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MEDIA STUDIES
PAPER 1: Media Messages
Q1 and 2 (EXTRACT
QUESTIONS)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
write about the aspects of
British society and culture
that are being represented.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
write about the aspects of
British society and culture
that are being represented.
Social Representations will likely include:
Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost
impossible to separate from culture)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
write about the aspects of
British society and culture
that are being represented.
Social Representations will likely include:
Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost
impossible to separate from culture)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
write about the aspects of
British society and culture
that are being represented.
Social Representations will likely include:
Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost
impossible to separate from culture)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
write about the aspects of
British society and culture
that are being represented.
Social Representations will likely include:
Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost
impossible to separate from culture)
So, we might discuss:
• Representation of women
in powerful roles.
Countertypical?
• Representation of class.
May is upper middle
class.
• General elections are
both social and cultural
events in the UK. Value
of democracy.
• Press bias and freedom
of the press are both
socially and culturally
important.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
write about the aspects of
British society and culture
that are being represented.
Social Representations will likely include:
Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost
impossible to separate from culture)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
apply Hall’s theory of
representation in your answer.
Social Representations will likely include:
Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes)
Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost
impossible to separate from culture)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
apply Hall’s theory of
representation in your answer.
Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a
“preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these
meanings by considering what is present, absent and different.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
apply Hall’s theory of
representation in your answer.
Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a
“preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these
meanings by considering what is present, absent and different.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years.
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
This question is asking you to
apply Hall’s theory of
representation in your answer.
Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a
“preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these
meanings by considering what is present, absent and different.
So, we might point out:
• The preferred meaning of
the two different
publications.
• What is present in one
and absent in the other.
• The connection between
what the different
preferred meanings and
the political bias of
the audience.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look at a couple of examples from 2022.
2024: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s look at a couple of examples from 2022.
2024: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Significant ideas to do with political contexts might include:
Left Wing vs Right Wing ideological positions and the political bias shown in
newspapers.
Political change in the UK (Change of prime minister, political scandal)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Significant ideas to do with political contexts might include:
Left Wing vs Right Wing ideological positions and the political bias shown in
newspapers.
Political change in the UK (Change of prime minister, political scandal)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Significant ideas to do with political contexts might include:
Left Wing vs Right Wing ideological positions and the political bias shown in
newspapers.
Political change in the UK (Change of prime minister, political scandal)
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that
we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature
of the binary oppositions.
What will I be asked to do for Question 1?
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that
we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature
of the binary oppositions.
LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that
we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature
of the binary oppositions.
LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES
So, we might point out:
• Conflict in the phrases
‘blazing row’ and
‘troubles, gaffes and
in-fighting.’
• While six is not exactly
half it is close,
suggesting that they are
split in half (binary
opposed).
• The image shows the
group looking in
different directions.
• This may convey the
political idea that new
parties cannot survive
without unity. It may
also point to the
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that
we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature
of the binary oppositions.
LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES
So, we might point out:
• Heidi Allen’s twitter
post seeks to avoid
binary oppositions using
words like ‘unequivocal’
and more explicitly
‘unambiguous’ which
actively dismisses the
idea of binary
opposition.
• Everything about the
post points at unity,
respect and support,
from the use of the word
support repeatedly, to
the list of names at the
end.
• By avoiding the inherent
conflict in binary
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that
we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature
of the binary oppositions.
LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES
So, we might point out:
• The twitter comments
point out the binary
opposition between
positive and negative
opinions, with
invitations to join and
criticisms apparent.
• The underlying ideology
seems to be that
disunity and conflict
cannot exist in a
successful political
movement and that the
electorate is not
impressed by such
disunity.
Let’s try another past paper example.
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
This question is asking you to write
about significant elements of British
politics that are featured in the
text.
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that
we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature
of the binary oppositions.
LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES
So, we might point out:
• The twitter comments
point out the binary
opposition between
positive and negative
opinions, with
invitations to join and
criticisms apparent.
• The underlying ideology
seems to be that
disunity and conflict
cannot exist in a
successful political
movement and that the
electorate is not
impressed by such
disunity.
So Q1 comes in two styles:
So Q1 comes in two styles:
The Media Language style:
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
So Q1 comes in two styles:
The Media Language style:
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
SOCIAL
CULTURAL
HISTORICAL
POLITICAL
ECONOMIC?
So Q1 comes in two styles:
The Media Language style:
2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts.
Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
SOCIAL
CULTURAL
HISTORICAL
POLITICAL
ECONOMIC?
BARTHES
LEVI-STRAUSS
NEALE?
TODOROV?
BAUDRILLARD?
BARTHES
Introduction:
Barthes theorised that meaning is created by signs
through connotation, which naturalise and
normalise myths that reflect dominant values and
ideologies.
Instructions:
• Start by thinking about what the message of the
text is.
• Think about what ideology is linked with that.
• Look for the connotations in the images, the
headlines and the copy of the text that link with
that ideology.
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
LEVI-STRAUSS
Introduction:
Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature
binary oppositions and that we can determine the
ideological messaging in a text by examining the
nature of the binary oppositions.
Instructions:
• Start by thinking about what the message of the text
is.
• Think about what ideology is linked with that.
• This is very similar to Barthes, but instead of
looking for the connotations exclusively, you are
looking for the binary oppositions constructed by
the signs in the images, the headlines and the copy
of the text that link with that ideology.
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
Image
Literally opposite
Young vs Old
Traditional vs Progress
Duty vs Self
Unity vs Division
Anchoring Text
Speaking Out vs Speech
- Reinforces opposition
Banner Headline
Reads almost like a proclamation – “everything”
Sub-headline
“real” vs fake
Stand First
“powerful” “dedication”
Sub-headline 2?
“bombshell”
Semantic field of warfare
Teasers
Nazanin: freedom vs imprisonment
Beat Diabetes – health vs disease
The two images are positioned to encode the binary opposition
between the Queen (symbolic of age, duty, traditionalism, unity)
and Meghan Markle (youth, selfishness, progressivism, disunity).
While there is no explicit condemnation of Markle, the choice of
facial expression connotes smugness, while the Queen’s is open and
friendly. Also, the Mail have chosen a shot of Markle in which her
eyeline seems to be looking at the Queen, while the Queen uses
direct mode of address, connecting with the audience. The
anchoring text further connotes the binary opposition between
them: ‘Speaking Out’ encoding a distasteful desire to speak publicly
about private issues, while the Queen is making a dutiful speech in
her role as monarch. The socio-cultural representation will appeal
the Mail’s right-wing readership as it reinforces the myth of
patriotism that is part of middle English culture.
The language of the banner headline, sub-headlines and standfirst
also reinforces the binary opposition between the two figures, but
in a more implicit way. The banner proclaims that “duty is
everything,” and goes on to say that this is “real service.” The binary
opposition has already been established through the images and
layout, so the connotation here is that the queen is genuine, while
Markle is fake. In the central column, while the binary opposition is
not explicit, the semantic field of warfare is used in the term
“bombshell”, further reinforcing the idea of symbolic opposition.
Given that the paper has encoded a socio-cultural representation of
the Queen as dutiful, dedicated and “real” the binary opposite is
encoded as being true of Markle.
TODOROV (UNLIKELY)
Introduction:
Todorov theorises that, narratives begin in equilibrium
face disruption to form disequilibrium and then resolve
into a new equilibrium. By examining what the narrative
views as every day life (equilibrium) we can see what the
text sees as social norms, and by looking at the way at
the way that equilibrium is restored we can see what the
text values and its ideological position.
Instructions:
• Start by thinking about what the message of the text is.
• Think about what ideology is linked with that.
• Look for the underlying narrative that is suggested by
the images, the headlines and the copy of the text. The
story is likely to be in a state of disequilibrium, so
think about what has been disrupted (social norm) and
what would need to happen to repair it (what the text
NEALE (VERY UNLIKELY)
Introduction:
Neale theorises that genres depends on the repetition
of codes and conventions and that they evolve due to
the balance between the need for difference and
repetition. He explains that generic codes are also
established beyond media products themselves through
sources such as reviews and marketing.
Instructions:
• Start by thinking about what the message of the text
is.
• Think about how the codes and conventions of the
text are being used and broken in order to convey
the message.
• NB: IT IS VERY UNLIKELY THAT YOU WILL BE ASKED
BAUDRILLARD (INCREDIBLY UNLIKELY)
Introduction:
Baurdrillard theorises that the saturation of
signs has lead to a state of hyperreality in which
representations are now copies without originals
(simulacra). In this state of hyperreality, ideas
about identity (such as gender and sexuality)
become blurred.
Instructions:
• Start by thinking about what the message of the
text is.
• If Baudrillard is named, it is most likely that
it will be about celebrity or something to do
with the blurring of identity.
So Q1 comes in two styles:
The representation style:
2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B.
Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
SOCIAL
CULTURAL
HISTORICAL
POLITICAL
ECONOMIC?
HALL
GAUNTLETT
VAN ZOONEN
BELL HOOKS
BUTLER
GILROY
HALL ON REPRESENTATION
Introduction:
Hall points out that media representations use
stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,”
and implicated the audience in interpreting these
meanings by considering what is present, absent and
different.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about what the message
of the text is; in this essay you’re going to call
that the ‘preferred meaning.’
• With Hall, think about what stereotypes are being
constructed to support the preferred meaning.
• It is very likely they will choose two very
different ideological takes on the same story, so
HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG
Introduction:
Hall points out that media representations use
stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,”
and implicated the audience in interpreting these
meanings by considering what is present, absent and
different.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about what the message
of the text is; in this essay you’re going to call
that the ‘preferred meaning.’
• With Hall, think about what stereotypes are being
constructed to support the preferred meaning.
• It is very likely they will choose two very
different ideological takes on the same story, so
HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG
MESSAGING:
What is the messaging/preferred meaning?
The Guardian is a left wing/liberal publication, with
an affluent and progressive readership that favours
internationalist socio-political messaging. It is
constructing a stereotype of the migrants as
refugees, predominantly women and children, and
of the UK government as neglectful in their
responsibility to help them. The Daily Express is a
centre right/conservative publication, with favour
nationalist and exclusionary socio-political
messaging. It is attempting to construct a
stereotype of the migrants as predominantly male
and of the French authorities as uncaring and
derelict in their duty, while simultaneously
stereotyping Boris Johnson as heroic in his fight
against these forces.
HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG
IMAGE.
Who or what is present? Who or what is absent?
What is the preferred meaning?
Present on the Guardian cover is an image of a woman, centre frame,
carrying a child in one arm and dragging a child with her other hand. Her
facial expression highlights her discomfort creating an emotional
connection to the refugees. Conspicuously absent are the men that must
also be crossing (as seen in the Daily Mail image). This publications
attempts to fix a preferred meaning of the migrants as refugees focusing
on the distress of women and children. This challenges the narrative that
the Conservative government have created of the migrants as invaders.
Present on the Daily Express covers is a police truck in the background and
in the foreground a group of men carrying the boat to the shoreline. The
men have life jackets, which may be intended to make the danger seem
less apparent and it may also be intended to fix the preferred meaning of it
seeming almost like a military operation to create the fear in the readers
of the migrant ‘invasion.’ The French authorities watching on attempts to
construct the messaging that the French are to blame for the crossings. The
rough sea is absent, which further takes away from the idea that the
migrants are facing danger, and the long shot makes it very difficult to tell if
any of them are women, though the women on the Guardian cover does
seem to be pictured challenging the French police.
HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG
TO CONCLUDE.
By applying Hall, we can see that the Guardian is
constructing a representation of refugees as helpless
and downtrodden. They would argue that this is a
response to the institutional power of the Conservative
government that is trying to fix or naturalise a
stereotype of refugees as being like an invading force.
The Daily Express is precisely the opposite; it is
attempting the naturalise the stereotype of a well
organised, able bodied group of men, which reinforces
the 'preferred meaning' constructed in support of the
Conservative government, while simultaneously
naturalising anti-French sentiment.
GAUNTLETT ON REPRESENTATION (UNLIKELY)
Introduction:
Gauntlett theorised that media representations portray a wide
range of different and contradictory messages about
identity, and that gender and sexuality are now seen as
less fixed than they were in the past. He contends that
online media allows people to express and explore their
identities in creative ways.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the
text.
• With Gauntlett you are most likely to be asked about
social and/or cultural representation related to
identity, with gender probably the most likely area. You
may need to think about the ways that the messages across
the texts define identity in contradictory ways.
• Given that Gauntlett writes about online media, you may
VAN ZOONEN (FAIRLY LIKELY)
Introduction:
Van Zoonen theorised that women are often objectified in
media representations, while men are presented as
spectacle. She emphasises the importance of gender being
seen as socially and culturally constructed, meaning that
gender representation can vary depending on cultural and
historical contexts.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the
text.
• With Van Zoonen, you know you need to focus on gender
representation. Think about the ways that men and women
are presented differently. Think about the ways that the
texts may be challenging patriarchal cultural
expectations and ways they may be reinforcing them. Try
to link this to the ideological background of the
publication; for example, we would expect left wing
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
bell hooks (FAIRLY UNLIKELY)
Introduction:
hooks proposed that the role of feminism was to challenge
patriarchal representations, but her intersectional approach to
feminism draws attention to the importance of considering how
the interactions of identities results in oppression. She is
particularly interested in the way that race and gender
interact in the negative representation of black women, but we
can also extent to representation of sexuality, disability,
class etc.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the text.
• Using bell hooks will be very similar to the way you used Van
Zoonen. However, in addition to your focus on gender
representation you will need to consider other intersectional
identities. Think about the ways that the texts may be
challenging cultural expectations about the intersectional
group and the ways they may be reinforcing them. Try to link
this to the ideological background of the publication; for
BUTLER – GENDER PERFORMATIVITY
Introduction:
Butler argues that gender identity is not something we are
born with, it is something expressed through the
performance of gender roles. She argues that these roles
are constructed through learned behaviours and that ideas
about gender and sexual identity cannot be categorised
into binary systems.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the
text.
• Using Butler correctly is as difficult as Baudrillard, so
don’t do that. Instead, use her work a little like you
would Van Zoonen. Think about the ways that the texts may
be challenging or reinforcing social and cultural
expectations about gender and or sexuality. Try to link
this to the ideological background of the publication;
for example, we would expect left wing publications to be
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
GILROY POSTCOLONIAL THEORY
Introduction:
Gilroy coined the term ‘Black Atlantic’ which suggests that
the African diaspora that came as a result of the slave
trade has led to a blending of African, American, Caribbean,
and European cultures within ‘Black Culture.’ Her further
theorises that white western cultures suffer postcolonial
melancholia, which is characterised by assumptions of white
western superiority and a mistrust of multicultural
influences.
Instructions:
• As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the
text.
• With Gilroy, you will likely be asked to consider the
different ways that newspapers present a story that has
significant connection to race, ethnicity and Britain’s
colonial past. Try to link this to the socio-political
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx

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  • 1. MEDIA STUDIES PAPER 1: Media Messages Q1 and 2 (EXTRACT QUESTIONS)
  • 2. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
  • 3. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to write about the aspects of British society and culture that are being represented.
  • 4. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to write about the aspects of British society and culture that are being represented. Social Representations will likely include: Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost impossible to separate from culture)
  • 5. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to write about the aspects of British society and culture that are being represented. Social Representations will likely include: Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost impossible to separate from culture)
  • 6. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to write about the aspects of British society and culture that are being represented. Social Representations will likely include: Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost impossible to separate from culture)
  • 7. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to write about the aspects of British society and culture that are being represented. Social Representations will likely include: Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost impossible to separate from culture) So, we might discuss: • Representation of women in powerful roles. Countertypical? • Representation of class. May is upper middle class. • General elections are both social and cultural events in the UK. Value of democracy. • Press bias and freedom of the press are both socially and culturally important.
  • 8. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to write about the aspects of British society and culture that are being represented. Social Representations will likely include: Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost impossible to separate from culture)
  • 9. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. Social Representations will likely include: Gender representation (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of race, sexuality, age, class etc. (stereotypes/countertypes) Representation of social institutions, values or beliefs (NB: This is almost impossible to separate from culture)
  • 10. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these meanings by considering what is present, absent and different.
  • 11. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these meanings by considering what is present, absent and different.
  • 12. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look through the past papers for the past few years. 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. This question is asking you to apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these meanings by considering what is present, absent and different. So, we might point out: • The preferred meaning of the two different publications. • What is present in one and absent in the other. • The connection between what the different preferred meanings and the political bias of the audience.
  • 13. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look at a couple of examples from 2022. 2024: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
  • 14. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s look at a couple of examples from 2022. 2024: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer.
  • 15. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
  • 16. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
  • 17. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Significant ideas to do with political contexts might include: Left Wing vs Right Wing ideological positions and the political bias shown in newspapers. Political change in the UK (Change of prime minister, political scandal)
  • 18. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Significant ideas to do with political contexts might include: Left Wing vs Right Wing ideological positions and the political bias shown in newspapers. Political change in the UK (Change of prime minister, political scandal)
  • 19. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Significant ideas to do with political contexts might include: Left Wing vs Right Wing ideological positions and the political bias shown in newspapers. Political change in the UK (Change of prime minister, political scandal)
  • 20. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions.
  • 21. What will I be asked to do for Question 1? Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES
  • 22. Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES So, we might point out: • Conflict in the phrases ‘blazing row’ and ‘troubles, gaffes and in-fighting.’ • While six is not exactly half it is close, suggesting that they are split in half (binary opposed). • The image shows the group looking in different directions. • This may convey the political idea that new parties cannot survive without unity. It may also point to the
  • 23. Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES So, we might point out: • Heidi Allen’s twitter post seeks to avoid binary oppositions using words like ‘unequivocal’ and more explicitly ‘unambiguous’ which actively dismisses the idea of binary opposition. • Everything about the post points at unity, respect and support, from the use of the word support repeatedly, to the list of names at the end. • By avoiding the inherent conflict in binary
  • 24. Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES So, we might point out: • The twitter comments point out the binary opposition between positive and negative opinions, with invitations to join and criticisms apparent. • The underlying ideology seems to be that disunity and conflict cannot exist in a successful political movement and that the electorate is not impressed by such disunity.
  • 25. Let’s try another past paper example. 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. This question is asking you to write about significant elements of British politics that are featured in the text. Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT ONE OF THE TWO SOURCES So, we might point out: • The twitter comments point out the binary opposition between positive and negative opinions, with invitations to join and criticisms apparent. • The underlying ideology seems to be that disunity and conflict cannot exist in a successful political movement and that the electorate is not impressed by such disunity.
  • 26. So Q1 comes in two styles:
  • 27. So Q1 comes in two styles: The Media Language style: 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer.
  • 28. So Q1 comes in two styles: The Media Language style: 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. SOCIAL CULTURAL HISTORICAL POLITICAL ECONOMIC?
  • 29. So Q1 comes in two styles: The Media Language style: 2021: Analyse the media language used in Sources A and B in relation to the political contexts. Apply Levi-Strauss’ ideas of binary oppositions in your answer. SOCIAL CULTURAL HISTORICAL POLITICAL ECONOMIC? BARTHES LEVI-STRAUSS NEALE? TODOROV? BAUDRILLARD?
  • 30. BARTHES Introduction: Barthes theorised that meaning is created by signs through connotation, which naturalise and normalise myths that reflect dominant values and ideologies. Instructions: • Start by thinking about what the message of the text is. • Think about what ideology is linked with that. • Look for the connotations in the images, the headlines and the copy of the text that link with that ideology.
  • 32. LEVI-STRAUSS Introduction: Levi Strauss theorises that all narratives feature binary oppositions and that we can determine the ideological messaging in a text by examining the nature of the binary oppositions. Instructions: • Start by thinking about what the message of the text is. • Think about what ideology is linked with that. • This is very similar to Barthes, but instead of looking for the connotations exclusively, you are looking for the binary oppositions constructed by the signs in the images, the headlines and the copy of the text that link with that ideology.
  • 34. Image Literally opposite Young vs Old Traditional vs Progress Duty vs Self Unity vs Division Anchoring Text Speaking Out vs Speech - Reinforces opposition Banner Headline Reads almost like a proclamation – “everything” Sub-headline “real” vs fake Stand First “powerful” “dedication” Sub-headline 2? “bombshell” Semantic field of warfare Teasers Nazanin: freedom vs imprisonment Beat Diabetes – health vs disease
  • 35. The two images are positioned to encode the binary opposition between the Queen (symbolic of age, duty, traditionalism, unity) and Meghan Markle (youth, selfishness, progressivism, disunity). While there is no explicit condemnation of Markle, the choice of facial expression connotes smugness, while the Queen’s is open and friendly. Also, the Mail have chosen a shot of Markle in which her eyeline seems to be looking at the Queen, while the Queen uses direct mode of address, connecting with the audience. The anchoring text further connotes the binary opposition between them: ‘Speaking Out’ encoding a distasteful desire to speak publicly about private issues, while the Queen is making a dutiful speech in her role as monarch. The socio-cultural representation will appeal the Mail’s right-wing readership as it reinforces the myth of patriotism that is part of middle English culture. The language of the banner headline, sub-headlines and standfirst also reinforces the binary opposition between the two figures, but in a more implicit way. The banner proclaims that “duty is everything,” and goes on to say that this is “real service.” The binary opposition has already been established through the images and layout, so the connotation here is that the queen is genuine, while Markle is fake. In the central column, while the binary opposition is not explicit, the semantic field of warfare is used in the term “bombshell”, further reinforcing the idea of symbolic opposition. Given that the paper has encoded a socio-cultural representation of the Queen as dutiful, dedicated and “real” the binary opposite is encoded as being true of Markle.
  • 36. TODOROV (UNLIKELY) Introduction: Todorov theorises that, narratives begin in equilibrium face disruption to form disequilibrium and then resolve into a new equilibrium. By examining what the narrative views as every day life (equilibrium) we can see what the text sees as social norms, and by looking at the way at the way that equilibrium is restored we can see what the text values and its ideological position. Instructions: • Start by thinking about what the message of the text is. • Think about what ideology is linked with that. • Look for the underlying narrative that is suggested by the images, the headlines and the copy of the text. The story is likely to be in a state of disequilibrium, so think about what has been disrupted (social norm) and what would need to happen to repair it (what the text
  • 37. NEALE (VERY UNLIKELY) Introduction: Neale theorises that genres depends on the repetition of codes and conventions and that they evolve due to the balance between the need for difference and repetition. He explains that generic codes are also established beyond media products themselves through sources such as reviews and marketing. Instructions: • Start by thinking about what the message of the text is. • Think about how the codes and conventions of the text are being used and broken in order to convey the message. • NB: IT IS VERY UNLIKELY THAT YOU WILL BE ASKED
  • 38. BAUDRILLARD (INCREDIBLY UNLIKELY) Introduction: Baurdrillard theorises that the saturation of signs has lead to a state of hyperreality in which representations are now copies without originals (simulacra). In this state of hyperreality, ideas about identity (such as gender and sexuality) become blurred. Instructions: • Start by thinking about what the message of the text is. • If Baudrillard is named, it is most likely that it will be about celebrity or something to do with the blurring of identity.
  • 39. So Q1 comes in two styles: The representation style: 2019: Analyse the different social and cultural representations in Sources A and B. Apply Hall’s theory of representation in your answer. SOCIAL CULTURAL HISTORICAL POLITICAL ECONOMIC? HALL GAUNTLETT VAN ZOONEN BELL HOOKS BUTLER GILROY
  • 40. HALL ON REPRESENTATION Introduction: Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these meanings by considering what is present, absent and different. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about what the message of the text is; in this essay you’re going to call that the ‘preferred meaning.’ • With Hall, think about what stereotypes are being constructed to support the preferred meaning. • It is very likely they will choose two very different ideological takes on the same story, so
  • 41. HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG Introduction: Hall points out that media representations use stereotypes in order to fix a “preferred meaning,” and implicated the audience in interpreting these meanings by considering what is present, absent and different. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about what the message of the text is; in this essay you’re going to call that the ‘preferred meaning.’ • With Hall, think about what stereotypes are being constructed to support the preferred meaning. • It is very likely they will choose two very different ideological takes on the same story, so
  • 42. HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG MESSAGING: What is the messaging/preferred meaning? The Guardian is a left wing/liberal publication, with an affluent and progressive readership that favours internationalist socio-political messaging. It is constructing a stereotype of the migrants as refugees, predominantly women and children, and of the UK government as neglectful in their responsibility to help them. The Daily Express is a centre right/conservative publication, with favour nationalist and exclusionary socio-political messaging. It is attempting to construct a stereotype of the migrants as predominantly male and of the French authorities as uncaring and derelict in their duty, while simultaneously stereotyping Boris Johnson as heroic in his fight against these forces.
  • 43. HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG IMAGE. Who or what is present? Who or what is absent? What is the preferred meaning? Present on the Guardian cover is an image of a woman, centre frame, carrying a child in one arm and dragging a child with her other hand. Her facial expression highlights her discomfort creating an emotional connection to the refugees. Conspicuously absent are the men that must also be crossing (as seen in the Daily Mail image). This publications attempts to fix a preferred meaning of the migrants as refugees focusing on the distress of women and children. This challenges the narrative that the Conservative government have created of the migrants as invaders. Present on the Daily Express covers is a police truck in the background and in the foreground a group of men carrying the boat to the shoreline. The men have life jackets, which may be intended to make the danger seem less apparent and it may also be intended to fix the preferred meaning of it seeming almost like a military operation to create the fear in the readers of the migrant ‘invasion.’ The French authorities watching on attempts to construct the messaging that the French are to blame for the crossings. The rough sea is absent, which further takes away from the idea that the migrants are facing danger, and the long shot makes it very difficult to tell if any of them are women, though the women on the Guardian cover does seem to be pictured challenging the French police.
  • 44. HALL ON REPRESENTATION – SEE BLOG TO CONCLUDE. By applying Hall, we can see that the Guardian is constructing a representation of refugees as helpless and downtrodden. They would argue that this is a response to the institutional power of the Conservative government that is trying to fix or naturalise a stereotype of refugees as being like an invading force. The Daily Express is precisely the opposite; it is attempting the naturalise the stereotype of a well organised, able bodied group of men, which reinforces the 'preferred meaning' constructed in support of the Conservative government, while simultaneously naturalising anti-French sentiment.
  • 45. GAUNTLETT ON REPRESENTATION (UNLIKELY) Introduction: Gauntlett theorised that media representations portray a wide range of different and contradictory messages about identity, and that gender and sexuality are now seen as less fixed than they were in the past. He contends that online media allows people to express and explore their identities in creative ways. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the text. • With Gauntlett you are most likely to be asked about social and/or cultural representation related to identity, with gender probably the most likely area. You may need to think about the ways that the messages across the texts define identity in contradictory ways. • Given that Gauntlett writes about online media, you may
  • 46. VAN ZOONEN (FAIRLY LIKELY) Introduction: Van Zoonen theorised that women are often objectified in media representations, while men are presented as spectacle. She emphasises the importance of gender being seen as socially and culturally constructed, meaning that gender representation can vary depending on cultural and historical contexts. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the text. • With Van Zoonen, you know you need to focus on gender representation. Think about the ways that men and women are presented differently. Think about the ways that the texts may be challenging patriarchal cultural expectations and ways they may be reinforcing them. Try to link this to the ideological background of the publication; for example, we would expect left wing
  • 48. bell hooks (FAIRLY UNLIKELY) Introduction: hooks proposed that the role of feminism was to challenge patriarchal representations, but her intersectional approach to feminism draws attention to the importance of considering how the interactions of identities results in oppression. She is particularly interested in the way that race and gender interact in the negative representation of black women, but we can also extent to representation of sexuality, disability, class etc. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the text. • Using bell hooks will be very similar to the way you used Van Zoonen. However, in addition to your focus on gender representation you will need to consider other intersectional identities. Think about the ways that the texts may be challenging cultural expectations about the intersectional group and the ways they may be reinforcing them. Try to link this to the ideological background of the publication; for
  • 49. BUTLER – GENDER PERFORMATIVITY Introduction: Butler argues that gender identity is not something we are born with, it is something expressed through the performance of gender roles. She argues that these roles are constructed through learned behaviours and that ideas about gender and sexual identity cannot be categorised into binary systems. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the text. • Using Butler correctly is as difficult as Baudrillard, so don’t do that. Instead, use her work a little like you would Van Zoonen. Think about the ways that the texts may be challenging or reinforcing social and cultural expectations about gender and or sexuality. Try to link this to the ideological background of the publication; for example, we would expect left wing publications to be
  • 52. GILROY POSTCOLONIAL THEORY Introduction: Gilroy coined the term ‘Black Atlantic’ which suggests that the African diaspora that came as a result of the slave trade has led to a blending of African, American, Caribbean, and European cultures within ‘Black Culture.’ Her further theorises that white western cultures suffer postcolonial melancholia, which is characterised by assumptions of white western superiority and a mistrust of multicultural influences. Instructions: • As always, start by thinking about the messaging of the text. • With Gilroy, you will likely be asked to consider the different ways that newspapers present a story that has significant connection to race, ethnicity and Britain’s colonial past. Try to link this to the socio-political