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NAMES:CarolinaReina, Yanet Ullua.
PRACTICEII, DIDACTICS OF ELT and PracticumPrimary School
level. AdjuntoRegular a/c Prof. EstelaN. Braun(2021).
PRACTICAL 6: TRANSLANGUAGING AS A PEDAGOGICAL TOOL.
Questionnaire
Explain Translanguaging with Multilingual Students, Garcia and Kleyn
(2016), Routledge, London. Chapter 1.
a) How does Garcia define named languages and their relationship with the
linguistic system? How do they develop?
They have emphasized on the sociopolitical effects that the construction of
named languages like English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese and so on have had
on language-minoritized populations. This construction of “named languages”
is used to emphasize the facts that the terms “English”, “Spanish”, “Arabic”,
“Chinese”, etc, are named socially invented categories.
These categories are not imaginary, as they refer to entities that exist in the
societies that have real materials and effects such as terms as “black men”,
“white men”, etc. But these terms do not overlap with the linguistic systems of
individual speakers since each individual uses what amounts to his or her own
language which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, etc. from that of every
other person who speaks English or Spanish. So, the linguistic system is what
allows the speaker to speak, read, write, understand, communicate and do
linguistic work. The two linguistic systems may be too different from one
another, or close enough.
b) What are the two views on bilingualism she develops?
There are two views: from an insider perspective and from an outsider/social one.
The latter argues that bilinguals have two different named languages with two
linguistic systems. The insider perspective bilinguals/multilingual individuals are
perceived as having just one linguistic system in which the different languages
refer and construct one another
c) What were the origins of translanguaging?
The term translanguaging was coined in Wales by an educator, Cen Williams,
who developed a different approach to bilingualism in education. To deepen
students, use of Welsh and English, students were allowed to alter understanding
received in one language and/or in the other language. Instead of using different
languages in different spaces, Cen Williams’s translanguaging theory provided
Welsh students with opportunities to change the language of the input and the
output and write in another language or to discuss in a language and read in
another, and so forth.
d) Explain Cummins ‘Interdependence Hypothesis and its impact on bilingual
education.
He put forward that there was an underlying common proficiency between the
languages of bilinguals that allowed for transfer to occur. It demonstrated how
academic content, no matter the language of the institution, enhanced the general
knowledge base of the student. Cummin’s hypothesis was interpreted in those
early days as supporting bilingual education, because not everything taught
through one language had to be re taught through another.
His hypothesis provided the impetus for the expansion of all types of bilingual
education in the 20th century, especially in North America, where immersion
bilingual programs in Canada and developmental maintenance and traditional
bilingual programs in the United States flourished. Moreover, his work was also
used by educational authorities and educators to legitimate monolingual
practices.
e) Explain code-switching and its pedagogical validity following Gumperz (1976)
as explained by Garcia & Kleyn.
Jacbson developed the idea that bilingual teachers would use intersentential
code-switching to teach bilingual children, that means that languages are being
altered only at the end of the sentences. But his theory had more to do with
enabling comprehension than with supporting and developing bilingualism. Since
Gumperz, the sociolinguistic literature has shown how code-switching represents
the agency of bilingual speakers to use two separate languages that represent
two linguistic systems. And educators have been showing how code-switching is
a common practice to make comprehension possible.
f) How is Garcia’s (2009, 2016) theory of translanguaging different from code-
switching? Quote it and explain it via the examples provided.
-Code-switching relies on the idea that there are two language systems, but
indicates that bilinguals transgress these all the time by alternating languages
that are still seen as autonomous, closed systems with their own linguistic
structures.
- “It refers to the alternation between languages in a specific communicative
episode, like a conversation or an email exchange or indeed signs” (Garcia, 2009,
p.14) For example: Ofelia speaks in her bilingual house and she uses words such
as “amigo” “casa” “room” “ dinner”, etc. And for Ofelia these are only words.
-“Tanslanguaging refers to the deployment of the speaker’s full linguistic
repertoire, which does not in any way correspond to the socially and politically
defined boundaries of named language”. The teacher can develop a lesson plan
using English as the medium of instruction and another language as a medium
of discussion.
g) Why is translanguaging important to build a more equitable society? How
do linguistic repertoires and socially named languages relate?
Translanguaging is important as it helps to build meaning, for example in cases
of bilingual families who need to translate words to create meaning. Also in some
of these cases, language minority children serve as translators for their own
families.
Translanguaging allows students to make metalinguistic connections and in
leveraging all of their content and linguistic knowledge. However, beyond the
academic and linguistic benefits, translanguaging is also an important way to
validate who students are and what they bring to the classroom. In addition to
this, translanguaging refers to the development of a speaker’s full linguistic
repertoire, which does not in a way correspond to the socially and politically
defined boundaries of named languages.
h) What is the importance of translanguaging as a pedagogical tool?
It helps in the teaching process. By teaching with translanguaging in mind,
teachers can enable their students to use their whole knowledge base and be
comfortable expressing themselves. In this sense, Translanguaging supports the
ability of bilingual students to have multiple identities that are not exactly like
those constructed in monolingual contexts or in other contexts. And also it
supports students as they engage with and comprehend complex content and
texts
i) What elements should be part of a translanguaging design?
The elements that should be part of a translanguaging design are the classroom,
the instructions, the assessment.
-Organizing students into groups with different levels of home/new
language proficiency
-Creating a unit that culminates in a research paper that draws on
multilingual sources and centers on a topic relevant to bilingual
communities
- Providing a text in two or more languages and asking students to
compare/contrast the lexicon, syntax, morphology, and discourse
structures
-Planning assessments that differentiate students’ general linguistic
performances from their language specific performances
j) How important is it in terms of assessment?
All the ways in which we conceive assessment of language are extremely
important. Many learners have called for a more accurate assessment of the
understandings of bilingual children. There are two ways of understanding
language in assessment. In the first place, the lexical and structural features that
schools helped standardize and that make up what is then accepted as English,
Spanish, Russian, etc. In the second place, the bilingual speakers’ own language
features that go beyond the bounded designation of what is considered one or
the other language, but that speakers can use to carry out linguistic tasks.
language-specific performances in the named language and general linguistic
performances
k) Why is it important to support translanguaging in multilingual classrooms?
Translanguaging creates a classroom environment where learners challenge
linguistic hierarchies; and simultaneously allow learners to feel like valued
members of the classroom community, enabling them to use all of their resources
to participate fully in class activities. So, translanguaging is important because:
- It Supports students as they engage with and comprehend complex content and
texts
- It Provides opportunities for students to develop linguistic practices for academic
contexts
- It Makes space for students’ bilingualism and bilingual ways of knowing
- It Supports bilingual students’ socio-emotional development and bilingual
identities
Students develop the capacity to analyze their own language practices, foster
their metalinguistic awareness, and become critical discourse analysts reflecting
on their interactive practices.
l) Explain Flores (2014) quote.
“Let’s Not Forget that Translanguaging is a Political Act”
Translanguaging is not simply a method but rather part of a larger political
struggle of linguistic self-determination for language-minoritized populations.
People often use the term to describe the language practices of language-
minoritized communities without situating these practices within larger political
struggles for linguistic self-determination. Translanguaging research should
attempt to analyze the ways that these language practices are marginalized by
the larger society. This should be activist-oriented research that seeks to work in
solidarity with language-minoritized communities in resisting this marginalization.

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Practice Paper N° 6- Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool

  • 1. NAMES:CarolinaReina, Yanet Ullua. PRACTICEII, DIDACTICS OF ELT and PracticumPrimary School level. AdjuntoRegular a/c Prof. EstelaN. Braun(2021). PRACTICAL 6: TRANSLANGUAGING AS A PEDAGOGICAL TOOL. Questionnaire Explain Translanguaging with Multilingual Students, Garcia and Kleyn (2016), Routledge, London. Chapter 1. a) How does Garcia define named languages and their relationship with the linguistic system? How do they develop? They have emphasized on the sociopolitical effects that the construction of named languages like English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese and so on have had on language-minoritized populations. This construction of “named languages” is used to emphasize the facts that the terms “English”, “Spanish”, “Arabic”, “Chinese”, etc, are named socially invented categories. These categories are not imaginary, as they refer to entities that exist in the societies that have real materials and effects such as terms as “black men”, “white men”, etc. But these terms do not overlap with the linguistic systems of individual speakers since each individual uses what amounts to his or her own language which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, etc. from that of every other person who speaks English or Spanish. So, the linguistic system is what allows the speaker to speak, read, write, understand, communicate and do linguistic work. The two linguistic systems may be too different from one another, or close enough.
  • 2. b) What are the two views on bilingualism she develops? There are two views: from an insider perspective and from an outsider/social one. The latter argues that bilinguals have two different named languages with two linguistic systems. The insider perspective bilinguals/multilingual individuals are perceived as having just one linguistic system in which the different languages refer and construct one another c) What were the origins of translanguaging? The term translanguaging was coined in Wales by an educator, Cen Williams, who developed a different approach to bilingualism in education. To deepen students, use of Welsh and English, students were allowed to alter understanding received in one language and/or in the other language. Instead of using different languages in different spaces, Cen Williams’s translanguaging theory provided Welsh students with opportunities to change the language of the input and the output and write in another language or to discuss in a language and read in another, and so forth. d) Explain Cummins ‘Interdependence Hypothesis and its impact on bilingual education. He put forward that there was an underlying common proficiency between the languages of bilinguals that allowed for transfer to occur. It demonstrated how academic content, no matter the language of the institution, enhanced the general knowledge base of the student. Cummin’s hypothesis was interpreted in those early days as supporting bilingual education, because not everything taught through one language had to be re taught through another. His hypothesis provided the impetus for the expansion of all types of bilingual education in the 20th century, especially in North America, where immersion bilingual programs in Canada and developmental maintenance and traditional bilingual programs in the United States flourished. Moreover, his work was also
  • 3. used by educational authorities and educators to legitimate monolingual practices. e) Explain code-switching and its pedagogical validity following Gumperz (1976) as explained by Garcia & Kleyn. Jacbson developed the idea that bilingual teachers would use intersentential code-switching to teach bilingual children, that means that languages are being altered only at the end of the sentences. But his theory had more to do with enabling comprehension than with supporting and developing bilingualism. Since Gumperz, the sociolinguistic literature has shown how code-switching represents the agency of bilingual speakers to use two separate languages that represent two linguistic systems. And educators have been showing how code-switching is a common practice to make comprehension possible. f) How is Garcia’s (2009, 2016) theory of translanguaging different from code- switching? Quote it and explain it via the examples provided. -Code-switching relies on the idea that there are two language systems, but indicates that bilinguals transgress these all the time by alternating languages that are still seen as autonomous, closed systems with their own linguistic structures. - “It refers to the alternation between languages in a specific communicative episode, like a conversation or an email exchange or indeed signs” (Garcia, 2009, p.14) For example: Ofelia speaks in her bilingual house and she uses words such as “amigo” “casa” “room” “ dinner”, etc. And for Ofelia these are only words. -“Tanslanguaging refers to the deployment of the speaker’s full linguistic repertoire, which does not in any way correspond to the socially and politically defined boundaries of named language”. The teacher can develop a lesson plan using English as the medium of instruction and another language as a medium of discussion.
  • 4. g) Why is translanguaging important to build a more equitable society? How do linguistic repertoires and socially named languages relate? Translanguaging is important as it helps to build meaning, for example in cases of bilingual families who need to translate words to create meaning. Also in some of these cases, language minority children serve as translators for their own families. Translanguaging allows students to make metalinguistic connections and in leveraging all of their content and linguistic knowledge. However, beyond the academic and linguistic benefits, translanguaging is also an important way to validate who students are and what they bring to the classroom. In addition to this, translanguaging refers to the development of a speaker’s full linguistic repertoire, which does not in a way correspond to the socially and politically defined boundaries of named languages. h) What is the importance of translanguaging as a pedagogical tool? It helps in the teaching process. By teaching with translanguaging in mind, teachers can enable their students to use their whole knowledge base and be comfortable expressing themselves. In this sense, Translanguaging supports the ability of bilingual students to have multiple identities that are not exactly like those constructed in monolingual contexts or in other contexts. And also it supports students as they engage with and comprehend complex content and texts i) What elements should be part of a translanguaging design? The elements that should be part of a translanguaging design are the classroom, the instructions, the assessment. -Organizing students into groups with different levels of home/new language proficiency -Creating a unit that culminates in a research paper that draws on multilingual sources and centers on a topic relevant to bilingual communities
  • 5. - Providing a text in two or more languages and asking students to compare/contrast the lexicon, syntax, morphology, and discourse structures -Planning assessments that differentiate students’ general linguistic performances from their language specific performances j) How important is it in terms of assessment? All the ways in which we conceive assessment of language are extremely important. Many learners have called for a more accurate assessment of the understandings of bilingual children. There are two ways of understanding language in assessment. In the first place, the lexical and structural features that schools helped standardize and that make up what is then accepted as English, Spanish, Russian, etc. In the second place, the bilingual speakers’ own language features that go beyond the bounded designation of what is considered one or the other language, but that speakers can use to carry out linguistic tasks. language-specific performances in the named language and general linguistic performances k) Why is it important to support translanguaging in multilingual classrooms? Translanguaging creates a classroom environment where learners challenge linguistic hierarchies; and simultaneously allow learners to feel like valued members of the classroom community, enabling them to use all of their resources to participate fully in class activities. So, translanguaging is important because: - It Supports students as they engage with and comprehend complex content and texts - It Provides opportunities for students to develop linguistic practices for academic contexts - It Makes space for students’ bilingualism and bilingual ways of knowing - It Supports bilingual students’ socio-emotional development and bilingual identities
  • 6. Students develop the capacity to analyze their own language practices, foster their metalinguistic awareness, and become critical discourse analysts reflecting on their interactive practices. l) Explain Flores (2014) quote. “Let’s Not Forget that Translanguaging is a Political Act” Translanguaging is not simply a method but rather part of a larger political struggle of linguistic self-determination for language-minoritized populations. People often use the term to describe the language practices of language- minoritized communities without situating these practices within larger political struggles for linguistic self-determination. Translanguaging research should attempt to analyze the ways that these language practices are marginalized by the larger society. This should be activist-oriented research that seeks to work in solidarity with language-minoritized communities in resisting this marginalization.