World Englishes Final


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World Englishes Final

  1. 1. World Englishes APPROACHES, ISSUES, AND RESOURCES Braj B. Kachru – University of Illinois Kanlapan, Mela & Velasco, Joseph
  2. 2. World Englishes <ul><li>We can no longer simply view English as a worldwide lingua franca; rather, as many nonnative varieties of English become standardized. </li></ul>Braj B. Kachru University of Illinois
  3. 3. Conferences that moved the concept of World Englishes <ul><li>East-West Culture Learning Institute (currently the Institute for Culture and Communication) of the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larry E. Smith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linguistics Institute of the Linguistic Society of America, hosted by the University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Braj Kachru </li></ul></ul>Participants from Bangladesh, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, India, the Philippines, New Zealand, Great Britain and Germany.
  4. 4. Results of the Honolulu Conference <ul><li>Teaching of English should be reflected in all cases of sociocultural contexts and the educational policies of the countries concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>No organization exist that takes account of any language in the light of this fundamental distinction </li></ul><ul><li>It is not for us to define the policies to be adopted, but the conference identified a number of fundamental issues. These issues can be considered under four headings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Basic research, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Applied research, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) Documentation, dissemination, and liaison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(d) Professional support activities </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Why use the term Englishes? <ul><li>The term symbolizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional & formal variations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divergent sociolinguistic context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges and varieties of English in Creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various type of acculturization in parts of the Western and non-Western world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes “WE-ness”, and not the dichotomy between us and them (the native and non-native speakers) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Spread and Stratification of English <ul><li>Functionally uninsightful & linguistically questionable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when discussing the functions of English in multilingual societies </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Spread and Stratification of English <ul><li>This earlier distinction has come under attack </li></ul><ul><li>Quirk rejects this terminological triad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I doubt its validity and frequently fail to understand its meaning.” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Kachru’s Concentric Circles of English
  9. 9. Kachru’s Concentric Circles of English <ul><li>Inner Circle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the traditional bases of English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by the “mother-tongue” varieties of the language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outer Circle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English has been institutionalized as an additional language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanding Circle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the rest of the world where English is used as the primary foreign language. </li></ul></ul>Expanding Circle Inner Circle Outer Circle
  10. 10. Characteristics of the Stratification <ul><li>The study of the spread and stratification of English in the non-Western world is a post-1960 phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence of the theoretical and methodological insights gained by what are termed “socially realistic linguistic” approaches to language study </li></ul><ul><li>The exponents of stratification in the Outer Circle have been interpreted in two ways: as a lectal range and as a cline in English bilingualism </li></ul>
  11. 11. Interactional Contexts of World Englishes <ul><li>The shift of the focus on to the functions of English in various types of interactional contexts , both in the Inner and Outer Circles. </li></ul><ul><li>The study and analysis of English in interactional contexts has resulted in the studies such as the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech acts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code-mixing </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Descriptive and Prescriptive Concerns <ul><li>Sacred cows of theoretical and applied linguistics are under aggression as an outcome of two major development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the impact of description, analysis, methodology, and relevance shown in sociolinguistic models, and the research initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ideas provided by scholars from the outer circle </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Bilingual’s Creativity and Literary Canon <ul><li>Bilingual Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Those creative linguistic processes which are the result of competence in two or more languages.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used for acquisitional inadequacies in a language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the designing of a text which uses linguistic resources from two or more related or unrelated languages </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Contact Literatures in English <ul><li>Result of the contact of English with other languages in multilingual and multicultural context like in the case of Africa and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The contact varieties, as time passes, acquire stable characteristics in their pronunciation, syntax, vocabulary and discoursal and style strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term contact results in Nativisation and Acculturation. </li></ul><ul><li>Nativisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the process which creates a localized linguistic identity of a variety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives English distinct and local cultural identities. </li></ul></ul>Such writing can be found in South Asia, West Africa, the Philippines and Southeast Asia.
  15. 15. Three facts on the Bilingual’s Creativity in English <ul><li>The institutionalized nonnative varieties have an educated variety and a cline of sub-varieties. </li></ul><ul><li>Writers in contact literature in English engage in lectal mixing </li></ul><ul><li>In such writing, there are style-shifts which are related to the underlying sociolinguistic and cultural context </li></ul>The result of such style-shifts, appropriate to non-Western contexts, is new discourse strategies, use di stinctly different speech acts, and development of new registers in English
  16. 16. Issue’s on the Bilingual’s Creativity in English <ul><li>Question of language deficiency vs. difference </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of Innovations used for stylistic effect as “foregrounding” </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of various text types – code mixed or noncode mixed – which are internationally meant for bilingual readers who share the bilingual’s linguistic repertoire and cultural and literary canon. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing functional appropriateness of lacalized sublanguages and registers </li></ul><ul><li>Providing contrastive typologies of linguistic and cultural conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Describing the formal and functional characteristics of bilingual’s language mixing and switching </li></ul>
  17. 17. Multicanons of English <ul><li>The results of this extensive use of English over a long period has resulted in multicanons of English and a “shift of the canon” </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Two Faces of English: Nativisation and Englishisation <ul><li>Two processes have developed, as it were, two faces of English. </li></ul><ul><li>One showing what the contact has formally done to various varieties of English. </li></ul><ul><li>The other showing what impact the English language and literature have had on other languages of the world </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Two Faces of English: Nativisation and Englishisation <ul><li>Nativisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabularies of the world have been most receptive to borrowing from English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example is the Japanese language wherein 81% of the borrowed vocabulary Japanese are words of English origin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Englishisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Thai, passivisation has traditionally been used with adversative connotation (the use of thuuk). This semantic constraint is not changing due to the influence of English. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fallacies Concerning Users and Uses
  21. 21. The Power and Politics of English <ul><li>A number of recent studies address issues related to the ideological, cultural and elitist power of English </li></ul><ul><li>Related to such power is the immense economic advantage of English to the countries in the Inner Circle, particularly Britain and the United States . </li></ul><ul><li>“ The world wide market for EFL training is worth a massive ₤6.5 billion a year according to a new report from the Economic Intelligence Unit” (EFL Gazette. March, 1989). </li></ul><ul><li>The very existence of their power thus provides the Inner Circle with incentives for devising ways to maintain attitudinal and formal control. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Teaching World Englishes
  23. 23. Why teach World Englishes? <ul><li>It is obvious that World Englishes provide a challenging opportunity to relate three academic areas– language, literature, and methodology . </li></ul><ul><li>The approach to World Englishes has to be cross-cultural and cross-linguistic. </li></ul><ul><li>The sources involve diverse cultures, languages, and literatures in contact with English. </li></ul><ul><li>One has to have interdisciplinary perspectives focusing on the linguistic face of World Englishes. </li></ul>
  24. 24. What Motivates the Paradigm Shift?
  25. 25. What are the Resources for Teaching? <ul><li>In the 1970’s, this question would have been difficult to answer. One would have had to depend primarily on papers from journals and selected notes. </li></ul><ul><li>However, as Gorlach (1991) rightly observes, “the books published in 1982-84 make up a particularly impressive list: It is no exaggeration to say that the following ten books more or less suffice to teach a full academic course on the topic.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusion