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‫ممم‬
‫مممم‬
‫مممممم‬
‫مممممم‬
Characteristics of
Micro & Nano Composite
from
Marble& Granite
Hebatalrahman,A*
Dr.eng. Consultant in materials sciences &
materials applications, Egypt*
hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com
hebatalrahman11@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
In this work, New composite material was developed from marble and granite
waste , the unit for recycling of marble and granite wastes was designed, the
prototype was tested in manufacturing of thermoplastic based composite
from marble and granite wastes respectively, the main characteristics of both
composite materials were measured, the structure of the new composite
materials were determined by SEM, the composition were determined by
EDX analysis, the particle size and elemental analysis were evaluated by the
same technique, the volume resistivity and abrasive wear was evaluated.
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was measured to determined the
operation temperature of the new composite materials. Thermal conductivity
of new composite material were calculated from the role of mixture. The
main applications of the new composite materials were mentioned
according to the characteristics measured.
• key words : nano composite, granite , marble , waste recycling ,
characteristics
INTRODUCTION
• Recycling waste as useful material is a very important environmental
management tool for achieving sustainable development [1]. On the other
hand, recycling waste without properly based scientific research and
development can result in environmental problems greater than the waste
itself[2],[3]. The successful research and development of a new building
material or component using waste as raw material, is a very complex and
multi disciplinary task having technical, environmental, financial, marketing,
legal and social aspects. Now the cost of construction materials is increasing
incrementally[4],[5]. For example, the cost of cement during 1995 was
Rs.1.25/kg and in 2008 the price increased ~ three times. In case of bricks the
price was 0.66 per brick in 1995 and the present rate is Rs.2.5 per brick[6],[7].
Similarly, over a period of 10 years from the year 1995 the price of 147 sand
has increased four times[8]. Also due to high transportation costs of these raw
materials, demand, environmental restrictions, it is essential to find functional
substitutes for conventional building materials in the construction industry[9],
[10]. Growth of population, increasing urbanization, rising standards of living
due to technological innovations have contributed to an increase both in the
quantity and variety of solid wastes generated by industrial, mining, domestic
and agricultural activities[11],[12]. About 6 million tons of wastes from marble
industries are being released from marble cutting, polishing, processing and
grinding. The granite and marble dust is usually possesses a major
environmental concern[13]. In dry season, the granite and marble powder or
dust dangles in the air, flies and deposits on vegetation and crop. All these
significantly affect the environment and local ecosystems. The granite and
marble dust disposed in the river-bed and around the production facilities
causes reduction in porosity and permeability of the topsoil and results in
water logging. Further, fine particles results in poor fertility of the soil due to
increase in alkalinity[14],[15]. Use of industrial wastes and by products as an
aggregate or raw material is of great practical significance developing building
material components as substitutes for materials and providing an alternative
Experimental Work
Materials
The matrix
polymethyl metha acrylate (PMMA. It
is thermoplastic prepared from
monomer (methyl methacrylate) by
additional polymerization process;
polymer was in the granule form
with 5mm diameter.
• Filler (Marble Wastes) Marble
refuses consists wet refuse (sahla)
(wet wastes):
A worldwide average of the chemical composition
of
granite, by weight percent, based on standard
analyses:
Preparation of Material
• Grinding
• A blinder with variable speeds is used to change the pieces of thermo-plastics
into powder form, The blinder speed is about 15,500 rpm, work at 200 volt - 50
Hz, and the grinding time is about 90 sec. Switch off for cooling is lasted about
180 sec to prevent the agglomeration of the particles and achieve reasonable
degree of quality in grinding. The retained granules after sieving will be returned
to blinder.
• Mixing
• Treatment of Marble & granite Wastes
• The wet refuse preparation consists of three consecutive steps:-.
• .Preparation of wet refuse by drying phase, the mixture is automatically pushed
to the drying room The heaters are adjusted at 120°C for period from three to
four hours, for guaranteeing the drying process. Wet refuse (Sahal) is got out of
the dryer in the form of fragile masses which are transferred by a conveyor to the
automatic turning over room as it is turned over and made in the form of powder
suitable for sifting and
mixing.
• Mixing & Sieving
• The outcome of the two phases is collected in the automatic sieve. Automatic
mixing for thermoplastic in the powder form with at different aspects ratio was
done. The amount of material required was calculated. The mixture moves to the
final drying and mixing phase. This phase is fitted with heaters at 120°C for a
period from 3 to 4 hours. This is for guaranteeing the final drying of the two
mixtures.
Manufacturing process
Plastic powders and treated marble wastes were mixed together
in the solid state. The mixture is heated at the required
temperature, according to its components. The heating rate
depends on the type of the joining
material,
• compression and cooling were done for heated mixture. Nano
composite material is fabricated, the new composite
material is distinguished with the light weight and the
ability to endure scratch and damping capacity comparing with
the natural marble. It is also liable for the easy formation and
is distinctive with different colors and shapes
• Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
• The specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating at
a nominal accelerating voltage of 30kv. Specimen preparation is very simply
accomplished by cutting a thin slice of the specimen containing the surface of
interest, chemical and electro etching were done at standard conditions, the samples
were inserting into the specimen chamber for direct examination of the laser
irradiation effects on the structure.
• Energy dispersive X-ray “ EDX”
• The quantitative method of elemental analysis of the samples has been examined at
the Chemical labs of the ministry of Telecommunication in Egypt by SEM JSM-T200
at 25KV acceleration voltage, 20mm working distance, and magnification 200x,
(1peak omitted 0.02 KeV). Each value is at least an average of 2 readings
• Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
• Thermogravimetry thermal analysis (TGA) testing - ASTM E1131, ISO 11358,
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) measures the change in mass of a material as a
function of time and temperature. Ideally, it is utilized to assess volatile content,
degradation characteristics, thermal stability, aging and lifetime breakdown, and
sintering behavior/reaction kinetics.
• Thermal properties
• The thermal conductivity of the new composite materials are calculated by role of
mixtures,
• VmKm+ VfKf= KComposite
• Kc thermal conductivity of composite material
• Km thermal conductivity of matrix
• Kf thermal conductivity of filler
• Vm volume fraction of matrix
• Vf volume fraction of filler
• Electrical measurements
• Volume resistivity
• IEC 60093:1980, Method of test
for volume resistivity and surface
resistivity of solid electrical
insulating materials
• American society for testing and
materials-ASTM D257-07
standard test methods for DC
resistance or conductance of
insulating materials. Figure (2)
shows the circuits for volume
resistivity measurements
∀ ρ = RA/L
∀ ρ electrical resistivity
• R electrical resistance of
uniform material Ω (ohm)
• A cross sectional area m2
• L specimen length m
• The circuits for volume
resistivity measurements
• Mechanical measurements
• abrasive wear
The Egyptian standard no 269/1 -2005 and The
Egyptian standard no 269/2 -2005 for heavy duty
services, test conditions are sliding distance 352 cycle,
applied pressure 224 gm/cm2 and the abrasive
material is sand quartz. Egyptian standard is
compatible with international standard of  Abrasion Test
according to ISO 9352 or ASTM D 4060.
According to the Egyptian standard the limit for normal
duty must achieve not more than 6 mm loss in
thickness and average loss in thickness is not more
than 5.2mm, for heavy duty services the limit is not
more than 3.6 mm loss in thickness and average loss
in thickness is not more than 3mm.
RESULTS &
DISCUSSIONS
SEM of composite materials
from marble & granite wastes
at 5000x
EM for composite from marble wasteSEM for composite from marble waste
Spectroscopic analysis
EDXMarble Granite
Electrical resistance
volume resistivity
Electrical resistivity is measure of the ability of the material to flow electrical
current, the increase in value of volume resistivity is considered as indication
that the structure is free of defects, the electrical resistivity is directly
related to the concentration of charge carriers and to their mobility, micro
and nano particles from marble and granite wastes work as impurities
inside the structure cause a sharp reduction in conductivity , structure
is considered as heterogeneous dielectric material in randomly distributed
composite, this structures have sharp rise in electrical resistivity ρ due to
scattering of electrons and charge disturbances to the potential field of the
lattice, the superior electrical resistance in the material due to micro and
nano additives which cause structure and substructure imperfections that
prevent vibration of ions, the composite materials are insulated
material suitable for different electrical applications.
Mechanical measurements
abrasive wear
Thermogravimetric Analysis
(TGA)
composite material
from granite waste
composite material
from marble waste
Thermal conductivity of matrix
and additives
0.17x0.75+ 2.07x0.25= 0.1275+ 0.5175 = 0.645 (W·m−1·K−1)
0.2x0.75+ 2.94x0.25= 0.15+0.735 = 0.885 (W·m−1·K−1)
Thermal conductivity of composite from marble waste
0.645 to 0.885 (W·m−1·K−1)
at room temperature
0.17x0.75+1.73x0.25=0.1275+0.4325 = 0.56 (W·m−1·K−1)
0.2x0.75+ 3.98x0.25=0.15+0.995 = 1.145 (W·m−1·K−1)
Thermal conductivity of composite from granite waste 0.56 to1.145 (W·m−1·K−1)
at room temperature.
The new composite materials are considered as thermal
insulated material
CONCLUSIONS
• The new composite material consists of micro and nano
particles from marble and granite waste impeded in
thermoplastic matrix.
• The new randomly distributed composite material are special
type of heterogeneous dielectric materials.
• The superior electrical resistance in the material due to micro
and nano additives which cause structure and
substructure imperfections that prevent vibration of ions, the
composite materials are insulated material suitable for
different electrical applications.
• composite material from marble wastes have superior wear
resistance relative to composite from granite although
granite reinforcements are harder secondary phase relative
to marble, Self lubrication action is the main reason for these
phenomena, during sliding the marble particles are
fragmented in the beginning more easily and work as self
lubricant media which prevent more fragmentation.
• The new composite are suitable for heavy duty and normal
duty wear applications. According to the Egyptian standard
• The new composite materials are considered as thermal
insulated material with dimension stability until 100C° to
120C.
• The unique structure of the new composite materials are
resulting from the new manufacturing technique and the
manufacturing unit design.
• The new composites are economic and suitable for electrical
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Marble & granite

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Marble & granite

  • 2. Characteristics of Micro & Nano Composite from Marble& Granite Hebatalrahman,A* Dr.eng. Consultant in materials sciences & materials applications, Egypt* hebatalrahman11@yahoo.com hebatalrahman11@gmail.com
  • 3. ABSTRACT In this work, New composite material was developed from marble and granite waste , the unit for recycling of marble and granite wastes was designed, the prototype was tested in manufacturing of thermoplastic based composite from marble and granite wastes respectively, the main characteristics of both composite materials were measured, the structure of the new composite materials were determined by SEM, the composition were determined by EDX analysis, the particle size and elemental analysis were evaluated by the same technique, the volume resistivity and abrasive wear was evaluated. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was measured to determined the operation temperature of the new composite materials. Thermal conductivity of new composite material were calculated from the role of mixture. The main applications of the new composite materials were mentioned according to the characteristics measured. • key words : nano composite, granite , marble , waste recycling , characteristics
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • Recycling waste as useful material is a very important environmental management tool for achieving sustainable development [1]. On the other hand, recycling waste without properly based scientific research and development can result in environmental problems greater than the waste itself[2],[3]. The successful research and development of a new building material or component using waste as raw material, is a very complex and multi disciplinary task having technical, environmental, financial, marketing, legal and social aspects. Now the cost of construction materials is increasing incrementally[4],[5]. For example, the cost of cement during 1995 was Rs.1.25/kg and in 2008 the price increased ~ three times. In case of bricks the price was 0.66 per brick in 1995 and the present rate is Rs.2.5 per brick[6],[7]. Similarly, over a period of 10 years from the year 1995 the price of 147 sand has increased four times[8]. Also due to high transportation costs of these raw materials, demand, environmental restrictions, it is essential to find functional substitutes for conventional building materials in the construction industry[9], [10]. Growth of population, increasing urbanization, rising standards of living due to technological innovations have contributed to an increase both in the quantity and variety of solid wastes generated by industrial, mining, domestic and agricultural activities[11],[12]. About 6 million tons of wastes from marble industries are being released from marble cutting, polishing, processing and grinding. The granite and marble dust is usually possesses a major environmental concern[13]. In dry season, the granite and marble powder or dust dangles in the air, flies and deposits on vegetation and crop. All these significantly affect the environment and local ecosystems. The granite and marble dust disposed in the river-bed and around the production facilities causes reduction in porosity and permeability of the topsoil and results in water logging. Further, fine particles results in poor fertility of the soil due to increase in alkalinity[14],[15]. Use of industrial wastes and by products as an aggregate or raw material is of great practical significance developing building material components as substitutes for materials and providing an alternative
  • 6. Materials The matrix polymethyl metha acrylate (PMMA. It is thermoplastic prepared from monomer (methyl methacrylate) by additional polymerization process; polymer was in the granule form with 5mm diameter.
  • 7. • Filler (Marble Wastes) Marble refuses consists wet refuse (sahla) (wet wastes):
  • 8. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on standard analyses:
  • 9. Preparation of Material • Grinding • A blinder with variable speeds is used to change the pieces of thermo-plastics into powder form, The blinder speed is about 15,500 rpm, work at 200 volt - 50 Hz, and the grinding time is about 90 sec. Switch off for cooling is lasted about 180 sec to prevent the agglomeration of the particles and achieve reasonable degree of quality in grinding. The retained granules after sieving will be returned to blinder. • Mixing • Treatment of Marble & granite Wastes • The wet refuse preparation consists of three consecutive steps:-. • .Preparation of wet refuse by drying phase, the mixture is automatically pushed to the drying room The heaters are adjusted at 120°C for period from three to four hours, for guaranteeing the drying process. Wet refuse (Sahal) is got out of the dryer in the form of fragile masses which are transferred by a conveyor to the automatic turning over room as it is turned over and made in the form of powder suitable for sifting and mixing. • Mixing & Sieving • The outcome of the two phases is collected in the automatic sieve. Automatic mixing for thermoplastic in the powder form with at different aspects ratio was done. The amount of material required was calculated. The mixture moves to the final drying and mixing phase. This phase is fitted with heaters at 120°C for a period from 3 to 4 hours. This is for guaranteeing the final drying of the two mixtures.
  • 10. Manufacturing process Plastic powders and treated marble wastes were mixed together in the solid state. The mixture is heated at the required temperature, according to its components. The heating rate depends on the type of the joining material, • compression and cooling were done for heated mixture. Nano composite material is fabricated, the new composite material is distinguished with the light weight and the ability to endure scratch and damping capacity comparing with the natural marble. It is also liable for the easy formation and is distinctive with different colors and shapes
  • 11. • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) • The specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating at a nominal accelerating voltage of 30kv. Specimen preparation is very simply accomplished by cutting a thin slice of the specimen containing the surface of interest, chemical and electro etching were done at standard conditions, the samples were inserting into the specimen chamber for direct examination of the laser irradiation effects on the structure. • Energy dispersive X-ray “ EDX” • The quantitative method of elemental analysis of the samples has been examined at the Chemical labs of the ministry of Telecommunication in Egypt by SEM JSM-T200 at 25KV acceleration voltage, 20mm working distance, and magnification 200x, (1peak omitted 0.02 KeV). Each value is at least an average of 2 readings • Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) • Thermogravimetry thermal analysis (TGA) testing - ASTM E1131, ISO 11358, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) measures the change in mass of a material as a function of time and temperature. Ideally, it is utilized to assess volatile content, degradation characteristics, thermal stability, aging and lifetime breakdown, and sintering behavior/reaction kinetics. • Thermal properties • The thermal conductivity of the new composite materials are calculated by role of mixtures, • VmKm+ VfKf= KComposite • Kc thermal conductivity of composite material • Km thermal conductivity of matrix • Kf thermal conductivity of filler • Vm volume fraction of matrix • Vf volume fraction of filler
  • 12. • Electrical measurements • Volume resistivity • IEC 60093:1980, Method of test for volume resistivity and surface resistivity of solid electrical insulating materials • American society for testing and materials-ASTM D257-07 standard test methods for DC resistance or conductance of insulating materials. Figure (2) shows the circuits for volume resistivity measurements ∀ ρ = RA/L ∀ ρ electrical resistivity • R electrical resistance of uniform material Ω (ohm) • A cross sectional area m2 • L specimen length m • The circuits for volume resistivity measurements
  • 13. • Mechanical measurements • abrasive wear The Egyptian standard no 269/1 -2005 and The Egyptian standard no 269/2 -2005 for heavy duty services, test conditions are sliding distance 352 cycle, applied pressure 224 gm/cm2 and the abrasive material is sand quartz. Egyptian standard is compatible with international standard of  Abrasion Test according to ISO 9352 or ASTM D 4060. According to the Egyptian standard the limit for normal duty must achieve not more than 6 mm loss in thickness and average loss in thickness is not more than 5.2mm, for heavy duty services the limit is not more than 3.6 mm loss in thickness and average loss in thickness is not more than 3mm.
  • 15. SEM of composite materials from marble & granite wastes at 5000x EM for composite from marble wasteSEM for composite from marble waste
  • 17. Electrical resistance volume resistivity Electrical resistivity is measure of the ability of the material to flow electrical current, the increase in value of volume resistivity is considered as indication that the structure is free of defects, the electrical resistivity is directly related to the concentration of charge carriers and to their mobility, micro and nano particles from marble and granite wastes work as impurities inside the structure cause a sharp reduction in conductivity , structure is considered as heterogeneous dielectric material in randomly distributed composite, this structures have sharp rise in electrical resistivity ρ due to scattering of electrons and charge disturbances to the potential field of the lattice, the superior electrical resistance in the material due to micro and nano additives which cause structure and substructure imperfections that prevent vibration of ions, the composite materials are insulated material suitable for different electrical applications.
  • 19. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) composite material from granite waste composite material from marble waste
  • 20. Thermal conductivity of matrix and additives 0.17x0.75+ 2.07x0.25= 0.1275+ 0.5175 = 0.645 (W·m−1·K−1) 0.2x0.75+ 2.94x0.25= 0.15+0.735 = 0.885 (W·m−1·K−1) Thermal conductivity of composite from marble waste 0.645 to 0.885 (W·m−1·K−1) at room temperature 0.17x0.75+1.73x0.25=0.1275+0.4325 = 0.56 (W·m−1·K−1) 0.2x0.75+ 3.98x0.25=0.15+0.995 = 1.145 (W·m−1·K−1) Thermal conductivity of composite from granite waste 0.56 to1.145 (W·m−1·K−1) at room temperature. The new composite materials are considered as thermal insulated material
  • 22. • The new composite material consists of micro and nano particles from marble and granite waste impeded in thermoplastic matrix. • The new randomly distributed composite material are special type of heterogeneous dielectric materials. • The superior electrical resistance in the material due to micro and nano additives which cause structure and substructure imperfections that prevent vibration of ions, the composite materials are insulated material suitable for different electrical applications. • composite material from marble wastes have superior wear resistance relative to composite from granite although granite reinforcements are harder secondary phase relative to marble, Self lubrication action is the main reason for these phenomena, during sliding the marble particles are fragmented in the beginning more easily and work as self lubricant media which prevent more fragmentation. • The new composite are suitable for heavy duty and normal duty wear applications. According to the Egyptian standard • The new composite materials are considered as thermal insulated material with dimension stability until 100C° to 120C. • The unique structure of the new composite materials are resulting from the new manufacturing technique and the manufacturing unit design. • The new composites are economic and suitable for electrical