wind-to facing sit.”
  • 5. Hearn never studied Japanese (Ritchie, 1997: 15) 6), although he lived in Japan from 1890 until his death in 1904 and married a Japanese man (pp. 269-70). As it turns out, his efforts to show Japanese conversation and context in English give his Japanese characters a clearly non-British, non- American flavor. The linguistic creativity of bilingual writers, as opposed to a monolingual-centered idea of an ‘imperfect’ knowledge of English, is manifested in the use of English internationally.
  • 6. Background: The discussion of bilinguals’ creativity and contact literatures begins in B.Kachru (1986b)With an overview and critique of the concepts of "centers" of a linguistic nature, which were standards, sometimes explicit and sometimes implicit, for describing linguistic types and the literature written on them. The main theme associated with English language centers is the "ideal speaker and listener" to describe the language of the "speech community”.
  • 7. The concept of "community" acquires a very homogeneous connotation, since the notion of "ideal" is easily interpreted as the representation of "a variety". The problem is that, as many studies and interpretations have shown, homosexuality and the collective social context are not universally common or only apply to very limited contexts.
  • 8. Kachroo states that any variety that we can identify and tag, has implications and standards.  The Inner Circle, the English-speaking world, has long recognized two major "centers" that provide criteria for themselves and other regions: the United States and England. The debate over monolingual and monomodal versus multilingual and proportional interpretations and values is a matter of ongoing debate. Apparently, many authors claim that they do not follow the Western, inner circle model and have been 'successful' in their work.
  • 9. Contact literatures: The "national identity and linguistic character" of "contact literature" has been demonstrated in several ways (p. 162). The "connection" is between asymmetric media in English and new cultural characteristics, types of discourse, etc., that they are known to represent. At the lexical and morphological levels, functions and forms of elements may change (see examples also in Chapter 14):  Your behavior tantamount to insubordination.  It doesn’t worth the price.
  • 10. In these instances, the lexical categories of tantamount and worth have been extended to include their functions as verbs Governed complement forms may be different from those in Inner- Circle Englishes, as in: They insisted to go in spite of my advice.  And expressions and idioms may arise which are not familiar to users of other Englishes: Give me chance/way (‘let me pass’, ‘excuse me’)
  • 11. Tripathi (1990) gives similar examples from Zambia: the word boy is usedamong girls with the meaning ‘friend’. Sentence- fronting and repetition areused for topicalization:A lie he told if that he told. According to Simo Bobda (1994), the situation in Cameroon is further complicated by the addition of another Western language to the linguistic context. The influence of French can change the meaning and function of English words in Cameroon. B. Call subpoenas, give public demonstrations,and support attendance at ceremonies.
  • 12. As for the idea of the monocultural foundations of inner circle literature, a wide range of writers who do not belong to the "Hellenic-Roman origin" lineage received audience and recognition.  In the United States, for example, American authors such as Leslie Marmon Silko and William Least Moon wrote in English, however, because of their experience and cultural backgrounds, as well as African American authors suchas Maya Angelou, James Baldwin, Langston Hughes, and many others who used to do so due to widespread ethnic / racial prejudices were considered outside the canon 
  • 13. Multilinguals’ language use:  multilingual people’s have many expressive resources with which to present complex situational contexts. One of the pre-existing resources available to such users is the skill and relentlessness of mixing and switching, as well as the adoption of stylistic and contrasting strategies from a full range of verbal and cultural funds.
  • 14. Texts are networked - given their regional, national and local roles - through the appeal of this style and strategy in the specificcontext of each 'situation' (Appeal. 164). This feature is both formal and traditional,and depending on how linguistic experiences view it, the text can be viewed as "limited" or "expanded." In these senses, the text is ‘extended’, and, by the acceptance of such creativity intothe world-wide circle of ‘English’, the concept of world Englishes is further extended.
  • 15. Any text must bring into account its context of setting — place, time and participants. Cohesive devices are also nativizing characteristics of texts, having to do with lexical choices and grammar. There are various features of that mark it and its represented situation as being from outside the monolingual Inner Circle of English. Rhetorical strategies are a salient feature of text-nativization, including the use of contextually appropriate figures of speech.
  • 16. The direct reflection of ‘rhetorical devices for contextualizing and authenticating speech interaction’ (B. Kachru, 1986b: 167) help in nativizationof a text. Other devices include discourse markers, items that have no independent meaning but that signal solidarity with interlocutors and are therefore polite. One example is the eh particle in Australian and New Zealand English. Third, ‘trans creating proverbs and other idioms’ (more than just ‘translating’ them) sets the text in its cultural framework
  • 17. Fourth, ‘culturally dependent speech styles’ (p. 167) are utilized, to set narrative and conversation in a particular cultural context and to depict that context authentically and convincingly to the reader. This notation of texts in the outer circle has a broader look at the 'inherently collaborative features of different English'.B. Kachru (1986b) y. Kachru (1983) and Panharipande (1983) cite studies,respectively, of Indian language texts that exhibit ‘spiral’ or ‘circular’ structures that have a ‘tolerance limit’. … Transmissions added various links to the discourse paragraph in the spiral structure of the graph (p. 168).
  • 18. Three-tier Western, Aristotelian cialism, consists of a major five- stage system (refer to Basham, 1954) as its Indo-cultural counterpart, with a major premise, minor basis and conclusion: proposition, reason, example, application and conclusion. A classic example is quoted from Basham (1954: 501–12): 1.There is fire on the mountain [proposition = Western conclusion ] 2.because there is smoke above it, [reason = Western minor premise]
  • 19. Reading contact literatures: B. Kachru argues, there are two sets of criteria which broadly encompass the adjustments one must make in order to read unfamiliar types of text in rewarding ways. The literatures that reflect regional and national identities are ‘specific and context- bound in bringing identifying features to bear. Because the nationally identifiable literatures have their particular characters, they ‘are excellent resources for culture learning through literature’, if readers take on theresponsibility of acquiring the necessary ‘appropriate interpretive methodology and framework
  • 20. Conclusion The sense of this subtitle expresses just the proper frame of mind for addressing differences across varieties of any language. If language is regarded as something to be learned and replicated from speaker to speaker, then all deviations are mistakes; the only possible stance on ‘correctness’ is that there are no standards across individuals which can be rationally defended, since it is patently obvious that no two people speaking exactly the same ways.
  • 21. If, on the other hand, each individual user’s mind creates language, then the variation across speakers is accounted for in a reasonable way, and the successful functioning of language in a society in spite of the individual, regional and national differences is observable, and therefore not very troubling.
  • 22. Researchers from the English world argue that the diaspora's view of the spread of theEnglish language and the recognition of its subsequent dynamic self-sorting into three circles provide a framework within which English across the world can be analyzedand used in its own terms - comparable to other English languages when it may be. itis useful to do so informatively, but never judging on merit.
  • 23.  As Pakistani author Bapsi Sidhwa put it, “Its useful language, which is also rich in literature, is no longer a British monopoly. The occupied conquered the tongue, hit it on the head and made it their own! Let the English get angry and angry.