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NOTES ON
ENERGY CONSERVATION AND
MANAGEMENT
Energy conservation
Energy conservation – Definition
Principle of energy conservation
 Maximum Thermodynamic efficiency
 Maximum Cost effectiveness in energy use
Energy conservation steps
 Study the complete process
 Identify where the maximum energy is utilized
 Modification / Replacement of the equipment
 Cost estimation
 Pay back period
Energy conservation
Energy conservation methods
Optimum utilization of heat and power
 Waste heat recovery
 Combined heat and power
Waste Heat Recovery
 Waste heat recovery
Types: Three temperature ranges are used to classify waste heat.
 The high temperature range - above 1200F
 The medium temperature range - between 450F and 1200F
 The low temperature range - below 450F
 Sources of waste heat
High temperature waste heat - Aluminum refining furnace, Cement
kiln,
Solid waste Incinerators
Medium temperature waste heat - Steam boiler exhausts, Gas turbine
Exhausts, Heating furnaces
Low temperature waste heat - Cooling water from Internal
combustion
engines, Process steam condensate
APPLICATION OF WASTE HEAT FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
Case Study:
Diesel engine Thermal efficiency = 40%
Available Waste Heat = 60%
Diesel car has an Air, Fuel ratio = 1 : 15
Mass of Exhaust gas leaving from the engine = 16 kg/kg of
fuel
Engine exhaust gas temperature = 600 C
Specific heat of flue gas = 0.25 kcal / kg K
Quantity of heat available if we reduce the flue gas
temperature 600 to 300 C
Q = m Cp (T2-T1)
= 1200 kcal
Quantity of heat required making the water into steam
(Sensible heat + Latent heat) = 594.5 kcal / kg
 We are able to get 2 lit of distilled water for every liter of
Diesel
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER
Combined Heat and Power, or CHP is the simultaneous generation of usable heat
and power in a single process. In other words, it utilizes the heat produced in
electricity generation rather than releasing it wastefully into the atmosphere.
 Generate electricity and useful thermal
energy in a single, integrated system
 CHP could cut energy costs by 40 percent,
 Reduce pollution and greenhouse gas
emissions by 50 percent,
 Increase energy efficiency by 20 percent,
 Pay for itself in less than five years
Comparison of CHP
and SHP
Case study:1
Conserve energy
Case Study:2
Environmental Benefits
Conserve energy
Conserve energy
Conserve energy
Conserve energy
Conserve energy
Conserve energy
Conserve energy
4.1.f. Application of Renewable energy systems for Energy Conservation:
Case Study 1: Solar water heater for fuel savings
1% fuel can be saved for every 6C rise in temperature of boiler feed water
100 LPD (Liters Per Day) Solar water heater can rise the temperature from 32 C
to 62C (ΔT = 30C) cost around Rs. 18,000/-
5% fuel saving can be achieved with the help of solar water heater
100 MW thermal power plant requires 60 tons/hr of coal
5% of fuel saving is 3 tons/ hr so, Rs. 9000 /hr
8000 hrs working day per year savings Rs. 7,20,00,000/-
100 MW thermal power plant requires 10 tons / hr (2,40,000 lt / hr) of feed water
So, 2400 Nos. of 100 LPD Solar water heater is needed for 100 MW thermal
power plant which can rise the boiler feed water by 62 C
Initial investment for 2400 nos. solar water heater is Rs. 4,32,00,000/-
Payout time less than one year
Life of the solar water heater is 10 years
This energy conservation method could be thought of wherever there is a
demand for process heat
Case Study2: Solar Photovoltaic panel for stand-alone power generation
Electricity consumption in house per day
Fridge continuously operating in a day = 1 Unit
Fan (75Watts) 10 hours working per day = 750 Watts.
TV (80 Watts) 6 hours working per day = 480 Watts.
Mixi (550 Watts) 10 min working per day = 92 Watts.
Grinder (60Watts) 45 min working per day = 45 Watts.
Tube light 4 Nos. (160 Watts) 4 hours working per day = 640 Watts.
Pump (1HP = 735 Watts) 10 min working per day = 123 Watts.
Iron Box (750 Watts) 15 min working per day = 188 Watts.
Total consumption per day = 3.4 Units ≈ 4 Units
Assume that 80 W peak panel gives out 60 W peak as average output.
Number of panels required = 11
Working hours per day = 6
Number of working days per year = 300
Electricity produced per day = 11X60X6 = 3960 Watts.≈ 4 Units
Initial Investment
PV Panel Cost = 200 Rs./Watt
MNES Subsidy = 125 Rs./Watt
Customer has to pay 75 Rs./Watt
Cost = 80X75X11 = Rs.66,000
Battery Cost = 5X5000 = Rs.25,000
Inverter Cost = Rs.6,500
Installation Charges = Rs. 3500
Maintenance Cost = 5X2500X5 = Rs.62500
Total Cost = Rs.1,63,500
Pay back period = 15.8 Years
Years
Cost per Unit
Rs.
Electricity saved
Units
Cost Saved
Rs.
CO2 Prevented
m3 (40%
transmission
losses)
0-3 3 3600 10,800
561 (3.2 Tons)
3 – 6 4.5 7200 27,000
1122 (6.4 Tons)
6 - 9 6.75 10800 51,300
1683 (9.6 Tons)
9 - 12 10.12 14400 87,732
2244 (12.8 Tons)
12 - 15 15.18 18000 1,42,380
2805 (16 Tons)
15-18 22.78 21600 2,24,388
3366 (19.2 Tons)
18 - 21 34.17 25200 3,47,400
3927 (22.4 Tons)
21 - 24 51.25 28800 5,31,900
4488 (25.6 Tons)
24 - 27 76.87 32400 8,08,632
5049 (28.8 Tons)
27 - 30 115.3 36000 12,23,712
5610 (32 Tons)
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
AND PAY BACK PERIODS
Pay back periods 15.8 years
ENERGY CONSERVATION
 Increase the over all efficiency
 Reduce the pollution to the environment
 Minimize the energy consumption
 Maximum Cost effectiveness in energy use
 Optimum use of hest and power
2.Boilers and Energy conservation
Boiler Details
• Boiler Types, Combustion in boilers
• Performances evaluation of boilers, Analysis of losses
• Feed water treatment, Blow down
• Energy conservation opportunities.
Introduction to Boiler
• Enclosed Pressure Vessel
• Heat generated by
Combustion of Fuel is
transferred to water to
become steam
• Process: Evaporation
• Steam volume increases to
1,600 times from water and
produces tremendous force
• Boiler to be extremely
dangerous equipment. Care
is must to avoid explosion. What is a boiler?
What are the various heating surfaces in a boiler?
Heating surface is expressed in square feet or in square
meter
Classified into :
1 Radiant Heating Surfaces — (direct or primary)
including all water-backed surfaces that are directly exposed to
the radiant heat of the combustion flame.
2 Convected Heating Surfaces — ( indirect or secondary)
including all those water-backed surfaces exposed only to hot
combustion gases.
3 Extended Heating Surfaces — referring to the surface of
economizers and superheaters used in certain types of
watertube boilers.
Fuels used in Boiler
S.
No
Solid Liquid Gaseous AgroWaste
1 Coal HSD NGas Baggase
2 Lignite LDO Bio Gas Pith
3 Fur.Oil Rice Husk
4 LSHS Paddy
5 Coconut shell
6 Groundnutshell
Indian Boiler Regulation
IBR Steam Pipe means any
pipe through which steam
passes from a boiler to a
prime mover or other user
or both, if pressure at
which steam passes
through such pipes
exceeds 3.5 kg/cm2 above
atmospheric pressure or
such pipe exceeds 254 mm
in internal diameter and
includes in either case any
connected fitting of a
steam pipe.
IBR Steam Boilers means any
closed vessel exceeding 22.75
liters in capacity and which is
used expressively for
generating steam under
pressure and includes any
mounting or other fitting
attached to such vessel, which
is wholly, or partly under
pressure when the steam is
shut off.
As per section 28 & 29 of the
Indian Boilers Act.
Typical Boiler Specification
Boiler Make & Year :XYZ & 2003
MCR :10TPH (F & A 100oC)
(Maximum Continuous Rating)
Rated Working Pressure:10.54 kg/cm2(g)
Type of Boiler : 3 Pass, Fire tube,packaged
Fuel Fired : Fuel Oil
Total Heating Surface : 310 M2
Boiler Systems
Flue gas system
Water treatment system
Feed water system
Steam System
Blow down system
Fuel supply system
Air Supply system
Boiler Types and Classifications
• Fire in tube or Hot gas through tubes
and boiler feed water in shell side
• Fire Tubes submerged in water
Application
• Used for small steam capacities
( up to 12000 kg/hr and 17.5kg/cm2
Merits
• Low Capital Cost and fuel
Efficient (82%)
• Accepts wide & load
fluctuations
• Steam pressure variation is
less (Large volume of water)
• Packaged Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler
Boiler Types and Classifications
• Water flow through tubes
• Water Tubes surrounded by
hot gas
Application
• Used for Power Plants
• Steam capacities range from
4.5- 120 t/hr
Characteristics
• High Capital Cost
• Used for high pressure high
capacity steam boiler
• Demands more controls
• Calls for very stringent water
quality
Water Tube Boiler
Packaged Boiler
• Package boilers are generally
of shell type with fire tube
design
• High heat release rate in small
combustion space
 More number of passes-so
more heat transfer
 Large number of small
diameter tubes leading to
good convective heat transfer.
 Higher thermal efficiency
Chain Grate or Traveling Grate Stoker Boiler
 Coal is fed on one end of a moving
steel chain grate
 Coal burns and ash drops off at
end
 Coal grate controls rate of coal
feed into furnace by controlling
the thickness of the fuel bed.
 Coal must be uniform in size as
large lumps will not burn out completely
 Bed thickness decreases from coal
feed end to rear end and so more
air at front and less air at rear end
to be supplied
 Water tube boiler
Spreader Stoker Boiler
 Uses both suspension and
grate burning
 Coal fed continuously over
burning coal bed
 Coal fines burn in
suspension and larger coal
pieces burn on grate
 Good flexibility to meet
changing load
requirements
 Preferred over other type
of stokers in industrial
application
Pulverized Fuel Boiler
Tangential firing
Coal is pulverised to a fine powder, so that less than 2% is +300
microns, and 70-75% is below 75 microns.
Coal is blown with part of the combustion air into the boiler plant
through a series of burner nozzles.
• Combustion takes place at
temperatures from 1300-1700°C
• Particle residence time in the
boiler is typically 2-5 seconds
• One of the most popular system
for firing pulverized coal is the
tangential firing using four burners
corner to corner to create a fire
ball at the center of the furnace.
See Figure
Thermal power Station Boiler
•90% of coal-fired power boiler in the world is Pulverized type
Conserve energy
Advantages
• Its ability to burn all ranks of coal from anthracitic
to lignite, and it permits combination firing (i.e.,
can use coal, oil and gas in same burner). Because
of these advantages, there is widespread use of
pulverized coal furnaces.
Disadvantages
• High power demand for pulverizing
• Requires more maintenance, flyash erosion and
pollution complicate unit operation
Pulverized Fuel Boiler (Contd..)
Fluidized bed Combustion (FBC) boiler
Further, increase in velocity
gives rise to bubble formation,
vigorous turbulence and rapid
mixing and the bed is said to be
fluidized.
Coal is fed continuously in to a
hot air agitated refractory sand
bed, the coal will burn rapidly
and the bed attains a uniform
temperature
When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a
finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine
mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As air velocity is
gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles
are suspended in the air stream
Fluidized Bed Combustion
Fluidized-bed boiler (Contd..)
Advantages :
• Higher rates of heat transfer between
combustion process and boiler tubes (thus
reduced furnace area and size required),
• combustion temperature 850oC is lower than in
a conventional furnace. The lower furnace
temperatures means reduced NOx production.
• In addition, the limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite
(MgCO3) react with SO2 to form calcium and
magnesium sulfides, respectively, solids which
do not escape up the stack; This means the plant
can easily use high sulfur coal.
• Fuel Flexibility: Multi fuel firing
Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler
Performance Evaluation of Boilers
What are the factors for poor efficiency?
Efficiency reduces with time, due to poor combustion, heat
transfer fouling and poor operation and
maintenance.Deterioration of fuel and water quality also
leads to poor performance of boiler.
How Efficiency testing helps to improve performance?
Helps us to find out how far the boiler efficiency drifts away
from the best efficiency. Any observed abnormal deviations
could therefore be investigated to pinpoint the problem
area for necessary corrective action.
Boiler Efficiency
Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat
input that is effectively utilised to generate steam. There are two
methods of assessing boiler efficiency.
1) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working
fluid (water and steam) is compared with the energy content of the
boiler fuel.
2) The Indirect Method: Where the efficiency is the difference
between the losses and the energy input.
Boiler Efficiency
Evaluation Method
1. Direct Method 2. Indirect
Method
Example:
Type of boiler: Coal fired Boiler
Heat input data
Qty of coal consumed :1.8 TPH
GCV of coal :3200K.Cal/kg
Heat output data
• Qty of steam gen : 8 TPH
• Steam pr/temp:10 kg/cm2(g)/1800C
• Enthalpy of steam(sat) at 10 kg/cm2(g) pressure
:665 K.Cal/kg
• Feed water temperature : 850 C
• Enthalpy of feed water : 85 K.Cal/kg
Find efficiency and Evaporation Ratio?
Efficiency Calculation by Direct Method
Boiler efficiency (): = Q x (H – h) x 100
(q x GCV)
Where Q = Quantity of steam generated per hour (kg/hr)
H = Enthalpy of saturated steam (kcal/kg)
h = Enthalpy of feed water (kcal/kg)
q = Quantity of fuel used per hour (kg/hr)
GCV = Gross calorific value of the fuel (kcal/kg)
Boiler efficiency ()= 8 TPH x1000Kg/Tx (665–85) x 100
1.8 TPH x 1000Kg/T x 3200
= 80.0%
Evaporation Ratio = 8 Tonne of steam/1.8 Ton of coal
= 4.4
Boiler Flue gas
Steam Output
Efficiency = 100 – (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8)
(by In Direct Method)
Air
Fuel Input, 100%
1. Dry Flue gas loss
2. H2 loss
3. Moisture in fuel
4. Moisture in air
5. CO loss
7. Fly ash loss
6. Surface loss
8. Bottom ash loss
What are the losses that occur in a boiler?
Boiler Heat Balance:
Input/Output Parameter Kcal / Kg of
fuel
%
Heat Input in fuel = 100
Various Heat losses in boiler
1. Dry flue gas loss =
2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel
3. Loss due to moisture in fuel =
4. Loss due to moisture in air =
5. Partial combustion of C to CO =
6. Surface heat losses =
7. Loss due to Unburnt in fly ash =
8. Loss due to Unburnt in bottom
ash
=
Total Losses =
Boiler efficiency = 100 – (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8)
What are the Measurements to be carried out during
energy Audit in Boiler?
 Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2, O2, S, C, moisture content, ash content)
 Heat content of fuel, GCV in kcal/kg
 Fuel flow, steam or water flow
 Temp & Pressure of steam
 Temperature of water inlet / outlet t of economizer
 % of CO2 or O2, CO and Temperature from Flue Gas
 Surface Temp & Ambient Temp
 Ambient temperature in 0C & humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air.
 Percentage combustible in ash and GCV of ash (for solid fuels)
 Amount of blow down
 Size & dimension of boiler
Test Procedure
 Plan / inform the concerned dept.
 All the Instrument should be calibrated
 Ensure fuel and water availability
 Test at maximum steam load condition
 Conduct 8 hrs minimum (1/2 or 1 hr frequently)
 Water level in drum should be same at start & end of
test
 Gas Sampling point should be proper
 No blow down during test
Example: The following are the data collected for a typical oil fired
boiler. Find out the efficiency of the boiler by indirect method and Boiler
Evaporation ratio.
 Type of boiler : Oil fired
 Ultimate analysis of Oil
C: 84.0 % H2: 12.0 %
S: 3.0 % O2: 1.0 %
GCV of Oil : 10200 kcal/kg
 Steam Generation Pressure : 7kg/cm2(g)-saturated
 Enthalpy of steam : 660 kCal/kg
 Feed water temperature : 60oC
 Percentage of Oxygen in flue gas : 7
 Percentage of CO2 in flue gas : 11
 Flue gas temperature (Tf) : 220 0C
 Ambient temperature (Ta) : 27 0C
 Humidity of air : 0.018 kg/kg of dry air
Solution
Step-1: Find the theoretical air requirement
=[(11.43 x C) + [{34.5 x (H2 – O2/8)} + (4.32 x S)]/100 kg/kg of oil
=[(11.43 x 84) + [{34.5 x (12 – 1/8)} + (4.32 x 3)]/100 kg/kg of oil
=13.82 kg of air/kg of oil
Step-2: Find the %Excess air supplied
Excess air supplied (EA) = (O2 x 100)
(21-O2)
= (7 x 100)/(21-7)
:= 50%
Step-3: Find the Actual mass of air supplied
Actual mass of air supplied /kg of fuel : [ 1 + EA/100] x Theo. Air
(AAS)
= [1 + 50/100] x 13.82
= 1.5 x 13.82
= 20.74 kg of air/kg of oil
Step-4: Estimation of all losses
I Dry flue gas loss
i. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = m x Cp x (Tf – Ta ) x 100
GCV of fuel
m = mass of CO2 + mass of SO2 + mass of N2 + mass of O2
0.84 x 44 0.03 x 64 20.74 x 77
+ + + (0.07 x 32)
12 32 100
m =
m =21.35 kg / kg of oil
% Heat loss in dry flue gas = 21.35 x 0.23 x (220 – 27) x 100
10200
= 9.29%
Alternatively a simple method can be used for determining the dry flue gas loss as given below.
Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = m x Cp x (Tf – Ta ) x 100
GCV of fuel
Total mass of flue gas (m) = mass of actual air supplied + mass of fuel supplied
= 20.19 + 1=21.19
%Dry flue gas loss = 21.19 x 0.23 x (220-27) x 100 = 9.22%
10200
ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel =
Where, H2 – percentage of H2 in fuel
= 7.10%
iii. Heat loss due to moisture present in air AAS x humidity x 0.45 x (Tf – Ta) x 100
GCV of fuel
=[ 20.74 x 0.018 x 0.45 x (220-27) x 100]/10200
= 0.317%
iv Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted losses
For a small boiler it is estimated to be 2%
9 x 12 {584 + 0.45 (220 – 27)}
10200
9 x H2 {584 + 0.45 (Tf – Ta)}
GCV of fuel
Boiler Efficiency
i. Heat loss due to dry flue gas : 9.29%
ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel : 7.10 %
iii. Heat loss due to moisture present in air : 0.317 %
iv. Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted loss : 2%
Boiler Efficiency = 100- [9.29+7.10+0.317+2]
= 100 – 17.024 = 83 %(app)
Evaporation Ratio = Heat utilised for steam generation/Heat addition to the steam
= 10200 x 0.83/ (660-60)
= 14.11
Why Boiler Blow Down ?
When water evaporates
Dissolved solids gets concentrated
Solids precipitates
Coating of tubes
Reduces the heat transfer rate
Intermittent Blowdown
• The intermittent blown down is given by manually
operating a valve fitted to discharge pipe at the
lowest point of boiler shell to reduce parameters
(TDS or conductivity, pH, Silica etc) within prescribed
limits so that steam quality is not likely to be affected
• TDS level keeps varying
• fluctuations of the water level in the boiler.
• substantial amount of heat energy is lost with
intermittent blowdown.
Continuous Blowdown
• A steady and constant dispatch of small stream of
concentrated boiler water, and replacement by
steady and constant inflow of feed water.
• This ensures constant TDS and steam purity.
• Once blow down valve is set for a given
conditions, there is no need for regular operator
intervention.
• Even though large quantities of heat are wasted,
opportunity exits for recovering this heat by
blowing into a flash tank and generating flash
steam.
• This type of blow down is common in high-
pressure boilers.
The quantity of blowdown required to control boiler water solids
concentration is calculated by using the following formula:
(Continuous Blow down)
TDS(S) in feed water
100 ppm
Steam 10 T/hr
TDS(T) =0
TDS (C) =3500 ppm Allowable)
B =SX100/(C-S)
Blowdown %= TDS in FWx100
TDSin Boiler - TDS in FW
Blow down flow rate=3%x 10,000kg/hr=300kg/hr
=100 / (3500-100)
=(100/3400)x100
=2.9 %=3%
Blow down(B)
Boiler Water Treatment
• Method : It is carried out by adding chemicals to boiler to prevent
the formation of scale by converting the scale-forming compounds
to free-flowing sludges, which can be removed by blowdown.
Limitation: Applicable to boilers, where feed water is low in
hardness salts, to low pressures- high TDS content in boiler water
is tolerated, and when only small quantity of water is required to
be treated. If these conditions are not applied, then high rates of
blowdown are required to dispose off the sludge. They become
uneconomical from heat and water loss consideration.
Chemicals: Different waters require different
chemicals. Sodium carbonate, sodium
aluminate, sodium phosphate, sodium sulphite
and compounds of vegetable or inorganic origin
are all used for this purpose. Internal treatment
alone is not recommended.
External Water Treatment
• Propose: External treatment is used to remove suspended solids,
dissolved solids (particularly the calcium and magnesium ions
which are a major cause of scale formation) and dissolved gases
(oxygen and carbon dioxide).
• Different treatment Process : ion exchange; demineralization;
reverse osmosis and de-aeration.
• Before any of these are used, it is necessary to remove suspended
solids and colour from the raw water, because these may foul the
resins used in the subsequent treatment sections.
• Methods of pre-treatment include simple sedimentation in settling
tanks or settling in clarifiers with aid of coagulants and flocculants.
Pressure sand filters, with spray aeration to remove carbon dioxide
and iron, may be used to remove metal salts from bore well water.
• Removal of only hardness salts is called softening, while total
removal of salts from solution is called demineralization.
Ion-exchange process (Softener Plant)
• In ion-exchange process, hardness is removed as the water
passes through bed of natural zeolite or synthetic resin and
without the formation of any precipitate.
• The simplest type is ‘base exchange’ in which calcium and
magnesium ions are exchanged for sodium ions. The sodium
salts being soluble, do not form scales in boilers. Since base
exchanger only replaces the calcium and magnesium with
sodium, it does not reduce the TDS content, and blowdown
quantity. It also does not reduce the alkalinity.
Demineralization is the complete removal of all salts. This is
achieved by using a “cation” resin, which exchanges the
cations in the raw water with hydrogen ions, producing
hydrochloric, sulphuric and carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is
removed in degassing tower in which air is blown through the
acid water. Following this, the water passes through an
“anion” resin which exchanges anions with the mineral acid
(e.g. sulphuric acid) and forms water. Regeneration of cations
and anions is necessary at intervals using, typically, mineral
acid and caustic soda respectively. The complete removal of
silica can be achieved by correct choice of anion resin. Ion
exchange processes can thus be used to demineralize.
De-aeration
• In de-aeration, dissolved gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide,
are expelled by preheating the feed water before it enters the
boiler.
• All natural waters contain dissolved gases in solution. Certain
gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, greatly increase
corrosion. When heated in boiler systems, carbon dioxide (CO2)
and oxygen (O2) are released as gases and combine with water
(H2O) to form carbonic acid, (H2CO3).
• Removal of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other non-condensable
gases from boiler feedwater is vital to boiler equipment longevity
as well as safety of operation. Carbonic acid corrodes metal
reducing the life of equipment and piping. It also dissolves iron
(Fe) which when returned to the boiler precipitates and causes
scaling on the boiler and tubes.
• De-aeration can be done by mechanical de-aeration, by chemical
deration or by both together.
Mechanical de-aeration
Removal of oxygen and carbon dioxide can be accomplished by
heating the boiler feed water. They operate at the boiling point
of water at the pressure in the de-aerator. They can be of
vacuum or pressure type.
The vacuum type of de-aerator operates below atmospheric
pressure, at about 82oC, can reduce the oxygen content in water
to less than 0.02 mg/litre. Vacuum pumps or steam ejectors are
required to maintain the vacuum.
• The pressure-type de-aerators operates by allowing steam into
the feed water and maintaining temperature of 105oC. The
steam raises the water temperature causing the release of O2
and CO2 gases that are then vented from the system. This type
can reduce the oxygen content to 0.005 mg/litre.
• Steam is preferred for de-aeration because steam is free from
O2 and CO2, and steam is readily available & economical
Chemical de-aeration
While the most efficient mechanical deaerators
reduce oxygen to very low levels (0.005 mg/litre),
even trace amounts of oxygen may cause
corrosion damage to a system. So removal of hat
traces of oxygen with a chemical oxygen
scavenger such as sodium sulfite or hydrazine is
needed.
Reverse Osmosis
Reverse osmosis uses the fact that when solutions of
differing concentrations are separated by a semi-
permeable membrane, water from less concentrated
solution passes through the membrane to dilute the
liquid of high concentration. If the solution of high
concentration is pressurized, the process is reversed
and the water from the solution of high concentration
flows to the weaker solution. This is known as reverse
osmosis.
The quality of water produced depends upon the
concentration of the solution on the high-pressure side
and pressure differential across the membrane. This
process is suitable for waters with very high TDS, such
as sea water.
Recommended Boiler Water Limits
Factor Upto20
kg/cm2
21 - 40 kg/cm2 41-60
kg/cm2
TDS, ppm 3000-3500 1500-2000 500-750
Total iron dissolved solids
ppm
500 200 150
Specific electrical
conductivity at 250C (mho)
1000 400 300
Phosphate residual ppm 20-40 20-40 15-25
pH at 250C 10-10.5 10-10.5 9.8-10.2
Silica (max) ppm 25 15 10
Energy Conservation
Opportunities
in Boilers
1. Reduce Stack Temperature
• Stack temperatures greater than 200°C
indicates potential for recovery of waste heat.
• It also indicate the scaling of heat
transfer/recovery equipment and hence the
urgency of taking an early shut down for water
/ flue side cleaning.
22o C reduction in flue gas temperature
increases boiler efficiency by 1%
2. Feed Water Preheating using Economizer
• For an older shell boiler,
with a flue gas exit
temperature of 260oC, an
economizer could be used
to reduce it to 200oC,
Increase in overall
thermal efficiency would
be in the order of 3%.
• Condensing
economizer(N.Gas) Flue
gas reduction up to 65oC
6oC raise in feed water temperature, by economiser/condensate recovery,
corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption
3. Combustion Air Preheating
• Combustion air preheating is an alternative to
feed water heating.
• In order to improve thermal efficiency by 1%,
the combustion air temperature must be
raised by 20 oC.
4. Incomplete Combustion
(c c c c c + co co co co)
• Incomplete combustion can arise from a shortage of air or
surplus of fuel or poor distribution of fuel.
• In the case of oil and gas fired systems, CO or smoke with
normal or high excess air indicates burner system problems.
Example: Poor mixing of fuel and air at the burner. Poor oil fires
can result from improper viscosity, worn tips, carbonization on
tips and deterioration of diffusers.
• With coal firing: Loss occurs as grit carry-over or carbon-in-ash
(2% loss).
Example :In chain grate stokers, large lumps will not burn out
completely, while small pieces and fines may block the air
passage, thus causing poor air distribution.
Increase in the fines in pulverized coal also increases carbon loss.
5. Control excess air
for every 1% reduction in excess air ,0.6% rise in efficiency.
Table 2.5 Excess air levels for different fuels
Fuel Type of Furnace or Burners Excess Air
(% by wt)
Completely water-cooled furnace for slag-
tap or dry-ash removal
15-20Pulverised coal
Partially water-cooled furnace for dry-ash
removal
15-40
Spreader stoker 30-60
Water-cooler vibrating-grate stokers 30-60
Chain-grate and traveling-gate stokers 15-50
Coal
Underfeed stoker 20-50
Fuel oil Oil burners, register type 5-10
Multi-fuel burners and flat-flame 10-30
Wood Dutch over (10-23% through grates) and
Hofft type
20-25
Bagasse All furnaces 25-35
Black liquor Recovery furnaces for draft and soda-
pulping processes
5-7
The optimum excess air level varies with furnace design, type of burner,
fuel and process variables.. Install oxygen trim system
6. Radiation and Convection Heat Loss
• The surfaces lose heat to the surroundings depending
on the surface area and the difference in temperature
between the surface and the surroundings.
• The heat loss from the boiler shell is normally a fixed
energy loss, irrespective of the boiler output. With
modern boiler designs, this may represent only 1.5%
on the gross calorific value at full rating, but will
increase to around 6%, if the boiler operates at only
25 percent output.
• Repairing or augmenting insulation can reduce heat
loss through boiler walls
7. Automatic Blowdown Control
• Uncontrolled continuous blowdown is very
wasteful.
• Automatic blowdown controls can be
installed that sense and respond to boiler
water conductivity and pH.
• A 10% blow down in a 15 kg/cm2 boiler
results in 3% efficiency loss.
BLOWDOWN HEAT LOSS
This loss varies between 1% and 6% and depends on a number of
factors:
• Total dissolved solids (TDS) allowable in boiler water
• Quality of the make-up water, which depends mainly on the type of
water treatment installed
(e.g. base exchange softener or demineralisation):
• Amount of uncontaminated condensate returned to the boilerhouse
• Boiler load variations.
• Correct checking and maintenance of feedwater and boiler water
quality, maximising condensate return and smoothing load swings
will minimise the loss.
• Add a waste heat recovery system to blowdowns
– Flash steam generation
Blowdown Heat Recovery
• Efficiency Improvement - Up to 2
percentage points.
• Blowdown of boilers to reduce the
sludge and solid content allows heat to
go down the drain.
• The amount of blowdown should be
minimized by following a good water
treatment program, but installing a heat
exchanger in the blowdown line allows
this waste heat to be used in preheating
makeup and feedwater.
• Heat recovery is most suitable for
continuous blowdown operations which
in turn provides the best water
treatment program.
8. Reduction of Scaling and Soot
Losses
• In oil and coal-fired boilers, soot buildup on tubes acts as an
insulator against heat transfer. Any such deposits should be
removed on a regular basis. Elevated stack temperatures may
indicate excessive soot buildup. Also same result will occur due
to scaling on the water side.
• High exit gas temperatures at normal excess air indicate poor
heat transfer performance. This condition can result from a
gradual build-up of gas-side or waterside deposits. Waterside
deposits require a review of water treatment procedures and
tube cleaning to remove deposits.
• Stack temperature should be checked and recorded regularly as
an indicator of soot deposits. When the flue gas temperature
rises about 20oC above the temperature for a newly cleaned
boiler, it is time to remove the soot deposits
Cleaning
• Incorrect water treatment, poor combustion and poor
cleaning schedules can easily reduce overall thermal
efficiency
• However, the additional cost of maintenance and cleaning
must be taken into consideration when assessing savings.
•Every millimeter thickness of soot coating increases the
stack temperature by about 55oC. 3 mm of soot can cause
an increase in fuel consumption by 2.5%.
•A 1mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could
increase fuel consumption by 5 to 8%
9. Reduction of Boiler Steam Pressure
• Lower steam pressure gives a lower saturated steam
temperature and without stack heat recovery, a similar
reduction in the temperature of the flue gas temperature
results. Potential 1 to 2% improvement.
• Steam is generated at pressures normally dictated by the
highest pressure / temperature requirements for a particular
process. In some cases, the process does not operate all the
time, and there are periods when the boiler pressure could be
reduced.
• Adverse effects, such as an increase in water carryover from
the boiler owing to pressure reduction, may negate any
potential saving.
• Pressure should be reduced in stages, and no more than a 20
percent reduction should be considered.
10. Variable Speed Control for Fans, Blowers and
Pumps
Generally, combustion air control is effected by
throttling dampers fitted at forced and induced draft
fans. Though dampers are simple means of control,
they lack accuracy, giving poor control characteristics
at the top and bottom of the operating range.
If the load characteristic of the boiler is variable, the
possibility of replacing the dampers by a VSD should
be evaluated.
11. Effect of Boiler Loading on Efficiency
• As the load falls, so does the value of the mass flow
rate of the flue gases through the tubes. This
reduction in flow rate for the same heat transfer area,
reduced the exit flue gas temperatures by a small
extent, reducing the sensible heat loss.
• Below half load, most combustion appliances need
more excess air to burn the fuel completely and
increases the sensible heat loss.
• Operation of boiler below 25% should be avoided
• Optimum efficiency occurs at 65-85% of full loads
12. Boiler Replacement
if the existing boiler is :
old and inefficient, not capable of firing cheaper substitution
fuel, over or under-sized for present requirements, not
designed for ideal loading conditions replacement option
should be explored.
• The feasibility study should examine all implications of long-
term fuel availability and company growth plans. All financial
and engineering factors should be considered. Since boiler
plants traditionally have a useful life of well over 25 years,
replacement must be carefully studied.

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Conserve energy

  • 2. Energy conservation Energy conservation – Definition Principle of energy conservation  Maximum Thermodynamic efficiency  Maximum Cost effectiveness in energy use Energy conservation steps  Study the complete process  Identify where the maximum energy is utilized  Modification / Replacement of the equipment  Cost estimation  Pay back period
  • 3. Energy conservation Energy conservation methods Optimum utilization of heat and power  Waste heat recovery  Combined heat and power
  • 4. Waste Heat Recovery  Waste heat recovery Types: Three temperature ranges are used to classify waste heat.  The high temperature range - above 1200F  The medium temperature range - between 450F and 1200F  The low temperature range - below 450F  Sources of waste heat High temperature waste heat - Aluminum refining furnace, Cement kiln, Solid waste Incinerators Medium temperature waste heat - Steam boiler exhausts, Gas turbine Exhausts, Heating furnaces Low temperature waste heat - Cooling water from Internal combustion engines, Process steam condensate
  • 5. APPLICATION OF WASTE HEAT FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION Case Study: Diesel engine Thermal efficiency = 40% Available Waste Heat = 60% Diesel car has an Air, Fuel ratio = 1 : 15 Mass of Exhaust gas leaving from the engine = 16 kg/kg of fuel Engine exhaust gas temperature = 600 C Specific heat of flue gas = 0.25 kcal / kg K Quantity of heat available if we reduce the flue gas temperature 600 to 300 C Q = m Cp (T2-T1) = 1200 kcal Quantity of heat required making the water into steam (Sensible heat + Latent heat) = 594.5 kcal / kg  We are able to get 2 lit of distilled water for every liter of Diesel
  • 6. COMBINED HEAT AND POWER Combined Heat and Power, or CHP is the simultaneous generation of usable heat and power in a single process. In other words, it utilizes the heat produced in electricity generation rather than releasing it wastefully into the atmosphere.  Generate electricity and useful thermal energy in a single, integrated system  CHP could cut energy costs by 40 percent,  Reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent,  Increase energy efficiency by 20 percent,  Pay for itself in less than five years
  • 19. 4.1.f. Application of Renewable energy systems for Energy Conservation: Case Study 1: Solar water heater for fuel savings 1% fuel can be saved for every 6C rise in temperature of boiler feed water 100 LPD (Liters Per Day) Solar water heater can rise the temperature from 32 C to 62C (ΔT = 30C) cost around Rs. 18,000/- 5% fuel saving can be achieved with the help of solar water heater 100 MW thermal power plant requires 60 tons/hr of coal 5% of fuel saving is 3 tons/ hr so, Rs. 9000 /hr 8000 hrs working day per year savings Rs. 7,20,00,000/- 100 MW thermal power plant requires 10 tons / hr (2,40,000 lt / hr) of feed water So, 2400 Nos. of 100 LPD Solar water heater is needed for 100 MW thermal power plant which can rise the boiler feed water by 62 C Initial investment for 2400 nos. solar water heater is Rs. 4,32,00,000/- Payout time less than one year Life of the solar water heater is 10 years This energy conservation method could be thought of wherever there is a demand for process heat
  • 20. Case Study2: Solar Photovoltaic panel for stand-alone power generation Electricity consumption in house per day Fridge continuously operating in a day = 1 Unit Fan (75Watts) 10 hours working per day = 750 Watts. TV (80 Watts) 6 hours working per day = 480 Watts. Mixi (550 Watts) 10 min working per day = 92 Watts. Grinder (60Watts) 45 min working per day = 45 Watts. Tube light 4 Nos. (160 Watts) 4 hours working per day = 640 Watts. Pump (1HP = 735 Watts) 10 min working per day = 123 Watts. Iron Box (750 Watts) 15 min working per day = 188 Watts. Total consumption per day = 3.4 Units ≈ 4 Units Assume that 80 W peak panel gives out 60 W peak as average output. Number of panels required = 11 Working hours per day = 6 Number of working days per year = 300 Electricity produced per day = 11X60X6 = 3960 Watts.≈ 4 Units Initial Investment PV Panel Cost = 200 Rs./Watt MNES Subsidy = 125 Rs./Watt
  • 21. Customer has to pay 75 Rs./Watt Cost = 80X75X11 = Rs.66,000 Battery Cost = 5X5000 = Rs.25,000 Inverter Cost = Rs.6,500 Installation Charges = Rs. 3500 Maintenance Cost = 5X2500X5 = Rs.62500 Total Cost = Rs.1,63,500 Pay back period = 15.8 Years
  • 22. Years Cost per Unit Rs. Electricity saved Units Cost Saved Rs. CO2 Prevented m3 (40% transmission losses) 0-3 3 3600 10,800 561 (3.2 Tons) 3 – 6 4.5 7200 27,000 1122 (6.4 Tons) 6 - 9 6.75 10800 51,300 1683 (9.6 Tons) 9 - 12 10.12 14400 87,732 2244 (12.8 Tons) 12 - 15 15.18 18000 1,42,380 2805 (16 Tons) 15-18 22.78 21600 2,24,388 3366 (19.2 Tons) 18 - 21 34.17 25200 3,47,400 3927 (22.4 Tons) 21 - 24 51.25 28800 5,31,900 4488 (25.6 Tons) 24 - 27 76.87 32400 8,08,632 5049 (28.8 Tons) 27 - 30 115.3 36000 12,23,712 5610 (32 Tons) ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND PAY BACK PERIODS Pay back periods 15.8 years
  • 23. ENERGY CONSERVATION  Increase the over all efficiency  Reduce the pollution to the environment  Minimize the energy consumption  Maximum Cost effectiveness in energy use  Optimum use of hest and power
  • 24. 2.Boilers and Energy conservation Boiler Details • Boiler Types, Combustion in boilers • Performances evaluation of boilers, Analysis of losses • Feed water treatment, Blow down • Energy conservation opportunities.
  • 25. Introduction to Boiler • Enclosed Pressure Vessel • Heat generated by Combustion of Fuel is transferred to water to become steam • Process: Evaporation • Steam volume increases to 1,600 times from water and produces tremendous force • Boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment. Care is must to avoid explosion. What is a boiler?
  • 26. What are the various heating surfaces in a boiler? Heating surface is expressed in square feet or in square meter Classified into : 1 Radiant Heating Surfaces — (direct or primary) including all water-backed surfaces that are directly exposed to the radiant heat of the combustion flame. 2 Convected Heating Surfaces — ( indirect or secondary) including all those water-backed surfaces exposed only to hot combustion gases. 3 Extended Heating Surfaces — referring to the surface of economizers and superheaters used in certain types of watertube boilers.
  • 27. Fuels used in Boiler S. No Solid Liquid Gaseous AgroWaste 1 Coal HSD NGas Baggase 2 Lignite LDO Bio Gas Pith 3 Fur.Oil Rice Husk 4 LSHS Paddy 5 Coconut shell 6 Groundnutshell
  • 28. Indian Boiler Regulation IBR Steam Pipe means any pipe through which steam passes from a boiler to a prime mover or other user or both, if pressure at which steam passes through such pipes exceeds 3.5 kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure or such pipe exceeds 254 mm in internal diameter and includes in either case any connected fitting of a steam pipe. IBR Steam Boilers means any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 liters in capacity and which is used expressively for generating steam under pressure and includes any mounting or other fitting attached to such vessel, which is wholly, or partly under pressure when the steam is shut off. As per section 28 & 29 of the Indian Boilers Act.
  • 29. Typical Boiler Specification Boiler Make & Year :XYZ & 2003 MCR :10TPH (F & A 100oC) (Maximum Continuous Rating) Rated Working Pressure:10.54 kg/cm2(g) Type of Boiler : 3 Pass, Fire tube,packaged Fuel Fired : Fuel Oil Total Heating Surface : 310 M2
  • 30. Boiler Systems Flue gas system Water treatment system Feed water system Steam System Blow down system Fuel supply system Air Supply system
  • 31. Boiler Types and Classifications • Fire in tube or Hot gas through tubes and boiler feed water in shell side • Fire Tubes submerged in water Application • Used for small steam capacities ( up to 12000 kg/hr and 17.5kg/cm2 Merits • Low Capital Cost and fuel Efficient (82%) • Accepts wide & load fluctuations • Steam pressure variation is less (Large volume of water) • Packaged Boiler Fire Tube Boiler
  • 32. Boiler Types and Classifications • Water flow through tubes • Water Tubes surrounded by hot gas Application • Used for Power Plants • Steam capacities range from 4.5- 120 t/hr Characteristics • High Capital Cost • Used for high pressure high capacity steam boiler • Demands more controls • Calls for very stringent water quality Water Tube Boiler
  • 33. Packaged Boiler • Package boilers are generally of shell type with fire tube design • High heat release rate in small combustion space  More number of passes-so more heat transfer  Large number of small diameter tubes leading to good convective heat transfer.  Higher thermal efficiency
  • 34. Chain Grate or Traveling Grate Stoker Boiler  Coal is fed on one end of a moving steel chain grate  Coal burns and ash drops off at end  Coal grate controls rate of coal feed into furnace by controlling the thickness of the fuel bed.  Coal must be uniform in size as large lumps will not burn out completely  Bed thickness decreases from coal feed end to rear end and so more air at front and less air at rear end to be supplied  Water tube boiler
  • 35. Spreader Stoker Boiler  Uses both suspension and grate burning  Coal fed continuously over burning coal bed  Coal fines burn in suspension and larger coal pieces burn on grate  Good flexibility to meet changing load requirements  Preferred over other type of stokers in industrial application
  • 36. Pulverized Fuel Boiler Tangential firing Coal is pulverised to a fine powder, so that less than 2% is +300 microns, and 70-75% is below 75 microns. Coal is blown with part of the combustion air into the boiler plant through a series of burner nozzles. • Combustion takes place at temperatures from 1300-1700°C • Particle residence time in the boiler is typically 2-5 seconds • One of the most popular system for firing pulverized coal is the tangential firing using four burners corner to corner to create a fire ball at the center of the furnace. See Figure
  • 37. Thermal power Station Boiler •90% of coal-fired power boiler in the world is Pulverized type
  • 39. Advantages • Its ability to burn all ranks of coal from anthracitic to lignite, and it permits combination firing (i.e., can use coal, oil and gas in same burner). Because of these advantages, there is widespread use of pulverized coal furnaces. Disadvantages • High power demand for pulverizing • Requires more maintenance, flyash erosion and pollution complicate unit operation Pulverized Fuel Boiler (Contd..)
  • 40. Fluidized bed Combustion (FBC) boiler Further, increase in velocity gives rise to bubble formation, vigorous turbulence and rapid mixing and the bed is said to be fluidized. Coal is fed continuously in to a hot air agitated refractory sand bed, the coal will burn rapidly and the bed attains a uniform temperature When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream Fluidized Bed Combustion
  • 41. Fluidized-bed boiler (Contd..) Advantages : • Higher rates of heat transfer between combustion process and boiler tubes (thus reduced furnace area and size required), • combustion temperature 850oC is lower than in a conventional furnace. The lower furnace temperatures means reduced NOx production. • In addition, the limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (MgCO3) react with SO2 to form calcium and magnesium sulfides, respectively, solids which do not escape up the stack; This means the plant can easily use high sulfur coal. • Fuel Flexibility: Multi fuel firing Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler
  • 42. Performance Evaluation of Boilers What are the factors for poor efficiency? Efficiency reduces with time, due to poor combustion, heat transfer fouling and poor operation and maintenance.Deterioration of fuel and water quality also leads to poor performance of boiler. How Efficiency testing helps to improve performance? Helps us to find out how far the boiler efficiency drifts away from the best efficiency. Any observed abnormal deviations could therefore be investigated to pinpoint the problem area for necessary corrective action.
  • 43. Boiler Efficiency Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat input that is effectively utilised to generate steam. There are two methods of assessing boiler efficiency. 1) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is compared with the energy content of the boiler fuel. 2) The Indirect Method: Where the efficiency is the difference between the losses and the energy input. Boiler Efficiency Evaluation Method 1. Direct Method 2. Indirect Method
  • 44. Example: Type of boiler: Coal fired Boiler Heat input data Qty of coal consumed :1.8 TPH GCV of coal :3200K.Cal/kg Heat output data • Qty of steam gen : 8 TPH • Steam pr/temp:10 kg/cm2(g)/1800C • Enthalpy of steam(sat) at 10 kg/cm2(g) pressure :665 K.Cal/kg • Feed water temperature : 850 C • Enthalpy of feed water : 85 K.Cal/kg Find efficiency and Evaporation Ratio?
  • 45. Efficiency Calculation by Direct Method Boiler efficiency (): = Q x (H – h) x 100 (q x GCV) Where Q = Quantity of steam generated per hour (kg/hr) H = Enthalpy of saturated steam (kcal/kg) h = Enthalpy of feed water (kcal/kg) q = Quantity of fuel used per hour (kg/hr) GCV = Gross calorific value of the fuel (kcal/kg) Boiler efficiency ()= 8 TPH x1000Kg/Tx (665–85) x 100 1.8 TPH x 1000Kg/T x 3200 = 80.0% Evaporation Ratio = 8 Tonne of steam/1.8 Ton of coal = 4.4
  • 46. Boiler Flue gas Steam Output Efficiency = 100 – (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8) (by In Direct Method) Air Fuel Input, 100% 1. Dry Flue gas loss 2. H2 loss 3. Moisture in fuel 4. Moisture in air 5. CO loss 7. Fly ash loss 6. Surface loss 8. Bottom ash loss What are the losses that occur in a boiler?
  • 47. Boiler Heat Balance: Input/Output Parameter Kcal / Kg of fuel % Heat Input in fuel = 100 Various Heat losses in boiler 1. Dry flue gas loss = 2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel 3. Loss due to moisture in fuel = 4. Loss due to moisture in air = 5. Partial combustion of C to CO = 6. Surface heat losses = 7. Loss due to Unburnt in fly ash = 8. Loss due to Unburnt in bottom ash = Total Losses = Boiler efficiency = 100 – (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8)
  • 48. What are the Measurements to be carried out during energy Audit in Boiler?  Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2, O2, S, C, moisture content, ash content)  Heat content of fuel, GCV in kcal/kg  Fuel flow, steam or water flow  Temp & Pressure of steam  Temperature of water inlet / outlet t of economizer  % of CO2 or O2, CO and Temperature from Flue Gas  Surface Temp & Ambient Temp  Ambient temperature in 0C & humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air.  Percentage combustible in ash and GCV of ash (for solid fuels)  Amount of blow down  Size & dimension of boiler
  • 49. Test Procedure  Plan / inform the concerned dept.  All the Instrument should be calibrated  Ensure fuel and water availability  Test at maximum steam load condition  Conduct 8 hrs minimum (1/2 or 1 hr frequently)  Water level in drum should be same at start & end of test  Gas Sampling point should be proper  No blow down during test
  • 50. Example: The following are the data collected for a typical oil fired boiler. Find out the efficiency of the boiler by indirect method and Boiler Evaporation ratio.  Type of boiler : Oil fired  Ultimate analysis of Oil C: 84.0 % H2: 12.0 % S: 3.0 % O2: 1.0 % GCV of Oil : 10200 kcal/kg  Steam Generation Pressure : 7kg/cm2(g)-saturated  Enthalpy of steam : 660 kCal/kg  Feed water temperature : 60oC  Percentage of Oxygen in flue gas : 7  Percentage of CO2 in flue gas : 11  Flue gas temperature (Tf) : 220 0C  Ambient temperature (Ta) : 27 0C  Humidity of air : 0.018 kg/kg of dry air
  • 51. Solution Step-1: Find the theoretical air requirement =[(11.43 x C) + [{34.5 x (H2 – O2/8)} + (4.32 x S)]/100 kg/kg of oil =[(11.43 x 84) + [{34.5 x (12 – 1/8)} + (4.32 x 3)]/100 kg/kg of oil =13.82 kg of air/kg of oil Step-2: Find the %Excess air supplied Excess air supplied (EA) = (O2 x 100) (21-O2) = (7 x 100)/(21-7) := 50% Step-3: Find the Actual mass of air supplied Actual mass of air supplied /kg of fuel : [ 1 + EA/100] x Theo. Air (AAS) = [1 + 50/100] x 13.82 = 1.5 x 13.82 = 20.74 kg of air/kg of oil
  • 52. Step-4: Estimation of all losses I Dry flue gas loss i. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = m x Cp x (Tf – Ta ) x 100 GCV of fuel m = mass of CO2 + mass of SO2 + mass of N2 + mass of O2 0.84 x 44 0.03 x 64 20.74 x 77 + + + (0.07 x 32) 12 32 100 m = m =21.35 kg / kg of oil % Heat loss in dry flue gas = 21.35 x 0.23 x (220 – 27) x 100 10200 = 9.29% Alternatively a simple method can be used for determining the dry flue gas loss as given below. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = m x Cp x (Tf – Ta ) x 100 GCV of fuel Total mass of flue gas (m) = mass of actual air supplied + mass of fuel supplied = 20.19 + 1=21.19 %Dry flue gas loss = 21.19 x 0.23 x (220-27) x 100 = 9.22% 10200
  • 53. ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel = Where, H2 – percentage of H2 in fuel = 7.10% iii. Heat loss due to moisture present in air AAS x humidity x 0.45 x (Tf – Ta) x 100 GCV of fuel =[ 20.74 x 0.018 x 0.45 x (220-27) x 100]/10200 = 0.317% iv Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted losses For a small boiler it is estimated to be 2% 9 x 12 {584 + 0.45 (220 – 27)} 10200 9 x H2 {584 + 0.45 (Tf – Ta)} GCV of fuel
  • 54. Boiler Efficiency i. Heat loss due to dry flue gas : 9.29% ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel : 7.10 % iii. Heat loss due to moisture present in air : 0.317 % iv. Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted loss : 2% Boiler Efficiency = 100- [9.29+7.10+0.317+2] = 100 – 17.024 = 83 %(app) Evaporation Ratio = Heat utilised for steam generation/Heat addition to the steam = 10200 x 0.83/ (660-60) = 14.11
  • 55. Why Boiler Blow Down ? When water evaporates Dissolved solids gets concentrated Solids precipitates Coating of tubes Reduces the heat transfer rate
  • 56. Intermittent Blowdown • The intermittent blown down is given by manually operating a valve fitted to discharge pipe at the lowest point of boiler shell to reduce parameters (TDS or conductivity, pH, Silica etc) within prescribed limits so that steam quality is not likely to be affected • TDS level keeps varying • fluctuations of the water level in the boiler. • substantial amount of heat energy is lost with intermittent blowdown.
  • 57. Continuous Blowdown • A steady and constant dispatch of small stream of concentrated boiler water, and replacement by steady and constant inflow of feed water. • This ensures constant TDS and steam purity. • Once blow down valve is set for a given conditions, there is no need for regular operator intervention. • Even though large quantities of heat are wasted, opportunity exits for recovering this heat by blowing into a flash tank and generating flash steam. • This type of blow down is common in high- pressure boilers.
  • 58. The quantity of blowdown required to control boiler water solids concentration is calculated by using the following formula: (Continuous Blow down) TDS(S) in feed water 100 ppm Steam 10 T/hr TDS(T) =0 TDS (C) =3500 ppm Allowable) B =SX100/(C-S) Blowdown %= TDS in FWx100 TDSin Boiler - TDS in FW Blow down flow rate=3%x 10,000kg/hr=300kg/hr =100 / (3500-100) =(100/3400)x100 =2.9 %=3% Blow down(B)
  • 59. Boiler Water Treatment • Method : It is carried out by adding chemicals to boiler to prevent the formation of scale by converting the scale-forming compounds to free-flowing sludges, which can be removed by blowdown. Limitation: Applicable to boilers, where feed water is low in hardness salts, to low pressures- high TDS content in boiler water is tolerated, and when only small quantity of water is required to be treated. If these conditions are not applied, then high rates of blowdown are required to dispose off the sludge. They become uneconomical from heat and water loss consideration.
  • 60. Chemicals: Different waters require different chemicals. Sodium carbonate, sodium aluminate, sodium phosphate, sodium sulphite and compounds of vegetable or inorganic origin are all used for this purpose. Internal treatment alone is not recommended.
  • 61. External Water Treatment • Propose: External treatment is used to remove suspended solids, dissolved solids (particularly the calcium and magnesium ions which are a major cause of scale formation) and dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide). • Different treatment Process : ion exchange; demineralization; reverse osmosis and de-aeration. • Before any of these are used, it is necessary to remove suspended solids and colour from the raw water, because these may foul the resins used in the subsequent treatment sections. • Methods of pre-treatment include simple sedimentation in settling tanks or settling in clarifiers with aid of coagulants and flocculants. Pressure sand filters, with spray aeration to remove carbon dioxide and iron, may be used to remove metal salts from bore well water. • Removal of only hardness salts is called softening, while total removal of salts from solution is called demineralization.
  • 62. Ion-exchange process (Softener Plant) • In ion-exchange process, hardness is removed as the water passes through bed of natural zeolite or synthetic resin and without the formation of any precipitate. • The simplest type is ‘base exchange’ in which calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged for sodium ions. The sodium salts being soluble, do not form scales in boilers. Since base exchanger only replaces the calcium and magnesium with sodium, it does not reduce the TDS content, and blowdown quantity. It also does not reduce the alkalinity.
  • 63. Demineralization is the complete removal of all salts. This is achieved by using a “cation” resin, which exchanges the cations in the raw water with hydrogen ions, producing hydrochloric, sulphuric and carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is removed in degassing tower in which air is blown through the acid water. Following this, the water passes through an “anion” resin which exchanges anions with the mineral acid (e.g. sulphuric acid) and forms water. Regeneration of cations and anions is necessary at intervals using, typically, mineral acid and caustic soda respectively. The complete removal of silica can be achieved by correct choice of anion resin. Ion exchange processes can thus be used to demineralize.
  • 64. De-aeration • In de-aeration, dissolved gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, are expelled by preheating the feed water before it enters the boiler. • All natural waters contain dissolved gases in solution. Certain gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, greatly increase corrosion. When heated in boiler systems, carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are released as gases and combine with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid, (H2CO3). • Removal of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other non-condensable gases from boiler feedwater is vital to boiler equipment longevity as well as safety of operation. Carbonic acid corrodes metal reducing the life of equipment and piping. It also dissolves iron (Fe) which when returned to the boiler precipitates and causes scaling on the boiler and tubes. • De-aeration can be done by mechanical de-aeration, by chemical deration or by both together.
  • 65. Mechanical de-aeration Removal of oxygen and carbon dioxide can be accomplished by heating the boiler feed water. They operate at the boiling point of water at the pressure in the de-aerator. They can be of vacuum or pressure type. The vacuum type of de-aerator operates below atmospheric pressure, at about 82oC, can reduce the oxygen content in water to less than 0.02 mg/litre. Vacuum pumps or steam ejectors are required to maintain the vacuum. • The pressure-type de-aerators operates by allowing steam into the feed water and maintaining temperature of 105oC. The steam raises the water temperature causing the release of O2 and CO2 gases that are then vented from the system. This type can reduce the oxygen content to 0.005 mg/litre. • Steam is preferred for de-aeration because steam is free from O2 and CO2, and steam is readily available & economical
  • 66. Chemical de-aeration While the most efficient mechanical deaerators reduce oxygen to very low levels (0.005 mg/litre), even trace amounts of oxygen may cause corrosion damage to a system. So removal of hat traces of oxygen with a chemical oxygen scavenger such as sodium sulfite or hydrazine is needed.
  • 67. Reverse Osmosis Reverse osmosis uses the fact that when solutions of differing concentrations are separated by a semi- permeable membrane, water from less concentrated solution passes through the membrane to dilute the liquid of high concentration. If the solution of high concentration is pressurized, the process is reversed and the water from the solution of high concentration flows to the weaker solution. This is known as reverse osmosis. The quality of water produced depends upon the concentration of the solution on the high-pressure side and pressure differential across the membrane. This process is suitable for waters with very high TDS, such as sea water.
  • 68. Recommended Boiler Water Limits Factor Upto20 kg/cm2 21 - 40 kg/cm2 41-60 kg/cm2 TDS, ppm 3000-3500 1500-2000 500-750 Total iron dissolved solids ppm 500 200 150 Specific electrical conductivity at 250C (mho) 1000 400 300 Phosphate residual ppm 20-40 20-40 15-25 pH at 250C 10-10.5 10-10.5 9.8-10.2 Silica (max) ppm 25 15 10
  • 70. 1. Reduce Stack Temperature • Stack temperatures greater than 200°C indicates potential for recovery of waste heat. • It also indicate the scaling of heat transfer/recovery equipment and hence the urgency of taking an early shut down for water / flue side cleaning. 22o C reduction in flue gas temperature increases boiler efficiency by 1%
  • 71. 2. Feed Water Preheating using Economizer • For an older shell boiler, with a flue gas exit temperature of 260oC, an economizer could be used to reduce it to 200oC, Increase in overall thermal efficiency would be in the order of 3%. • Condensing economizer(N.Gas) Flue gas reduction up to 65oC 6oC raise in feed water temperature, by economiser/condensate recovery, corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption
  • 72. 3. Combustion Air Preheating • Combustion air preheating is an alternative to feed water heating. • In order to improve thermal efficiency by 1%, the combustion air temperature must be raised by 20 oC.
  • 73. 4. Incomplete Combustion (c c c c c + co co co co) • Incomplete combustion can arise from a shortage of air or surplus of fuel or poor distribution of fuel. • In the case of oil and gas fired systems, CO or smoke with normal or high excess air indicates burner system problems. Example: Poor mixing of fuel and air at the burner. Poor oil fires can result from improper viscosity, worn tips, carbonization on tips and deterioration of diffusers. • With coal firing: Loss occurs as grit carry-over or carbon-in-ash (2% loss). Example :In chain grate stokers, large lumps will not burn out completely, while small pieces and fines may block the air passage, thus causing poor air distribution. Increase in the fines in pulverized coal also increases carbon loss.
  • 74. 5. Control excess air for every 1% reduction in excess air ,0.6% rise in efficiency. Table 2.5 Excess air levels for different fuels Fuel Type of Furnace or Burners Excess Air (% by wt) Completely water-cooled furnace for slag- tap or dry-ash removal 15-20Pulverised coal Partially water-cooled furnace for dry-ash removal 15-40 Spreader stoker 30-60 Water-cooler vibrating-grate stokers 30-60 Chain-grate and traveling-gate stokers 15-50 Coal Underfeed stoker 20-50 Fuel oil Oil burners, register type 5-10 Multi-fuel burners and flat-flame 10-30 Wood Dutch over (10-23% through grates) and Hofft type 20-25 Bagasse All furnaces 25-35 Black liquor Recovery furnaces for draft and soda- pulping processes 5-7 The optimum excess air level varies with furnace design, type of burner, fuel and process variables.. Install oxygen trim system
  • 75. 6. Radiation and Convection Heat Loss • The surfaces lose heat to the surroundings depending on the surface area and the difference in temperature between the surface and the surroundings. • The heat loss from the boiler shell is normally a fixed energy loss, irrespective of the boiler output. With modern boiler designs, this may represent only 1.5% on the gross calorific value at full rating, but will increase to around 6%, if the boiler operates at only 25 percent output. • Repairing or augmenting insulation can reduce heat loss through boiler walls
  • 76. 7. Automatic Blowdown Control • Uncontrolled continuous blowdown is very wasteful. • Automatic blowdown controls can be installed that sense and respond to boiler water conductivity and pH. • A 10% blow down in a 15 kg/cm2 boiler results in 3% efficiency loss.
  • 77. BLOWDOWN HEAT LOSS This loss varies between 1% and 6% and depends on a number of factors: • Total dissolved solids (TDS) allowable in boiler water • Quality of the make-up water, which depends mainly on the type of water treatment installed (e.g. base exchange softener or demineralisation): • Amount of uncontaminated condensate returned to the boilerhouse • Boiler load variations. • Correct checking and maintenance of feedwater and boiler water quality, maximising condensate return and smoothing load swings will minimise the loss. • Add a waste heat recovery system to blowdowns – Flash steam generation
  • 78. Blowdown Heat Recovery • Efficiency Improvement - Up to 2 percentage points. • Blowdown of boilers to reduce the sludge and solid content allows heat to go down the drain. • The amount of blowdown should be minimized by following a good water treatment program, but installing a heat exchanger in the blowdown line allows this waste heat to be used in preheating makeup and feedwater. • Heat recovery is most suitable for continuous blowdown operations which in turn provides the best water treatment program.
  • 79. 8. Reduction of Scaling and Soot Losses • In oil and coal-fired boilers, soot buildup on tubes acts as an insulator against heat transfer. Any such deposits should be removed on a regular basis. Elevated stack temperatures may indicate excessive soot buildup. Also same result will occur due to scaling on the water side. • High exit gas temperatures at normal excess air indicate poor heat transfer performance. This condition can result from a gradual build-up of gas-side or waterside deposits. Waterside deposits require a review of water treatment procedures and tube cleaning to remove deposits. • Stack temperature should be checked and recorded regularly as an indicator of soot deposits. When the flue gas temperature rises about 20oC above the temperature for a newly cleaned boiler, it is time to remove the soot deposits
  • 80. Cleaning • Incorrect water treatment, poor combustion and poor cleaning schedules can easily reduce overall thermal efficiency • However, the additional cost of maintenance and cleaning must be taken into consideration when assessing savings. •Every millimeter thickness of soot coating increases the stack temperature by about 55oC. 3 mm of soot can cause an increase in fuel consumption by 2.5%. •A 1mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could increase fuel consumption by 5 to 8%
  • 81. 9. Reduction of Boiler Steam Pressure • Lower steam pressure gives a lower saturated steam temperature and without stack heat recovery, a similar reduction in the temperature of the flue gas temperature results. Potential 1 to 2% improvement. • Steam is generated at pressures normally dictated by the highest pressure / temperature requirements for a particular process. In some cases, the process does not operate all the time, and there are periods when the boiler pressure could be reduced. • Adverse effects, such as an increase in water carryover from the boiler owing to pressure reduction, may negate any potential saving. • Pressure should be reduced in stages, and no more than a 20 percent reduction should be considered.
  • 82. 10. Variable Speed Control for Fans, Blowers and Pumps Generally, combustion air control is effected by throttling dampers fitted at forced and induced draft fans. Though dampers are simple means of control, they lack accuracy, giving poor control characteristics at the top and bottom of the operating range. If the load characteristic of the boiler is variable, the possibility of replacing the dampers by a VSD should be evaluated.
  • 83. 11. Effect of Boiler Loading on Efficiency • As the load falls, so does the value of the mass flow rate of the flue gases through the tubes. This reduction in flow rate for the same heat transfer area, reduced the exit flue gas temperatures by a small extent, reducing the sensible heat loss. • Below half load, most combustion appliances need more excess air to burn the fuel completely and increases the sensible heat loss. • Operation of boiler below 25% should be avoided • Optimum efficiency occurs at 65-85% of full loads
  • 84. 12. Boiler Replacement if the existing boiler is : old and inefficient, not capable of firing cheaper substitution fuel, over or under-sized for present requirements, not designed for ideal loading conditions replacement option should be explored. • The feasibility study should examine all implications of long- term fuel availability and company growth plans. All financial and engineering factors should be considered. Since boiler plants traditionally have a useful life of well over 25 years, replacement must be carefully studied.