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**Wear Machine by Laser Ablation**
Patent 24013 Egyptian patent office
Hebatalrahman
Dr.eng Consultant in material science ,
Egypt
Hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com,
Hebatalrahman11@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Wear testing machine by laser ablation has been considered as a new
method of wear testing which overcome the problems of old machines
and systems . In this case, wear rate has occurred due to ablation by
laser beam and test sample transformed from solid state to gas state
directly (sublimation) and avoid relative movement and loss of material
between sample and disk or plate. The different operation conditions
such as temperature, chemicals, environmental conditions and
different types of stresses has been considered. The new machine
consists of two main parts optical and mechanical parts. The optical
parts which include ultraviolet laser source, optical filter, lenses to
concentrate the beam and manhole of laser beam to the sample tested
in the control room. The mechanical parts includes The insulated
chamber , dead weight , variable speed motor, sample holder,
temperature and pressure sensor and ph meter. Mechanism of
operation depend mainly on Ablation process which is removal of
material from the surface of an tested object by vaporization
.Ultraviolet laser beam is used as source of energy required for
ablation process to avoid thermal effects. The new technique is
suitable for all kinds of materials such as metals, alloys polymers,
ceramics and composites in any shapes and sizes. The main factors
affecting the new techniques are divided into factors related to the
laser beam characteristics and factors related to material properties,
the material properties include the surface roughness, thermal
conductivity, specific heat ,density and mainly latent heat of
sublimation.
Introduction
Features of the Pin-on-Disk Tribometer
Direct dead weight (weight directly over the pin)
gives much higher stability [7].
Precisely calibrated friction and wear
measurements [8]
Stable contact point with no parasitic friction
Pin, Ball and Plate on Plate testing
Automatic switch off at threshold coefficient of
friction or total number of turns
Plexiglas enclosure for testing in liquids, controlled
humidity or inert gases[9].
Testing compatible with ASTM G99 & DIN 50324
[10] :[16].
Continuous wear depth recording (optional) [17].
High Vacuum Testing (optional) [18].
Disadvantages of conventional
wear techniques
The plate or disc must be changed every
experiment, it is considered as expensive and
relative technique[19].
Pin on disk and pin on plate are very
complicated techniques [20].
The conventional method of wear detection
such as pin-on-disk or pin on plate tribometry
have only standards for specific applications
[21].
The maximum load is 46N at frequencies up to
8Hz (25Hz optional) with a stroke range up to
60mm and a sliding radius of up to 35mm [22].
Liquid Heating Option up to 150°C can be
installed on existing Pin-on-Disk and Linear
Tribometers which is a very limited temperature
range [23],[24].
Experimental work
An invention is developed to measure wear by laser ablation
techniques instead of conventional machines (Pin on disc)
or (pin on plate). The main component of the new machine is
shown in fig.1. Wear coefficients for the tested material are
calculated from the volume of material lost during the
ablation process. This simple method facilitates the study of
friction and wear behavior of almost every solid state
material combination with or without lubricant. The technique
can be used for liquid substances with special design of
sample holder. Furthermore, the control of the
environmental parameters, temperature, humidity and
lubrication in the insulated test chamber allow a close
reproduction to the real life conditions of practical wear
situations. While the control test parameters such as laser
power , fluence, number of pulses , repetition rate, speed of
sample rotation, applied load and test time can introduce
exact value of wear coefficient
Equations
The mathematical relation for The ablation rate
(nm/pulse)
χ= ablation rate = α-1 lin (φinc/φT)
(1)
φT= E/α(1-R)
(2)
Where
E (Threshold) energy density
χ ablation rate (nm/pulse)
R reflectivity
α optical penetration depth
φinc incident fluence
φT threshold fluence
Wear testing machine by laser ablation
The main components of the wear
testing machine by laser ablation
Optical parts
7Ultraviolet laser source4
Optical filter is used to
eliminate defects and
chromatic aberration.
5 Optical elements
collected and focused laser
beam
6 Convex lens (optical parts
used in the focus of the
laser beam)
sample holding and movement
The new technique reproduces the reciprocating motion typical
of many real world in situ mechanisms and also simulate the
amount and type of applied pressure in static and dynamic
load, sample holder and movement system consists of four
parts
The central spindle
Variable speed motor to rotate the test sample
Mask of the samples dipped in the control room
Effective Load
The central spindle is loaded onto the test sample with a
precisely known weight. The pin is mounted on a stiff lever,
insures a nearly fixed contact point and thus a stable
position in front of the laser beam. Variable speed motor is
used to rotate the test sample with the same speed similar to
the in situ operation conditions.
Control unit
The new wear measurement technique with laser
ablation is supplied with a insulated chamber
enclosure so that controlled atmospheres such as
varying humidity or media with specific
composition and PH can be used. Specialized
control of the test chamber have been developed
for high & low temperature operations,
reciprocating motion and high and low vacuum
testing are also available.
Insulated outer casing of the control unit
The level of immersion in the fluid sample tested.
Temperature and pressure sensors related to the
control unit
Manhole of laser beam to the sample tested in the
control room
Environmental condition control
The new technique can be equipped with
a heating and cooling utensils for testing
under a wide variety of temperatures and
environmental conditions so the system
include:-
Pipes to push acidic, basic or liquid to
submerge the samples in operation
conditions
level of operating conditions
heaters to control the test conditions
Cooling ducts
The steps of wear measurements
by laser ablation
The factors affecting the process
The main parameters in the ablation
process is the variation of velocity ,
ablation depth and time at the solid
-vapor interface, which is also
affected by the thermal
characteristics of the tested materials
at the same laser irradiation
conditions
The ablation characteristics during wear test for some pure metals
Metal
Evaporation
depth
µm
Time
Sec
Velocity
m/sec
Iron (Fe) 38.8 9.42 *10 -4
412..47
Zinc (Zn) 70.3 41.6 *10 -4
169.03
Aluminum (Al) 30.8 4.2 *10 -4
681.24
Cupper (Cu) 27.16 2.5*10 -4
1068.79
Manganese (Mn) 25.5 9.4*10 -4
270.9
Lead (Pb) 47.2 17.1*10 -4
275.56
Tin (Sn) 10.2 0.72*10 -4
1418.5
The mechanism of wear
measurement by laser ablation
The temperature distribution in
the ablated hole during wear test
by laser
The method of exploitation
Can be used to measure the wear rate regardless of the
thickness of the test sample and suitable for thin films.
can be used to measure the absolute wear rate in metals and
various materials while the old methods measure relative wear
rate between test sample and disc or plate .
The laser beam's ability to pass through various liquids makes
the machine measure wear rates of materials submerged in
liquids or media in different conditions similar to operating
conditions
*. The machine can be used as an effective way to compare the
resistance of materials varying in hardness and durability
*The machine can be used to measure the new materials with
unknown hardness and composition Suitable for high
temperature services materials and low temperature services
materials which may be deformed in normal methods laser wear
testing machine become the perfect.
The new method is suitable for treated materials regardless of
the method of treatment (non-known hardness surfaces with
high resistance) The machine is used to test strong materials of
great firmness and resistance, which cause high wear rates in
the disk when tested with conventional methods. Fig.8 shows the
prototype of the wear testing machine by laser ablation
Can be used in studying the time dependant wear properties.
The prototype of the wear testing
machine by laser ablation
Advantages of the invention
Replace the disk, or the plate at a regular machines with the
laser beam.
New test machine is suitable for all types of materials and does
not depend on the form or the shape of the sample
The laser beam has a uniform intensity and direction throughout
the duration of the experiment, so the results are accurate and
absolute values
Laser beam can be directed by the optical parts in the horizontal,
vertical or diagonal directions, so any part of the test sample can
be measured.
*Thin film, electronic materials and other materials that are
difficult to test by standard methods can be tested easily after
the selection of the suitable laser wavelength and intensity.
The test condition can be adjusted at any temperature and there
is no limitation related to test conditions.
*. comparing the wear rate of different materials the new
technique is seem to be ideal
Conclusions
The new wear testing machine depends on the interaction
of lasers with matter
The energy required for measuring wear rate by the new
technique must be more than the latent heat of
sublimation added to the dissipated energy due to
reflection and scattering added to the energy required to
heat the sample to evaporation temperature
The rate of the process ( time required for testing wear by
new technique) is function of testing material
characteristics such as diffusivity, specific heat , thermal
conductivity and density.
The surface of the testing sample must be flat and
relatively rough to avoid dispersion of energy due to
reflectivity
Cold laser beam in the range of ultraviolet lasers are
recommended in the new technique to avoid thermal
effects which has side effects on the quality of the
process.
Recommendation
The new wear
measurements technique
must be included as the
standard test method for
measuring wear coefficient
in the ASTM, DIN, BS,
Egyptian standard and all
international standards
Wear

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Wear

  • 1.
  • 2. **Wear Machine by Laser Ablation** Patent 24013 Egyptian patent office Hebatalrahman Dr.eng Consultant in material science , Egypt Hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com, Hebatalrahman11@gmail.com
  • 3. ABSTRACT Wear testing machine by laser ablation has been considered as a new method of wear testing which overcome the problems of old machines and systems . In this case, wear rate has occurred due to ablation by laser beam and test sample transformed from solid state to gas state directly (sublimation) and avoid relative movement and loss of material between sample and disk or plate. The different operation conditions such as temperature, chemicals, environmental conditions and different types of stresses has been considered. The new machine consists of two main parts optical and mechanical parts. The optical parts which include ultraviolet laser source, optical filter, lenses to concentrate the beam and manhole of laser beam to the sample tested in the control room. The mechanical parts includes The insulated chamber , dead weight , variable speed motor, sample holder, temperature and pressure sensor and ph meter. Mechanism of operation depend mainly on Ablation process which is removal of material from the surface of an tested object by vaporization .Ultraviolet laser beam is used as source of energy required for ablation process to avoid thermal effects. The new technique is suitable for all kinds of materials such as metals, alloys polymers, ceramics and composites in any shapes and sizes. The main factors affecting the new techniques are divided into factors related to the laser beam characteristics and factors related to material properties, the material properties include the surface roughness, thermal conductivity, specific heat ,density and mainly latent heat of sublimation.
  • 4. Introduction Features of the Pin-on-Disk Tribometer Direct dead weight (weight directly over the pin) gives much higher stability [7]. Precisely calibrated friction and wear measurements [8] Stable contact point with no parasitic friction Pin, Ball and Plate on Plate testing Automatic switch off at threshold coefficient of friction or total number of turns Plexiglas enclosure for testing in liquids, controlled humidity or inert gases[9]. Testing compatible with ASTM G99 & DIN 50324 [10] :[16]. Continuous wear depth recording (optional) [17]. High Vacuum Testing (optional) [18].
  • 5. Disadvantages of conventional wear techniques The plate or disc must be changed every experiment, it is considered as expensive and relative technique[19]. Pin on disk and pin on plate are very complicated techniques [20]. The conventional method of wear detection such as pin-on-disk or pin on plate tribometry have only standards for specific applications [21]. The maximum load is 46N at frequencies up to 8Hz (25Hz optional) with a stroke range up to 60mm and a sliding radius of up to 35mm [22]. Liquid Heating Option up to 150°C can be installed on existing Pin-on-Disk and Linear Tribometers which is a very limited temperature range [23],[24].
  • 6. Experimental work An invention is developed to measure wear by laser ablation techniques instead of conventional machines (Pin on disc) or (pin on plate). The main component of the new machine is shown in fig.1. Wear coefficients for the tested material are calculated from the volume of material lost during the ablation process. This simple method facilitates the study of friction and wear behavior of almost every solid state material combination with or without lubricant. The technique can be used for liquid substances with special design of sample holder. Furthermore, the control of the environmental parameters, temperature, humidity and lubrication in the insulated test chamber allow a close reproduction to the real life conditions of practical wear situations. While the control test parameters such as laser power , fluence, number of pulses , repetition rate, speed of sample rotation, applied load and test time can introduce exact value of wear coefficient
  • 7. Equations The mathematical relation for The ablation rate (nm/pulse) χ= ablation rate = α-1 lin (φinc/φT) (1) φT= E/α(1-R) (2) Where E (Threshold) energy density χ ablation rate (nm/pulse) R reflectivity α optical penetration depth φinc incident fluence φT threshold fluence
  • 8. Wear testing machine by laser ablation
  • 9. The main components of the wear testing machine by laser ablation
  • 10. Optical parts 7Ultraviolet laser source4 Optical filter is used to eliminate defects and chromatic aberration. 5 Optical elements collected and focused laser beam 6 Convex lens (optical parts used in the focus of the laser beam)
  • 11. sample holding and movement The new technique reproduces the reciprocating motion typical of many real world in situ mechanisms and also simulate the amount and type of applied pressure in static and dynamic load, sample holder and movement system consists of four parts The central spindle Variable speed motor to rotate the test sample Mask of the samples dipped in the control room Effective Load The central spindle is loaded onto the test sample with a precisely known weight. The pin is mounted on a stiff lever, insures a nearly fixed contact point and thus a stable position in front of the laser beam. Variable speed motor is used to rotate the test sample with the same speed similar to the in situ operation conditions.
  • 12. Control unit The new wear measurement technique with laser ablation is supplied with a insulated chamber enclosure so that controlled atmospheres such as varying humidity or media with specific composition and PH can be used. Specialized control of the test chamber have been developed for high & low temperature operations, reciprocating motion and high and low vacuum testing are also available. Insulated outer casing of the control unit The level of immersion in the fluid sample tested. Temperature and pressure sensors related to the control unit Manhole of laser beam to the sample tested in the control room
  • 13. Environmental condition control The new technique can be equipped with a heating and cooling utensils for testing under a wide variety of temperatures and environmental conditions so the system include:- Pipes to push acidic, basic or liquid to submerge the samples in operation conditions level of operating conditions heaters to control the test conditions Cooling ducts
  • 14. The steps of wear measurements by laser ablation
  • 15. The factors affecting the process The main parameters in the ablation process is the variation of velocity , ablation depth and time at the solid -vapor interface, which is also affected by the thermal characteristics of the tested materials at the same laser irradiation conditions
  • 16. The ablation characteristics during wear test for some pure metals Metal Evaporation depth µm Time Sec Velocity m/sec Iron (Fe) 38.8 9.42 *10 -4 412..47 Zinc (Zn) 70.3 41.6 *10 -4 169.03 Aluminum (Al) 30.8 4.2 *10 -4 681.24 Cupper (Cu) 27.16 2.5*10 -4 1068.79 Manganese (Mn) 25.5 9.4*10 -4 270.9 Lead (Pb) 47.2 17.1*10 -4 275.56 Tin (Sn) 10.2 0.72*10 -4 1418.5
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. The mechanism of wear measurement by laser ablation
  • 21. The temperature distribution in the ablated hole during wear test by laser
  • 22. The method of exploitation Can be used to measure the wear rate regardless of the thickness of the test sample and suitable for thin films. can be used to measure the absolute wear rate in metals and various materials while the old methods measure relative wear rate between test sample and disc or plate . The laser beam's ability to pass through various liquids makes the machine measure wear rates of materials submerged in liquids or media in different conditions similar to operating conditions *. The machine can be used as an effective way to compare the resistance of materials varying in hardness and durability *The machine can be used to measure the new materials with unknown hardness and composition Suitable for high temperature services materials and low temperature services materials which may be deformed in normal methods laser wear testing machine become the perfect. The new method is suitable for treated materials regardless of the method of treatment (non-known hardness surfaces with high resistance) The machine is used to test strong materials of great firmness and resistance, which cause high wear rates in the disk when tested with conventional methods. Fig.8 shows the prototype of the wear testing machine by laser ablation Can be used in studying the time dependant wear properties.
  • 23. The prototype of the wear testing machine by laser ablation
  • 24. Advantages of the invention Replace the disk, or the plate at a regular machines with the laser beam. New test machine is suitable for all types of materials and does not depend on the form or the shape of the sample The laser beam has a uniform intensity and direction throughout the duration of the experiment, so the results are accurate and absolute values Laser beam can be directed by the optical parts in the horizontal, vertical or diagonal directions, so any part of the test sample can be measured. *Thin film, electronic materials and other materials that are difficult to test by standard methods can be tested easily after the selection of the suitable laser wavelength and intensity. The test condition can be adjusted at any temperature and there is no limitation related to test conditions. *. comparing the wear rate of different materials the new technique is seem to be ideal
  • 25. Conclusions The new wear testing machine depends on the interaction of lasers with matter The energy required for measuring wear rate by the new technique must be more than the latent heat of sublimation added to the dissipated energy due to reflection and scattering added to the energy required to heat the sample to evaporation temperature The rate of the process ( time required for testing wear by new technique) is function of testing material characteristics such as diffusivity, specific heat , thermal conductivity and density. The surface of the testing sample must be flat and relatively rough to avoid dispersion of energy due to reflectivity Cold laser beam in the range of ultraviolet lasers are recommended in the new technique to avoid thermal effects which has side effects on the quality of the process.
  • 26. Recommendation The new wear measurements technique must be included as the standard test method for measuring wear coefficient in the ASTM, DIN, BS, Egyptian standard and all international standards