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‫مممممم‬ ‫مممممم‬ ‫مممم‬ ‫ممم‬
18th
International Conference on
Mechanical Engineering
AMME-18
Hebatalrahman,A*
Dr.eng. Consultant in materials sciences & materials
applications, Egypt*
hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com
hebatalrahman11@gmail.com
Abstract:
Method to improve the mechanical properties of nano materials, micromaterials and short fibers by indirect exposure to laser
irradiations. The method was done by dipping powder materials in transparent plastics to allow the passage of a laser beam
through it without being absorbed or interact with transparent material.
The laser affect the structure of powder and improve properties, After exposure organic solvent is used to dissociate the
transparent plastics , the treated nanomaterials or short fibers were collected. The method is a physical process free of
pollutants and exhaust, it do not cause economic losses in the amount of material treated.
Introduction
Nanoparticles often possess unexpected optical properties as they are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects.
[29]For example gold nanoparticles appear deep-red to black in solution. Nanoparticles of yellow gold and grey silicon are red in color.
Gold nanoparticles melt at much lower temperatures (~300 °C for 2.5 nm size) than the gold slabs (1064 °C);.[30] Absorption of solar
radiation is much higher in materials composed of nanoparticles than it is in thin films of continuous sheets of material. In both solar PV
and solar thermal applications, controlling the size, shape, and material of the particles, it is possible to control solar absorption [18-20].
other size- dependent property changes include quantum confinement in semiconductor particles, surface plasmon resonance in some metal
particles and super para magnetism in magnetic materials, Which would appear the changes in physical properties. Ferromagnetic
materials smaller than 10 nm can switch their magnetisation direction using room temperature thermal energy, thus making them
unsuitable for memory storage [21-23].
Experimental work
Material preparation
E-fiber glass Ownes corning 731ED 1/32". which is mechanically cut the fiber size is length to diameter
ratio L/d=50 (cylindrical particles) and L/d=1 (spherical particles).
Transparent material
the transparent material is plastic, it does not absorb the laser wavelengths used in the
test and dissolved after the process by mixture of organic solvents.
Dissociation of transparent material
It can be dissolved in a number of organic solvents. n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclohexane,
benzene, toluene
Laser Irradiation
Samples used in this investigation were in a shape of disk of 25mm diameter and 7mm length. The
irradiation is done on both sides of the samples and in different positions to cover all area of the
sample and achieve homogeneous surface suitable for testing .The different lasers irradiated samples
at different conditions were examined before and after laser irradiation and the effect of laser was
determined.
CW argon ion laser (innova400) which have power of 25 watts multi-line wavelength from 514.5 nm
to 465.5 nm , the power used in the experiment is 1 watt.
Measurements
Raman Spectroscopy
The behaviour of the material was studied by variation of the modes obtained from FT (IR) Raman spectrum. The results were obtained using Brucker FTIR Raman spectrometer using Nd-YAG laser
power of 500MW as source of excitation. After irradiation of sample with lasers the spectra were obtained in the range 400 to 4000 cm-1. The samples were measured by fixing it to holder and placed in
front of the beam [27].
Hardness
The hardness of the specimens were measured by using means of Barcol impression according to ASTM-D2583,the indentor cone with 26° and 0.157mm, the sample must have smooth and polished surface
with thickness not more than 1.5mm,the load ranges from 6.8kg to 4.5kg each hardness value is an average of 29 reading for every specimen (5 specimen at each condition were examined). The measurements
are good up to + 6%.
The laser effect along the length of the specimen
The laser effect along the distance was evaluated, the specimen used for this purpose was 20 mm diameter and 13mm length irradiated by Argon ion laser (514nm-1watt-10 second) in the center of the
specimen, it was separated vertically into two parts, every part is fixed on holder (average of 4 specimen were considered at each condition). Barcoul hardness was measured every 3 mm along the length of
the specimen according to ASTM-D2583 test procedure explained above, the results were plotted on X-Y plan (distance -hardness) and the laser effect distributed along the length of the specimen were
evaluated.
Power measurements
The PM-450B power meter is used for
power measurements at wavelength
632.8nm, the calibration is done at the
wavelength in the study range 514nm by
taking the meter reading and multiple by
the appropriate spectral sensitivity value
according to the calibration cure as shown
in Figure (2). The PM-450B power meter
is used in measurements by setting the full
scale meter sensitivity one position beyond
the anticipated maximum power level,
adjust the detector position for maximum
meter output reposition the meter switch to
take advantage of the maximum meter
deflection, this will ensure maximum
accuracy in the measurement the output
impedance 200 Ohms or less on all ranges.
To achieve temperature sensitivity, the
instrument is calibrated at 20°C, the
difference in the range +5° will affect the
accuracy by less than 3%.
Results & Discussions:
The raman spectrum for transparent material
before and after laser absorption of Argon laser
507nm
The raman spectrum for spherical micro and nano
particles before and after laser absorption of Argon
laser 507nm
The variation of the Hardness due to absorption
variation along the sample of spherical particles
The variation of the Hardness due to absorption
variation along the sample of cylindrical particles
10th
International Conference on
Electrical Engineering
ICEENG-10
The laser output power after absorption by micro
and nano particles at different volume fractions of
particles
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 17 35 50 65
percentage of the treated spherical particles (volume%)
Outputpoweaftertransmissionfromthe
samples(watt)
The output power of the laser irradiated samples
10th
International Conference on
Electrical Engineering
ICEENG-10
Conclusions:
The spectroscopy analysis before and after laser irradiation at power of 500MW as source of excitation.
Raman spectra shows the following types of changes with irradiation:-
a-The disappearance of same peak.
b-Shift in the peak position.
c-The dependence of some parameters in addition to the activation energy and crystalline on the irradiation power shows different behavior.
-The fiber glass is the element which absorb laser irradiation, the zero percentage fiber glass samples produces almost no change in the Raman spectrum before and after irradiated.
Transparent material allow the laser light to go throw the structure easily, but this type of polymers do not affected by absorption of ultra violet light so it is seem to be suitable binding material.
There is reasonable change in the Raman spectrum of the samples which have the same length to diameter ratio (size) but different amount of fibers.
The laser energy is very high, this high energy rating is stored inside the material, This is the main cause of improvement in the mechanical properties.
the mechanism of laser irradiation as a tool of improving mechanical properties is similar to the cold working mechanism which store mechanical energy in the atoms and the mechanical properties is improved
but in lasers the photon energy is absorbed by atoms and stored inside the structure and also cause significant improvement in the mechanical properties.
10th
International Conference on
Electrical Engineering
ICEENG-10
Thank You Very Much
And
Any Question?

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Composite from zeolite

  • 1. ‫مممممم‬ ‫مممممم‬ ‫مممم‬ ‫ممم‬ 18th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering AMME-18
  • 2. Hebatalrahman,A* Dr.eng. Consultant in materials sciences & materials applications, Egypt* hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com hebatalrahman11@gmail.com
  • 3. Abstract: Method to improve the mechanical properties of nano materials, micromaterials and short fibers by indirect exposure to laser irradiations. The method was done by dipping powder materials in transparent plastics to allow the passage of a laser beam through it without being absorbed or interact with transparent material. The laser affect the structure of powder and improve properties, After exposure organic solvent is used to dissociate the transparent plastics , the treated nanomaterials or short fibers were collected. The method is a physical process free of pollutants and exhaust, it do not cause economic losses in the amount of material treated.
  • 4. Introduction Nanoparticles often possess unexpected optical properties as they are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects. [29]For example gold nanoparticles appear deep-red to black in solution. Nanoparticles of yellow gold and grey silicon are red in color. Gold nanoparticles melt at much lower temperatures (~300 °C for 2.5 nm size) than the gold slabs (1064 °C);.[30] Absorption of solar radiation is much higher in materials composed of nanoparticles than it is in thin films of continuous sheets of material. In both solar PV and solar thermal applications, controlling the size, shape, and material of the particles, it is possible to control solar absorption [18-20]. other size- dependent property changes include quantum confinement in semiconductor particles, surface plasmon resonance in some metal particles and super para magnetism in magnetic materials, Which would appear the changes in physical properties. Ferromagnetic materials smaller than 10 nm can switch their magnetisation direction using room temperature thermal energy, thus making them unsuitable for memory storage [21-23].
  • 5. Experimental work Material preparation E-fiber glass Ownes corning 731ED 1/32". which is mechanically cut the fiber size is length to diameter ratio L/d=50 (cylindrical particles) and L/d=1 (spherical particles).
  • 6. Transparent material the transparent material is plastic, it does not absorb the laser wavelengths used in the test and dissolved after the process by mixture of organic solvents. Dissociation of transparent material It can be dissolved in a number of organic solvents. n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene
  • 7. Laser Irradiation Samples used in this investigation were in a shape of disk of 25mm diameter and 7mm length. The irradiation is done on both sides of the samples and in different positions to cover all area of the sample and achieve homogeneous surface suitable for testing .The different lasers irradiated samples at different conditions were examined before and after laser irradiation and the effect of laser was determined. CW argon ion laser (innova400) which have power of 25 watts multi-line wavelength from 514.5 nm to 465.5 nm , the power used in the experiment is 1 watt.
  • 8. Measurements Raman Spectroscopy The behaviour of the material was studied by variation of the modes obtained from FT (IR) Raman spectrum. The results were obtained using Brucker FTIR Raman spectrometer using Nd-YAG laser power of 500MW as source of excitation. After irradiation of sample with lasers the spectra were obtained in the range 400 to 4000 cm-1. The samples were measured by fixing it to holder and placed in front of the beam [27]. Hardness The hardness of the specimens were measured by using means of Barcol impression according to ASTM-D2583,the indentor cone with 26° and 0.157mm, the sample must have smooth and polished surface with thickness not more than 1.5mm,the load ranges from 6.8kg to 4.5kg each hardness value is an average of 29 reading for every specimen (5 specimen at each condition were examined). The measurements are good up to + 6%. The laser effect along the length of the specimen The laser effect along the distance was evaluated, the specimen used for this purpose was 20 mm diameter and 13mm length irradiated by Argon ion laser (514nm-1watt-10 second) in the center of the specimen, it was separated vertically into two parts, every part is fixed on holder (average of 4 specimen were considered at each condition). Barcoul hardness was measured every 3 mm along the length of the specimen according to ASTM-D2583 test procedure explained above, the results were plotted on X-Y plan (distance -hardness) and the laser effect distributed along the length of the specimen were evaluated.
  • 9. Power measurements The PM-450B power meter is used for power measurements at wavelength 632.8nm, the calibration is done at the wavelength in the study range 514nm by taking the meter reading and multiple by the appropriate spectral sensitivity value according to the calibration cure as shown in Figure (2). The PM-450B power meter is used in measurements by setting the full scale meter sensitivity one position beyond the anticipated maximum power level, adjust the detector position for maximum meter output reposition the meter switch to take advantage of the maximum meter deflection, this will ensure maximum accuracy in the measurement the output impedance 200 Ohms or less on all ranges. To achieve temperature sensitivity, the instrument is calibrated at 20°C, the difference in the range +5° will affect the accuracy by less than 3%.
  • 10. Results & Discussions: The raman spectrum for transparent material before and after laser absorption of Argon laser 507nm
  • 11. The raman spectrum for spherical micro and nano particles before and after laser absorption of Argon laser 507nm
  • 12. The variation of the Hardness due to absorption variation along the sample of spherical particles
  • 13. The variation of the Hardness due to absorption variation along the sample of cylindrical particles 10th International Conference on Electrical Engineering ICEENG-10
  • 14. The laser output power after absorption by micro and nano particles at different volume fractions of particles 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 17 35 50 65 percentage of the treated spherical particles (volume%) Outputpoweaftertransmissionfromthe samples(watt)
  • 15. The output power of the laser irradiated samples 10th International Conference on Electrical Engineering ICEENG-10
  • 16. Conclusions: The spectroscopy analysis before and after laser irradiation at power of 500MW as source of excitation. Raman spectra shows the following types of changes with irradiation:- a-The disappearance of same peak. b-Shift in the peak position. c-The dependence of some parameters in addition to the activation energy and crystalline on the irradiation power shows different behavior. -The fiber glass is the element which absorb laser irradiation, the zero percentage fiber glass samples produces almost no change in the Raman spectrum before and after irradiated. Transparent material allow the laser light to go throw the structure easily, but this type of polymers do not affected by absorption of ultra violet light so it is seem to be suitable binding material. There is reasonable change in the Raman spectrum of the samples which have the same length to diameter ratio (size) but different amount of fibers. The laser energy is very high, this high energy rating is stored inside the material, This is the main cause of improvement in the mechanical properties. the mechanism of laser irradiation as a tool of improving mechanical properties is similar to the cold working mechanism which store mechanical energy in the atoms and the mechanical properties is improved but in lasers the photon energy is absorbed by atoms and stored inside the structure and also cause significant improvement in the mechanical properties. 10th International Conference on Electrical Engineering ICEENG-10
  • 17. Thank You Very Much And Any Question?