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Convergence, Connections and Social Media  brief notes for a brave new world   Sofia Gkiousou Presenting to EBSP – 2010 – Spring Term Birkbeck, University of London
Intro: Story of a moment in time   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intro: Story of a remix   Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
Rewind: Technology & Control  The new tech  Smaller, faster, better?  The cult of the amateur  This is not a new process. Remember video cameras? Amateur vs. professional  And the infinite stages in-between  The time of control  Amateur captured events – Professionally determined content. Editorial control.  The time of freedom? Independent, local, globalised, individualised.  The time of convergence? The constant feedback loops between amateurs & professionals.  Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
Convergence  Technology  Smaller, faster, better? Ownership Concentration vs. dispersion   Convergence as a process  From the global to the local and vice-versa. From the determined by the ‘other’ to the appropriated and remixed. Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
Social Networks & the ‘who’ are you  Durkheim’s anomie  Traditional relationships are dissolved – loss of social integration Granovetter’s ties  Strong and weak ties  Open and closed networks  Goffman’s performativity  Playing out roles Roles our self-validated and self-policed. Rules emerge.  Foucault’s discipline theory  The Panopticon The Internalised Panopticon  Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
All hail the webz  Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
The Hive  Levy’s collective intelligence  Large-scale information gathering and processing activities that have emerged in web communities.  Harnessing individual expertise towards shared goals & objectives.  ‘ No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity’ (P. Levy, 1997)  Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
Digital Culture  PARTICIPATION Professional AND amateur  Open source AND copyrighted  Feedback loops AND passive audiences  REMEDIATION  Bolter and Grusin (1999): every new medium  diverges  from yet also  reproduces  older media, whereas old media refashion themselves to answer the challenges of new media.  How do you attribute value? BRICOLAGE Borrowing, hybridity, mixture, plagiarism.  The never ending draft.  Baudrillard’s “second-hand truth, objectivity and authenticity” Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
All quiet on the Internet front?  CONTROL Who watches who?  COPYRIGHT  What belongs to whom? PRIVACY  Are you in charge?   Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
Are you (really) in charge?  via Gizmodo:  http://gizmodo.com/5470696/fck-you-google
What does your online life say about you?  Is it my profile? Is it my network? Is it the sum of my online endeavours? Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
And what do you do? You catch the flu. Viral : Spreads similarly to a virus from host to host Marketing technique which uses a pre-existing social network to increase brand awareness. The process is self- replicating, reminiscent of the spread of computer or pathological viruses.  Viral marketing works well with the Long Tail model Can you really control a viral campaign? Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
How do you research connections & online life? Three models “ filter model” of CMC  (Sproull & Kiesler, 1985)  Technological or engineering features of e-mail and other forms of computer-based communications. “ social science” perspective of the Internet  (Spears et al. 2002)  Assumes instead that personal goals and needs are the sole determinant of the Internet’s effects.  Interactions – goals – social context  ( Bargh 2002, McKenna & Bargh 2000, Spears et al. 2002)  Focusing on the interaction between features of the Internet communication setting and the particular goals and needs of the communicators, as well as the social context of the interaction setting  Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
The things I want to know IDENTITY  How do you construct it? How do you perform it?  POWER  Who has it? Who is the influential user? Who ROCKS? TRUST  Vague? Or the savvier you get the more specific it becomes?   CREATIVITY  From viewing to sharing to creating? LEARNING   Amazing games, serious learning  Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
Suggested Bibliography  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org

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Convergence, Connections and Social Media

  • 1. Convergence, Connections and Social Media brief notes for a brave new world Sofia Gkiousou Presenting to EBSP – 2010 – Spring Term Birkbeck, University of London
  • 2.
  • 3. Intro: Story of a remix Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 4. Rewind: Technology & Control The new tech Smaller, faster, better? The cult of the amateur This is not a new process. Remember video cameras? Amateur vs. professional And the infinite stages in-between The time of control Amateur captured events – Professionally determined content. Editorial control. The time of freedom? Independent, local, globalised, individualised. The time of convergence? The constant feedback loops between amateurs & professionals. Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 5. Convergence Technology Smaller, faster, better? Ownership Concentration vs. dispersion Convergence as a process From the global to the local and vice-versa. From the determined by the ‘other’ to the appropriated and remixed. Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 6. Social Networks & the ‘who’ are you Durkheim’s anomie Traditional relationships are dissolved – loss of social integration Granovetter’s ties Strong and weak ties Open and closed networks Goffman’s performativity Playing out roles Roles our self-validated and self-policed. Rules emerge. Foucault’s discipline theory The Panopticon The Internalised Panopticon Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 7. All hail the webz Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 8. The Hive Levy’s collective intelligence Large-scale information gathering and processing activities that have emerged in web communities. Harnessing individual expertise towards shared goals & objectives. ‘ No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity’ (P. Levy, 1997) Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 9. Digital Culture PARTICIPATION Professional AND amateur Open source AND copyrighted Feedback loops AND passive audiences REMEDIATION Bolter and Grusin (1999): every new medium diverges from yet also reproduces older media, whereas old media refashion themselves to answer the challenges of new media. How do you attribute value? BRICOLAGE Borrowing, hybridity, mixture, plagiarism. The never ending draft. Baudrillard’s “second-hand truth, objectivity and authenticity” Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 10. All quiet on the Internet front? CONTROL Who watches who? COPYRIGHT What belongs to whom? PRIVACY Are you in charge? Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 11. Are you (really) in charge? via Gizmodo: http://gizmodo.com/5470696/fck-you-google
  • 12. What does your online life say about you? Is it my profile? Is it my network? Is it the sum of my online endeavours? Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 13. And what do you do? You catch the flu. Viral : Spreads similarly to a virus from host to host Marketing technique which uses a pre-existing social network to increase brand awareness. The process is self- replicating, reminiscent of the spread of computer or pathological viruses. Viral marketing works well with the Long Tail model Can you really control a viral campaign? Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 14. How do you research connections & online life? Three models “ filter model” of CMC (Sproull & Kiesler, 1985) Technological or engineering features of e-mail and other forms of computer-based communications. “ social science” perspective of the Internet (Spears et al. 2002) Assumes instead that personal goals and needs are the sole determinant of the Internet’s effects. Interactions – goals – social context ( Bargh 2002, McKenna & Bargh 2000, Spears et al. 2002) Focusing on the interaction between features of the Internet communication setting and the particular goals and needs of the communicators, as well as the social context of the interaction setting Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 15. The things I want to know IDENTITY How do you construct it? How do you perform it? POWER Who has it? Who is the influential user? Who ROCKS? TRUST Vague? Or the savvier you get the more specific it becomes? CREATIVITY From viewing to sharing to creating? LEARNING Amazing games, serious learning Sofia Gkiousou www.digital-era.org
  • 16.

Editor's Notes

  1. Photograph : everyone knows everyone from flickr Uploaded by  eskimoblood  on flickr 14 Dec 07, 10.39PM GMT. http://www.flickr.com/photos/eskimoblood/2111672366/ Side Photograph: (detail from) Crowd Uploaded on Flickr by  davidChief  on 28 Feb 07, 8.20AM GMT. (from the Stop the War protests in London) http://www.flickr.com/photos/davidchief/405506361/
  2. Side Photograph: (detail from) Crowd Uploaded on Flickr by  davidChief  on 28 Feb 07, 8.20AM GMT. (from the Stop the War protests in London) http://www.flickr.com/photos/davidchief/405506361/ Manipulation author’s own (remix culture)
  3. Side Photograph: (detail from) Crowd Uploaded on Flickr by  davidChief  on 28 Feb 07, 8.20AM GMT. (from the Stop the War protests in London) http://www.flickr.com/photos/davidchief/405506361/ Manipulation author’s own (remix culture)
  4. For full post see http://gizmodo.com/5470696/fck-you-google
  5. Term attributed to Jeffrey F. Rayport (Harvard) and popularized by Draper & Jurvetson.
  6. Models on the effects of the internet on interpersonal interaction: (p. 577 – 578) Sproull & Kiesler’s (1985) “filter model” of CMC which focuses on the technological or engineering features of e-mail and other forms of computer-based communications. According to this perspective, CMC limits the “bandwidth” of social communication, compared to traditional face-to-face communication settings (…)the reduction of available social cues resulting in a greater sense or feeling of anonymity. Spears et al. (2002) contrasted the engineering model with the “social science” perspective on the Internet assumes instead that personal goals and needs are the sole determinant of its effects. According to this viewpoint, the particular purposes of the individuals within the communication setting determine the outcome of the interaction, regardless of the particular features of the communication channel in which the interaction takes place The third and most recent approach has been to focus on the interaction between features of the Internet communication setting and the particular goals and needs of the communicators, as well as the social context of the interaction setting (see Bargh 2002, McKenna & Bargh 2000, Spears et al. 2002). According to this perspective, the special qualities of Internet social interaction do have an impact on the interaction and its outcomes, but this effect can be quite different depending on the social context As quoted in: Bargh, John A; McKenna, Katelyn Y. A. (2004) THE INTERNET AND SOCIAL LIFE, Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2004. 55:573–90 Mentions: Sproull L, Kiesler S. 1985. Reducing social context cues: electronic mail in organizational communication. Manag. Sci. 11:1492–512 Spears R, Postmes T, Lea M, Wolbert A. 2002. When are net effects gross products? The power of influence and the influence of power in computer-mediated communication. J. Soc. Issues 58(1):91–107 Bargh JA. 2002. Beyond simple truths: the human-Internet interaction. J. Soc. Issues 58(1):1–8 McKenna KYA, Bargh JA. 2000. Plan 9 from cyberspace: the implications of the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 4:57–75